Grandmaster's Palace (Valletta)
The Grandmaster's Palace known as The Palace, is a palace in Valletta, Malta. It was built between the 16th and 18th centuries as the palace of the Grand Master of the Order of St. John, who ruled Malta, was known as the Magisterial Palace, it became the Governor's Palace, it houses the Office of the President of Malta. Parts of the building, namely the Palace State Rooms and the Palace Armoury, are open to the public as a museum run by Heritage Malta; the Grandmaster's Palace occupies a city block in the centre of Valletta, it is the largest palace in the city. Its façade is located opposite the Main Guard in St. George's Square along Republic Street; the palace is bounded by Archbishop Street, Old Theatre Street and Merchants Street. When the Order of St. John established the new city of Valletta in 1566, the original intention was to built the palace of the Grand Master on high ground in the southern part of the city. In fact, present-day South Street was known as Strada del Palazzo, since the palace was meant to be built there.
The site of the palace was occupied by several buildings, including the house of the knight Eustachio del Monte, built in 1569, the auberge of the langue of Italy, built in around 1571. Both of these buildings were built to designs of the Maltese architect Girolamo Cassar. In 1571, Grand Master Pierre de Monte moved the Order's headquarters to Valletta, he lived in the house of Eustachio del Monte, his nephew; the Council of the Order subsequently purchased the house, in 1574 it began to be enlarged into a palace for the Grand Master. By this time, del Monte had died and he was succeeded as Grand Master by Jean de la Cassière; the Italian langue moved to a new auberge in 1579, the original auberge was incorporated into the palace. The Grandmaster's Palace was built to Mannerist designs of Glormo Cassar; the palace was modified and embellished by subsequent Grand Masters, which gave the building a Baroque character. The ceilings of the main corridors were decorated with frescoes by Nicolau Nasoni in 1724, during the magistracy of António Manoel de Vilhena.
In the 1740s, Grand Master Manuel Pinto da Fonseca made extensive alterations to the building and gave it its present configuration. Pinto's renovations included the embellishment of the façade, the opening of a second main entrance, the construction of a clock tower in one of the courtyards. In the 1770s, the traveller Patrick Brydone wrote that: During the French occupation of Malta, the building became known as the Palais National; the name was a reflection of the French ideas resulting from the revolution and part of the whole reformed establishment in Malta. The Grandmaster's Palace became the official residence of the Governor of Malta after Malta fell under British rule in 1800, it therefore became known as the Governor's Palace. During the British protectorate, the kitchen of the palace which served the Grand Master was converted into an Anglican chapel. A semaphore station was installed on the palace's belvedere in the 1840s. Parts of the building, including the hall housing the Palace Armoury, were hit by aerial bombardment during World War II, but the damage was subsequently repaired.
The Grandmaster's Palace was the seat of the Parliament of Malta from 1921 to 2015. Parliament met in the Tapestry Hall from 1921 to 1976; the House of Representatives moved out of the Grandmaster's Palace to the purpose-built Parliament House on 4 May 2015. During Malta's first presidency of the European Union in 2017 the former parliamentary meeting hall was used to host the meetings of the Council of the European Union. Following Malta's independence in 1964, the building became the seat of the Governor-General of Malta, it has housed the Office of the President of Malta since the office was established in 1974. Parts of the building, namely the Palace State Rooms and the Palace Armoury, are open to the public as a museum run by Heritage Malta; the palace was included on the Antiquities List of 1925. It is now a Grade 1 national monument, it is listed on the National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands; the main façade of the Grandmaster's Palace is built in the simple and austere Mannerist style, typical of its architect Cassar.
The façade is asymmetrical due to the extensive alterations carried out to the building over the centuries, it has heavy rustications at the corners along with an uninterrupted cornice at roof level. There are two main entrances on the façade, they each consist of an arched doorway surrounded by an ornate portal which supports an open balcony. Long closed timber balconies wrap around the corners of the main façade. Both the portals and the balconies were added to the building in the 18th century; the side façade in Old Theatre Street contains a secondary main entrance which leads to one of the courtyards. The building's exterior was painted in red ochre, a colour used by the Order to mark public buildings; the Throne Room known as the Supreme Council Hall was built during the reign of Grandmaster Jean de la Cassière. It was used by successive Grandmasters to visiting high ranking dignitaries. During the British administration it became known as the Hall of Saint Michael and Saint Geor
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Saint John's Co-Cathedral
St John's Co-Cathedral is a Roman Catholic co-cathedral in Valletta, dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. It was built by the Order of St. John between 1572 and 1577, having been commissioned by Grand Master Jean de la Cassière as the Conventual Church of Saint John; the church was designed by the Maltese architect Girolamo Cassar, who designed several of the more prominent buildings in Valletta. In the 17th century, its interior was redecorated in the Baroque style by Mattia Preti and other artists; the interior of the church is considered to be one of the finest examples of high Baroque architecture in Europe. St. John's Co-Cathedral was commissioned in 1572 by Jean de la Cassière, Grand Master of the Order of St. John, it was named, in the Italian common language of the time, as Chiesa Conventuale di San Giovanni Battista. The church was designed by the Maltese architect Girolamo Cassar, responsible for the construction of many important buildings in Valletta, it is held that Cassar went to Rhodes to bring a plan of an existing church, by converted to a Mosque, to use it as a model for the present Co-cathedral.
However Cassar still took decisions over the final design and made modifications, thus became the sole architect of the Co-cathedral. Once St. John's was completed in 1577, it became the new conventual church of the Order instead of St. Lawrence's Church in the Order's former headquarters Birgu. Construction of the oratory and sacristy began in 1598, during the magistracy of Martin Garzez, they were completed by Grand Master Alof de Wignacourt in 1604. For the first century of its existence, the church's interior was modestly decorated. However, in the 1660s, Grand Master Raphael Cotoner ordered the redecoration of the interior so as to rival the churches of Rome. Calabrian artist Mattia Preti was in charge of the embellishment, completely transformed the interior in the Baroque style; the annexes on the side of the cathedral were added and feature the coat of arms of Grand Master António Manoel de Vilhena who reigned from 1722 to 1736. St. John's remained the conventual church of the Order until the latter was expelled from Malta with the French occupation in 1798.
Over time, the church grew to equal prominence with the archbishop's cathedral at Mdina. In the 1820s, the Bishop of Malta was allowed to use St John's as an alternative see and it thus formally became a Co-cathedral. In 1831, Sir Walter Scott called the cathedral a "magnificent church, the most striking interior seen." On in the 19th century, Giuseppe Hyzler, a leader of the Nazarene movement, removed some of the Baroque art of the cathedral, including the ornate altar in the Chapel of the Langue of France. The cathedral's exterior was damaged by aerial bombardment in 1941, during World War II escaping total destruction; the contents of the cathedral had been transferred elsewhere before the bombardment, so no works of art were lost. The cathedral was restored between the early 1990s. In 2001, the St. John's Co-Cathedral Foundation was set up to administer and conserve the cathedral and its museum; the sides of the cathedral were restored between 2008 and 2010, a complete restoration of the exterior began in July 2014 directed by architect Jean Frendo and eight restorers.
Restoration of the central part of the façade was completed in September 2015 and project completion was expected in 2017. Today, the cathedral is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Malta, is listed on the National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands; the cathedral's exterior is built in the Mannerist style typical of its architect Girolamo Cassar. Its façade is rather well-proportioned, being bounded by two large bell towers; the doorway is flanked by Doric columns supporting an open balcony from which the Grand Master used to address the people on important occasions. On the side are two empty niches; the niches and the columns are a break with the rest of exterior Mannerist architecture. Overall, the exterior is rather austere and reminiscent of a fortress, reflecting both Cassar's style as a military engineer as well as the Order's mood in the years following the Great Siege of Malta in 1565; the cathedral's interior is ornate, standing in sharp contrast with the façade.
The interior was decorated by Mattia Preti, the Calabrian artist and knight, at the height of the Baroque period. Preti designed the intricate carved stone walls and painted the vaulted ceiling and side altars with scenes from the life of John the Baptist; the figures painted into the ceiling next to each column appear to the viewer as three-dimensional statues, but on closer inspection we see that the artist cleverly created an illusion of three-dimensionality by his use of shadows and placement. Noteworthy is the fact that the carving was all undertaken in-place rather than being carved independently and attached to the walls; the Maltese limestone from which the Cathedral is built lends itself well to such intricate carving. The whole marble floor is an entire series of tombs, housing about 400 Knights and officers of the Order. There is a crypt containing the tombs of Grand Masters like Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, Claude de la Sengle, Jean Parisot de Valette, Alof de Wignacourt. In 1666, a project for the main altar by Malta's greatest sculptor, Melchiorre Cafà, was approved and begun.
Cafà intended a large sculpture group in bronze depicting the Baptism of Christ. Following Cafà's tragical death in 1667 in a foundry accident while tending to this work in Rome, the plans were abandoned. Only in 1703, Giuseppe Mazzuoli, Ca
The Palace Armoury is an arms collection housed at the Grandmaster's Palace in Valletta, Malta. It was the main armoury of the Order of St. John in the 17th and 18th centuries, as such it was the last arsenal established by a crusader military order. Although today only a part of the original armoury still survives, it is still one of the world's largest collections of arms and armour still housed in its original building; the Palace Armoury has been open to the public as a museum since 1860. In 1604, the Order's arsenal was transferred to the Grandmaster's Palace by Alof de Wignacourt, was housed in a large hall at the rear of the building. At the time, it contained enough arms and armour for thousands of soldiers; the armoury was rearranged under Manuel Pinto da Fonseca's magistracy in the 18th century. Parts of the armoury are believed to have been removed and shipped to France during the French occupation of Malta in 1798–1800, as part of "the organised robbery of art treasure and historic treasures" carried out by Napoleon.
In the early 19th century, the armoury was altered by the British with the addition of Egyptian style column-like supports. These were removed and returned to England in 1855. In the late 1850s, the armoury was restored under the personal direction of Governor John Gaspard Le Marchant, it opened to the public as a museum in 1860. In around 1900, the armoury's collections were catalogued by Guy Francis Laking, who published a book entitled The Armoury of The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. In World War II, the hall housing the armoury was damaged by aerial bombardment on 7 April 1942; the collections were subsequently transferred to the basement of the Grandmaster's Palace or to Girgenti Palace for safekeeping. The hall was repaired after the war, the armoury reopened in 1948. In 1969, UNESCO sent Polish experts Aleksander Czerwiński and Zdzisław Żygulski to make an inventory of the armoury, they called it one of "the most valuable historic monuments of European culture" in their report. In 1975, the collection was transferred from its original location to two former stables on the palace's ground floor, where it remains today.
The original armoury was converted into the meeting place of the Parliament of Malta, was used as such from 1976 to 2015, when a new purpose-built Parliament House was inaugurated near the entrance of Valletta. A study of the armoury was carried out by historian Stephen C. Spiteri in 2003. Today, the museum is managed by Heritage Malta, it is open daily from 9.00 to 17.00. The collections of the Palace Armoury include: several suits of armour belonging to knights of the Order of St. John dating from around 1550 to 1650; these include the personal armour of Grand Masters Martin Garzez and Alof de Wignacourt, Grand Commander Jean-Jacques de Verdelin. Many suits of battle armour for regular soldiers, dating from around 1550 to 1650; these were manufactured in Italy, but some were made locally or in France, Spain or Germany. Many firearms and other weapons, dating from the 16th to the 18th centuries; these include some Ottoman arms captured during the Great Siege of Malta in 1565. Several cannon and other artillery pieces, which were used to arm the various fortifications of Malta.
These date back to the 15th to 18th centuries. Two of the cannons were retrieved from sea in 1964 from a knights period shipwreck in Mellieħa; some modern armament dating back to World War I and World War II was included in the collection. When the armoury was moved in 1975, these were transferred to the National War Museum in Fort Saint Elmo. Spiteri, Stephen C.. Armoury of the Knights. Midsea Books. ISBN 99932-39-33-X. Sammut, Edward. "The Armoury of Valletta and a letter from Sir Guy Laking". Scientia. 25: 6–18. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Media related to Palace Armoury at Wikimedia Commons
The Wignacourt Arch known as the Fleur-De-Lys Gate is an ornamental arch located on the boundary between Fleur-de-Lys and Santa Venera, Malta. The arch was built in 1615 as part of the Wignacourt Aqueduct, but it was destroyed between 1943 and 1944. A replica of the arch was constructed in 2015 and inaugurated on 28 April 2016; the Wignacourt Aqueduct was constructed between 1610 and 1615 to carry water from springs in Dingli and Rabat to the Maltese capital Valletta. It was named after Alof de Wignacourt, the Grand Master of the Order of St. John, who financed its construction; the aqueduct was carried through underground pipes or over a series of stone arches where there were depressions in the ground level. To commemorate the construction of the aqueduct, the Wignacourt Arch was constructed at an area where the aqueduct crossed the road leading from Valletta to Mdina; the Baroque archway had a large arch in the centre, a smaller arch on either side. It was decorated with three fleurs-de-lis, a relief of Wignacourt's coat of arms, two marble plaques with Latin inscriptions.
The plaque on the side facing Santa Venera reads: HAC VALLETTA TENUS FUNCTUM JACUISSE CADAVER VISA EST NUNC LATICIS SPIRITUS INTUS ALIT INCUBUIT PRIMUS OLIM CEU SPIRITUS UNDIS SPIRITUS ENIXA SIC MODO FERTUR ACQUA The plaque on the side facing Birkirkara reads: FRI. ALOPHIO DE WIGNACOURT MAGNO MAGISTRO VALLETTAM URBEM ET ARCEM DULCISSIMIS AQUIS VIVIFICANTI AETERNA SALUS REN. IN 1739 The area around the arch remained rural until the early 20th century. A tram used to pass near the arch between 1905 and 1929. After World War II, the suburb of Fleur-de-Lys developed in the area, it got its name from the heraldic symbols on the arch. On 18 April 1943, a Royal Air Force breakdown lorry heading to the airfield at Ta' Qali at night with no street light hit the arch and damaged its Santa Venera-facing façade; the central arch was dismantled by military personnel under the supervision of the Public Works Department about two months later. The arch was destroyed on 12 February 1944, when a Royal Army Service Corps truck hit the remaining parts of the structure.
The stone remains were stored by the British but, similar to several other historic relics, they were never retrieved by the Maltese and the whereabouts are unknown. However, the arch's two marble plaques were repossessed. A roundabout with a fountain was built on the site of the arch; some arches of the aqueduct were demolished in order to widen the road and make way for this roundabout. The surviving arches of the Wignacourt Aqueduct were restored between 2004 and 2005; the chairman of the Bank of Valletta, whose headquarters is located close to the arch, promised to build a replica of the arch but nothing materialized. In 2012, the Fleur-de-Lys Administrative Committee and the Birkirkara Local Council announced that they were planning to rebuild the arch to the same dimensions of the original; the police force had objected to the project, believing it could become a traffic hazard, but of similar risk comparisons to other monumental arches and gates in Malta, such as the Portes de Bombes. The plans were approved by the Malta Environment and Planning Authority in October of the same year, but they were placed on hold since a tender appeal had to be sorted out.
In April 2013, the tender was awarded to Vaults Ltd instead of V&C Contractors who had won the tender. The replica arch cost €280,000 to build, €100,000 of these were donated by the Bank of Valletta. €40,000 were taken from the Good Causes Fund, while the remaining €140,000 were paid by the Birkirkara Local Council. While preparations were being made for rebuilding the arch, a dispute arose between the Birkirkara and Santa Venera Local Councils on what to call the arch; the former said that it should be called Fleur-de-Lys Gate, while the latter insisted on using the name Wignacourt Arch. In September 2013, the Santa Venera council took the Birkirkara council to court and accused it of causing "historical damage" by calling the arch with an incorrect name; the councils agreed on using the name The Wignacourt Arch known as the Fleur-de-Lys Gate in August 2014. Reconstruction of the arch began on 1 August 2014, but work stopped soon afterwards after part of the original arch's foundations was found.
Reconstruction continued in January 2015, it was complete by the end of November 2015. Some finishing touches were made in February 2016, including the installation of two marble plaques; the arch was inaugurated on 28 April 2016 by Prime Minister Joseph Muscat and mayor of Birkirkara Joanne Debono Grech. A plaque with the coat of arms of Birkirkara and the following inscription was installed to commemorate the reconstruction: IL-KUNSILL LOKALI TA' BIRKIRKARA IL-PRIM MINISTRU JOSEPH MUSCAT, FLIMKIEN MAS-SINDKU, IS-SINJURA JOANNE DEBONO GRECH, INAWGURAW DIN L-ARKATA TA' WIGNACOURT MAGĦRUFA BĦALA L-BIEB TA' FLEUR DE LYS ILLUM 28 TA' APRIL 2016 In 2015, the Central Bank of Malta minted a €10 silver coin, MaltaPost issued a set of two stamps to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the Wignacourt Aqueduct; the Wignacourt Arch is depicted on one of the stamps. Transections
In geology and physical geography, a plateau called a high plain or a tableland, is an area of a highland consisting of flat terrain, raised above the surrounding area with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment as intermontane, piedmont, or continental. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Volcanic plateaus are produced by volcanic activity; the Columbia Plateau in the northwestern United States is an example. They may be formed by upwelling of volcanic extrusion of lava; the underlining mechanism in forming plateaus from upwelling starts when magma rises from the mantle, causing the ground to swell upward. In this way, flat areas of rock are uplifted to form a plateau. For plateaus formed by extrusion, the rock is built up from lava spreading outward from cracks and weak areas in the crust.
Plateaus can be formed by the erosional processes of glaciers on mountain ranges, leaving them sitting between the mountain ranges. Water can erode mountains and other landforms down into plateaus. Dissected plateaus are eroded plateaus cut by rivers and broken by deep narrow valleys. Computer modeling studies suggest that high plateaus may be a result from the feedback between tectonic deformation and dry climatic conditions created at the lee side of growing orogens. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment. Intermontane plateaus are the highest in the world, bordered by mountains; the Tibetan Plateau is one such plateau. Lava or volcanic plateaus are the plateau; the magma that comes out through narrow cracks or fissures in the crust spread over large area and solidifies. These layers of lava sheets form volcanic plateaus; the Antrim plateau in Northern Ireland, The Deccan Plateau in India and the Columbia Plateau in the United States are examples of lava plateaus. Piedmont plateaus are bordered on one side by mountains and on the other by a sea.
The Piedmont Plateau of the Eastern United States between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coastal Plain is an example. Continental plateaus are bordered on all sides by oceans, forming away from the mountains. An example of a continental plateau is the Antarctic Polar Plateau in East Antarctica; the largest and highest plateau in the world is the Tibetan Plateau, sometimes metaphorically described as the "Roof of the World", still being formed by the collisions of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian tectonic plates. The Tibetan plateau covers 2,500,000 km2, at about 5,000 m above sea level; the plateau is sufficiently high to reverse the Hadley cell convection cycles and to drive the monsoons of India towards the south. The second-highest plateau is the Deosai Plateau of the Deosai National Park at an average elevation of 4,114 m, it is located in northern Pakistan. Deosai means'the land of giants'; the park protects an area of 3,000 km2. It is known for its rich flora and fauna of the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe ecoregion.
In spring it is covered by a wide variety of butterflies. The highest point in Deosai is Deosai Lake, or Sheosar Lake from the Shina language meaning "Blind lake" near the Chilim Valley; the lake lies at an elevation of 4,142 m, one of the highest lakes in the world, is 2.3 km long, 1.8 km wide, 40 m deep on average. Some other major plateaus in Asia are: Najd in the Arabian Peninsula elevation 762 to 1,525 m, Armenian Highlands, Iranian plateau, Anatolian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau, the Deccan Plateau. Another large plateau is the icy Antarctic Plateau, sometimes referred to as the Polar Plateau, home to the geographic South Pole and the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, which covers most of East Antarctica where there are no known mountains but rather 3,000 m high of superficial ice and which spreads slowly toward the surrounding coastline through enormous glaciers; this polar ice cap is so massive that the echolocation sound measurements of ice thickness have shown that large parts of the Antarctic "dry land" surface have been pressed below sea level.
Thus, if that same ice cap were removed, the large areas of the frozen white continent would be flooded by the surrounding Antarctic Ocean or Southern Ocean. On the other hand, were the ice cap melts away too the surface of the land beneath it would rebound away through isostasy from the center of the Earth and that same land would rise above sea level. A large plateau in North America is the Colorado Plateau, which covers about 337,000 km2 in Colorado, Utah and New Mexico. In northern Arizona and southern Utah the Colorado Plateau is bisected by the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon. How this came to be is that over 10 million years ago, a river was there, though not on the same cours
Birkirkara is a town in the central region of Malta. It is the second most populous on the island, with 23,034 inhabitants as of March 2018; the city consists of four autonomous parishes: Saint Helen, Saint Joseph, Our Lady of Mount Carmel and Saint Mary. The city's motto is In hoc signo vinces, its coat of arms is a plain red cross, surmounted by a crown. Birkirkara means "cold water" or "running water"; this is attributed to the valley in the town. The name was written as Birchircara, as influenced by the Italian alphabet which excludes the use of the letter'K', it is abbreviated as B'kara/Kara. Birkirkara is situated in a valley, from where its name is derived, it is known for flooding on heavy stormy days. Several projects have been proposed; the area has received embellishment works from time to time. There are many places of interest in Birkirkara, amongst them the Old Railway Station, today located within a public garden. Trains were used as means of transportation across the island until the Railway's closure happened in 1931.
Other town features include the Wignacourt Aqueduct built in the 17th Century, St Helen's Basilica, housing Malta's largest church bell. Birkirkara is one of Malta's oldest towns and received mention in the 1436 Ecclesiastical Report mentioning the existing parishes in Malta and Gozo, from which Birkirkara emerged as the largest parish. Various parishes and suburbs developed out of Birkirkara over the years, including Sliema, St. Julian's, Msida, Ħamrun in the 19th century and Santa Venera in the early 20th century. In more recent years, San Ġwann and the hamlet of Ta' l-Ibraġ hived off Birkirkara to form part of the new parish and locality of Swieqi in 1993. Birkirkara's main religious feast is that of St Helen, celebrated on 18 August if it falls on a Sunday, or on the first Sunday after that date; the main event of the celebration is a procession with a large wooden statue carved by the Maltese master-sculptor Salvu Psaila. Notably, this is the only procession on the island carried out in the morning.
The procession leaves the basilica at 8:00 a.m. and returns to it at 10:45 am. The statue is lifted to shoulder-height by a group of townsmen and is carried through the main streets of the town. Birkirkara has grown into an important commercial centre as well as a densely populated residential area; some prominent buildings in the area are the Tal-Wejter Tower, the Wignacourt Aqueduct, Villa Lauri, Villa Chelsea, Saint Helen Palace, Band Clubs, Political Clubs, the Birkirkara Civic Centre, Ta' Ganu Windmill, amongst others. The Birkirkara Law Courts were built in the 19th century and the building has been converted into a house; as a busy town, Birkirkara has a high incidence of car accidents, topping the list for the third quarter of 2016. Birkirkara features a Csa Mediterranean climate under the Köppen climate classification. Birkirkara features dry hot summers; the city's temperature varies from 10.3 to 30.7 °C during the course of a year. The current Birkirkara local council members are: Joanne Debono Grech Rita Borg Michael Fenech Adami Kaylocke Buhagiar Liam Gauci Josianne Cardona Gatt Mark Abdilla Anthony Buttigieg John Mary Calleja Herbert Conti John Mizzi Marie Claire Zammit John Borg Carmen Grech Our Lady of Mount Carmel Parish Church, Triq Fleur-de-Lys, Fleur-de-Lys Our Lady, Mother of the Church Parish Church, Triq il-Graffiti Navali, Swatar St. Joseph the Worker Parish Church, Triq il-Bwieraq St. Helen's Parish Church, Triq is-Santwarju St. Mary's Parish Church, Triq il-Knisja l-Qadima Our Lady of Victory Parish Church, Triq il-Vitorja Birkirkara Local Council, Triq Tumas Fenech Birkirkara District Police Station, Triq il-Kbira Birkirkara Malta Labour Party Club, Triq Fleur-de-Lys Birkirkara Partit Nazzjonalista Club, Triq Fleur-de-Lys Birkirkara Branch Post Office, Triq il-Wied Birkirkara Sub-Post Offices at: Triq Mannarino.
The latter is, however surpassed by Birkirkara F. C. led by Adrian Delia. Birkirkara F. C. have a good record in UEFA Europa League when compared to other Maltese teams, having beaten West Ham United F. C. at a point, only to be eliminated from 2015-16 UEFA Europa League on penalties. Birkirkara eliminated Heart of Midlothian in the 2016-17 UEFA Europa League. Birkirkara Football Club Birkirkara Ultras 1997 Birkirkara St. Joseph Sports Club