Along the River During the Qingming Festival

Along the River During the Qingming Festival known by its Chinese name as the Qingming Shanghe Tu, is a painting by the Song dynasty painter Zhang Zeduan. It captures the daily life of people and the landscape of the capital, Bianjing during the Northern Song; the theme is said to celebrate the festive spirit and worldly commotion at the Qingming Festival, rather than the holiday's ceremonial aspects, such as tomb sweeping and prayers. Successive scenes reveal the lifestyle of all levels of the society from rich to poor as well as different economic activities in rural areas and the city, offer glimpses of period clothing and architecture; the painting is considered to be the most renowned work among all Chinese paintings, it has been called "China's Mona Lisa."As an artistic creation, the piece has been revered and court artists of subsequent dynasties made re-interpretive versions, each following the overall composition and the theme of the original but differing in details and technique.

Over the centuries, the Qingming scroll was collected and kept among numerous private owners, before it returned to public ownership. The painting was a particular favorite of Puyi, the Last Emperor, who took the Song dynasty original with him when he left Beijing, it was kept at the Palace Museum in the Forbidden City. The Song dynasty original and the Qing versions, in the Beijing and Taipei Palace Museums are regarded as national treasures and are exhibited only for brief periods every few years; the scroll is 25.5 centimetres in 5.25 meters long. In its length there are 814 humans, 28 boats, 60 animals, 30 buildings, 20 vehicles, 8 sedan chairs, 170 trees. Only about twenty women appear in the Song dynasty original, only women of low social rank are visible out of doors unless accompanied by men; the countryside and the densely populated city are the two main sections in the picture, with the river meandering through the entire length. The right section is the rural area of the city. There are crop fields and unhurried rural folk—predominately farmers and pig herders—in bucolic scenery.

A country path joins with the city road. The left half is the urban area, which leads into the city proper with the gates. Many economic activities, such as people loading cargoes onto the boat, a tax office, can be seen in this area. People from all walks of life are depicted: peddlers, actors, paupers begging, monks asking for alms, fortune tellers and seers, innkeepers, millers, carpenters and official scholars from all ranks. Outside the city proper, there are businesses of all kinds, selling wine, secondhand goods, cookware and arrows, musical instruments and silver, dyed fabrics, medicine and artifacts, as well as many restaurants; the vendors extend all along the great bridge, called the Rainbow Bridge or, more the Shangdu Bridge. Where the great bridge crosses the river is the center and main focus of the scroll. A great commotion animates the people on the bridge. A boat approaches at an awkward angle with its mast not lowered, threatening to crash into the bridge; the crowds on the bridge and along the riverside are gesturing toward the boat.

Someone near the apex of the bridge lowers a rope to the outstretched arms of the crew below. In addition to the shops and diners, there are inns, private residences, official buildings varying in grandeur and style, from huts to mansions with grand front- and backyards. People and commodities are transported by various modes: wheeled wagons, beasts of labor, sedan chairs, chariots; the river is packed with fishing boats and passenger-carrying ferries, with men at the river bank, pulling the larger ships. Many of these details are corroborated by Song dynasty writings, principally the Dongjing Meng Hua Lu, which describes many of the same features of life in the capital. In a rare move, the Song original was exhibited in Hong Kong from June 29 to mid-August 2007 to commemorate the 10th anniversary of Hong Kong's transfer to the People's Republic of China, it is estimated that the costs of shipping the painting ran into tens of millions of dollars in addition to an undisclosed cost of insuring this piece of priceless art.

From January 2–24, 2012, the painting was exhibited in the Tokyo National Museum as the centerpiece of a special exhibition to mark the 40th anniversary of normalized diplomatic relations between China and Japan, with the Japanese museum officials providing the "highest security standards" for the work. The original painting is celebrated as the most famed work of art from the Song dynasty, it was a pride of the personal imperial collections of emperors for centuries. These emperors commissioned copies, or reproductions, reinterpretations and elaborations, over forty of which are in museums in China, Korea, the United Kingdom, North America, France. A large modern reproduction is displayed in the entrance of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Beijing. An early copy considered to be faithful to the original, was made by Zhao Mengfu during the Yuan dynasty. A notable remake was painted during the Ming dynasty by Qiu Ying; this version has a length of 6.7 meters, longer than the original. It replaced the scenery from the Song dynasty to that of the Ming dynasty based on contemporary fashions and customs, updating the costumes worn by the characters and t

SCAT (automobile)

The SCAT was an Italian automobile manufacturer from Turin, founded in 1906 by Giovanni Battista Ceirano. The company was active from 1906 to 1932 and achieved Targa Florio wins in 1911, 1912 and 1914; the first produced models were the 12 HP, the 16 HP and the 22 HP of 1909. The Ceirano brothers, Giovanni Battista, Giovanni and Matteo, were influential in the founding of the Italian auto industry, being variously responsible for: Ceirano. Giovanni's son Giovanni "Ernesto" was influential, co-founding Ceirano Fabbrica Automobili and Fabrica Anonima Torinese Automobili. In 1888, after eight years apprenticeship at his father's watch-making business, Giovanni Battista started building Welleyes bicycles, so named because English names had more sales appeal. In October 1898 Giovanni Battista and Matteo co-founded Ceirano GB & C and started producing the Welleyes motor car in 1899. In July 1899 the plant and patents were sold to Giovanni Agnelli and produced as the first FIATs - the Fiat 4 HP. Giovanni Battista was employed by Fiat as the agent for Italy, but within a year he left to found Fratelli Ceirano & C. which in 1903 became STAR building cars badged as'Rapid'.

In 1904 Matteo Ceirano left Ceirano C to create his own brand - Itala. In 1906 Matteo left Itala to found SPA with Alberto Ballacco. In 1906 Giovanni founded SCAT in Turin. In 1919 Giovanni and Giovanni "Ernesto" co-founded Ceirano Fabbrica Automobili and in 1922 they took control of FATA). SCAT production before World War I: 1906 12/16 hp 2724cc > 1910 15/20 hp 2951cc 1907 16/20 hp 3190cc 1907 22/32 hp 3770cc > 1910 22/32 hp 4398cc > 1912 25/35 hp 4712cc 1912 60/75 hp 6285cc 1914 12/18 hp 2120cc 1915 18/30 hp 3563cc In 1911 Giovanni's brother Ernesto Ceirano won the Targa Florio driving the SCAT he completed the 3 laps of the Grande Circuit of the Targa Florio, covering the 446-kilometre in 9 hours 32 minutes 22 seconds, an average speed of 46.8 km/h. British driver Cyril Snipe won the 1912 Targa Florio on 25 and 26 May, driving a SCAT 25/35 with his co-driver Pedrini, they completed the 965 kilometre course around the island of Sicily in 24 hours 37 minutes 39 seconds, defeating a field of 26 cars which included Lancia, Isotta Fraschini, Fiat and A.

L. F. A.. The race passed through Palermo. Snipe failed to finish. In 1914 Ernesto Ceirano drove a SCAT 22/32 to his second victory in the Targa Florio, completing a single 979 km lap of the island in 16 hours 51 minutes 31 seconds at an average speed of 58.07 km/h. 19 models were produced by SCAT: List of Italian companies List of automobile companies founded by the Ceirano brothers SCAT automobiles

Immanuel Nobel

Immanuel Nobel the Younger was a Swedish engineer, architect and industrialist. He was the inventor of the rotary lathe used in plywood manufacturing, he was the father of Robert Nobel, Ludvig Nobel and Alfred Nobel. In 1827 he married Andriette Ahlsell, he often experimented with nitroglycerin with his sons, which led to his son Emil Oskar Nobel's death because of an explosion at his father's factory Heleneborg in Stockholm in 1864. Nobel moved to Russia from Sweden in 1838, to sell his inventions in Saint Petersburg, where he lived for two decades with his family. In Saint Petersburg he was attached to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Saint Katarina along with other Swedes such as Johan Patrik Ljungström, with whom he may have collaborated. Among his successful creations was an improved version of an underwater exploding mine that interested Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. Immanuel founded a war supplies factory, Fonderies et Ateliers Mécaniques Nobel Fils, which turned out to be a profitable business.

However, the death of Nicholas I in 1855 and the end of the Crimean War in 1856 brought about a shift in Russian policies and the new Tsar Alexander II ordered a severe cut in the military budget that placed Immanuel's company in serious economic difficulties. In 1859, the technical management of Nobel Fils was passed to Immanuel's son Ludvig and the former returned to Sweden. In 1862, Immanuel's firm was sold by his creditors. Tolf, Robert W.. The Russian Rockefellers: The Saga of the Nobel Family and the Russian Oil Industry. Hoover Press. ISBN 0-8179-6581-5. Schück, Ragnar Sohlman, Anders Österling, Carl Gustaf Bernhard, the Nobel Foundation, Wilhelm Odelberg, eds. Nobel: The Man and His Prizes. 1950. 3rd ed. Coordinating Ed. Wilhelm Odelberg. New York: American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc. 1972, p. 14. ISBN 0-444-00117-4. ISBN 978-0-444-00117-7. Yergin, Daniel: The Prize: the Epic Quest for Oil and Power, Free Press, p. 58. ISBN 0-671-79932-0 Åsbrink, Brita: Ludvig Nobel: "Petroleum har en lysande framtid!"

Wahlström & Widstrand, p. 19. ISBN 978-91-46-18181-1 Media related to Immanuel Nobel at Wikimedia Commons Immanuel Nobel