Middle Island, New York
Middle Island is a hamlet and census-designated place in Suffolk County, New York, United States. The population was 10,483 at the 2010 census, it is situated between the hamlets of Coram and Ridge, to the west and east and Rocky Point and Yaphank to the north and south. The name derives from the fact that it lies halfway between the eastern and western ends of Long Island as well as halfway between the northern and southern boundaries. Middle Island is a community in the Town of Brookhaven served by the Longwood Central School District, which at 58 square miles is the largest school district on Long Island; the Longwood Public Library is located in Middle Island. Parks within Middle Island include Cathedral Pines County Park and the adjacent Prosser Pines County Park. Middle Island is surrounded by three public golf courses. Middle Island Country Club and Spring Lake Golf Club are both within Middle Island. Middle Island is located at 40°53′6″N 72°56′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.3 square miles, of which 8.2 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.71%, is water.
Middle Island has many lakes such as Spring Lake, Artist Lake, Pine Lake. Middle Island contains the headwaters of the Carmans River, which began at Pfeiffer's Pond on the northeast corner of NY 25 and Old Middle Island Road, but now begins within Cathedral Pines County Park; the European-American history of Middle Island goes back at least to 1766, when the first Presbyterian church was built. Rev. David Rose, a doctor and a pastor of the South Haven church, covered his immense parish on horseback, he filled his saddle bags with medicines to minister to his frontier congregation. In 1766 the parish opened a cemetery just across from the church; the first schoolhouse was built in 1813 east of the church. In 1837, a new church was built just to the rear of the older one, it served the community for 200 years until the new Christian Education building was built at the Longwood Estate in 1966. Middle Island gained an influx of Estonian refugees during the 1940s and 1950s around the Pine Lake area.
For over 100 years, Pfeiffer's Store was a center of activity for Middle Island and surrounding communities. A nearby lake, known as Corwin's Pond, was renamed "Artist Lake" after painter Alonzo Chappel settled there in 1869; as of the 2000 census, there were 9,702 people, 3,720 households, 2,548 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,175.9 per square mile. There were 3,900 housing units at an average density of 472.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 85.45% White, 7.58% African American, 0.25% Native American, 2.44% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.92% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.87% of the population. Of the 3,720 households, 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.01. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. Middle Island has a lively nightlife with a diverse choice of food, they have food such as Italian, Greek and Mexican dishes. Many of theses restaurants have joint bars where there's plenty of places to go to for the night life; the median income for a household in the CDP was $50,818, the median income for a family was $58,171. Males had a median income of $41,618 versus $30,516 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,129. About 4.3% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.9% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over. Middle Island History Cathedral Pines County Park
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Boston Massacre, known to the British as the Incident on King Street, was a confrontation on March 5, 1770 in which British soldiers shot and killed several people while being harassed by a mob in Boston. The event was publicized by leading Patriots such as Paul Revere and Samuel Adams. British troops had been stationed in the Province of Massachusetts Bay since 1768 in order to support crown-appointed officials and to enforce unpopular Parliamentary legislation. Amid tense relations between the civilians and the soldiers, a mob formed around a British sentry and verbally abused him, he was supported by eight additional soldiers, who were hit by clubs and snowballs. They fired into the crowd without orders killing three people and wounding others, two of whom died of their wounds; the crowd dispersed after Acting Governor Thomas Hutchinson promised an inquiry, but they re-formed the next day, prompting withdrawal of the troops to Castle Island. Eight soldiers, one officer, four civilians were arrested and charged with murder, they were defended by future President John Adams.
Six of the soldiers were acquitted. The men found. Depictions and propaganda about the event heightened tensions throughout the Thirteen Colonies, notably the colored engraving produced by Paul Revere. Boston was the capital of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and an important shipping town, it was a center of resistance to unpopular acts of taxation by the British Parliament in the 1760s. In 1768, the Townshend Acts were enacted in the Thirteen Colonies putting tariffs on a variety of common items that were manufactured in Britain and imported in the colonies. Colonists objected that the Acts were a violation of the natural and constitutional rights of British subjects in the colonies; the Massachusetts House of Representatives began a campaign against the Acts by sending a petition to King George III asking for repeal of the Townshend Revenue Act. The House sent the Massachusetts Circular Letter to other colonial assemblies, asking them to join the resistance movement, called for a boycott of merchants importing the affected goods.
Lord Hillsborough had been appointed to the newly created office of Colonial Secretary, he was alarmed by the actions of the Massachusetts House. In April 1768, he sent a letter to the colonial governors in America instructing them to dissolve any colonial assemblies that responded to the Massachusetts Circular Letter, he ordered Massachusetts Governor Francis Bernard to direct the Massachusetts House to rescind the letter. The house refused to comply. Boston's chief customs officer Charles Paxton wrote to Hillsborough for military support because "the Government is as much in the hands of the people as it was in the time of the Stamp Act." Commodore Samuel Hood responded by sending the 50-gun warship HMS Romney, which arrived in Boston Harbor in May 1768. On June 10, 1768, customs officials seized Liberty, a sloop owned by leading Boston merchant John Hancock, on allegations that the ship had been involved in smuggling. Bostonians were angry because the captain of Romney had been impressing local sailors.
Given the unstable state of affairs in Massachusetts, Hillsborough instructed General Thomas Gage, Commander-in-Chief, North America, to send "such Force as You shall think necessary to Boston", the first of four British Army regiments began disembarking in Boston on October 1, 1768. Two regiments were removed from Boston in 1769, but the 14th and the 29th Regiments of Foot remained; the Journal of Occurrences were an anonymous series of newspaper articles which chronicled the clashes between civilians and soldiers in Boston, feeding tensions with its sometimes exaggerated accounts, but those tensions rose markedly after Christopher Seider, "a young lad about eleven Years of Age", was killed by a customs employee on February 22, 1770. Seider's death was covered in the Boston Gazette, his funeral was described as one of the largest of the time in Boston; the killing and subsequent media coverage inflamed tensions, with groups of colonists looking for soldiers to harass, soldiers looking for confrontation.
On the evening of March 5, Private Hugh White stood on guard duty outside the Boston Custom House on King Street. A young wigmaker's apprentice named Edward Garrick called out to Captain-Lieutenant John Goldfinch, saying that Goldfinch had not paid a bill due to Garrick's master. Goldfinch had settled the account the previous day, ignored the insult. Private White called out to Garrick that he should be more respectful of the officer, the two men exchanged insults. Garrick started poking Goldfinch in the chest with his finger. Garrick cried out in pain, his companion Bartholomew Broaders began to argue with White which attracted a larger crowd. Henry Knox was a 19-year old bookseller who served as a general in the revolution; as the evening progressed, the crowd around Private White grew more boisterous. Church bells were rung, which signified a fire, bringing more people out. More than 50 Bostonians pressed around White, led by a mixed-race former slave named Crispus Attucks, throwing objects at the sentry and challenging him to fire his weapon.
White had taken up a somewhat safer position on the steps of the Custom House, he sought assistance. Run
National Archives and Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives. NARA is responsible for maintaining and publishing the authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, federal regulations; the NARA transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress. The Archivist of the United States is the chief official overseeing the operation of the National Archives and Records Administration; the Archivist not only maintains the official documentation of the passage of amendments to the U. S. Constitution by state legislatures, but has the authority to declare when the constitutional threshold for passage has been reached, therefore when an act has become an amendment; the Office of the Federal Register publishes the Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, United States Statutes at Large, among others.
It administers the Electoral College. The National Historical Publications and Records Commission —the agency's grant-making arm—awards funds to state and local governments and private archives and universities, other nonprofit organizations to preserve and publish historical records. Since 1964, the NHPRC has awarded some 4,500 grants; the Office of Government Information Services is a Freedom of Information Act resource for the public and the government. Congress has charged NARA with reviewing FOIA policies and compliance of Federal agencies and to recommend changes to FOIA. NARA's mission includes resolving FOIA disputes between Federal agencies and requesters; each branch and agency of the U. S. government was responsible for maintaining its own documents, which resulted in the loss and destruction of records. Congress established the National Archives Establishment in 1934 to centralize federal record keeping, with the Archivist of the United States as chief administrator; the National Archives was incorporated with GSA in 1949.
The first Archivist, R. D. W. Connor, began serving in 1934; as a result of a first Hoover Commission recommendation, in 1949 the National Archives was placed within the newly formed General Services Administration. The Archivist served as a subordinate official to the GSA Administrator until the National Archives and Records Administration became an independent agency on April 1, 1985. In March 2006, it was revealed by the Archivist of the United States in a public hearing that a memorandum of understanding between NARA and various government agencies existed to "reclassify", i.e. withdraw from public access, certain documents in the name of national security, to do so in a manner such that researchers would not be to discover the process. An audit indicated that more than one third withdrawn since 1999 did not contain sensitive information; the program was scheduled to end in 2007. In 2010, Executive Order 13526 created the National Declassification Center to coordinate declassification practices across agencies, provide secure document services to other agencies, review records in NARA custody for declassification.
NARA's holdings are classed into "record groups" reflecting the governmental department or agency from which they originated. Records include paper documents, still pictures, motion pictures, electronic media. Archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody of NARA are stored in the National Archives Catalog; the archival descriptions include information on traditional paper holdings, electronic records, artifacts. As of December 2012, the catalog consisted of about 10 billion logical data records describing 527,000 artifacts and encompassing 81% of NARA's records. There are 922,000 digital copies of digitized materials. Most records at NARA are in the public domain, as works of the federal government are excluded from copyright protection. However, records from other sources may still be protected by donor agreements. Executive Order 13526 directs originating agencies to declassify documents if possible before shipment to NARA for long-term storage, but NARA stores some classified documents until they can be declassified.
Its Information Security Oversight Office monitors and sets policy for the U. S. government's security classification system. Many of NARA's most requested records are used for genealogy research; this includes census records from 1790 to 1940, ships' passenger lists, naturalization records. Archival Recovery Teams investigate the theft of records; the most well known facility of the National Archives and Records Administration is the National Archives Building, located north of the National Mall on Constitution Avenue in Washington, D. C.. A sister facility, known as the National Archives at College Park was opened 1994 near the University of Maryland, College Park; the Washington National Records Center located in the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, is a large warehouse facility where federal records that are still under the control of the creating agency are stored. Federal government agencies pay a yearly fee for storage at the facility. In accordance with federal records schedules, documents at WNRC are transferred to the legal custody of the National Archives after a certain time.
Temporary records at WNRC are
Battle of Wyoming
The Battle of Wyoming was an encounter during the American Revolutionary War between American Patriots and Loyalists accompanied by Iroquois raiders that took place in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania on July 3, 1778. More than three hundred Patriots were killed in the battle. After the battle, settlers claimed that the Iroquois raiders had hunted and killed fleeing Patriots, before using ritual torture against 30-40 who had surrendered, until they died. In 1777, British General John Burgoyne led a campaign to gain control of the Hudson River in the American Revolutionary War. Burgoyne was weakened by loss of time and men after the Battle of Oriskany and was forced to surrender after the Battles of Saratoga in October. News of his surrender prompted France to enter the war as an American ally. Concerned that the French might attempt to retake parts of New France they had lost in the French and Indian War, the British military adopted a defensive strategy in Quebec, they recruited Loyalists and enlisted Indian allies to conduct a frontier war along the northern and western borders of the Thirteen Colonies.
Colonel John Butler recruited a regiment of Loyalists, while Seneca chiefs Sayenqueraghta and Cornplanter recruited Seneca warriors, Joseph Brant recruited Mohawks for what became a guerrilla war against the American frontier settlers. By April 1778 the Seneca were raiding settlements along the Allegheny and Susquehanna Rivers, by early June the three groups met at the Indian village of Tioga, New York. Butler and the Seneca decided to attack the Wyoming Valley, while Brant and the Mohawks targeted settlements further north. American military leaders, including Washington and Lafayette sought to recruit Iroquois as a diversion to keep the British in Quebec busy; these recruitment attempts, met with more limited success. The Oneida and Tuscarora were the only tribes of the Six Nations to become Patriot allies; the British forces arrived in the valley on June 30, having alerted the settlers to their approach by killing three men working at an unprotected gristmill on June 28. The next day Colonel Butler sent a surrender demand to the militia at Wintermute's fort.
Terms were arranged that the defenders, after surrendering the fort with all their arms and stores, would be released on the condition that they not again bear arms during the war. On July 3, the British saw that the defenders were gathering in great numbers outside of Forty Fort. William Caldwell was engaged in destroying Jenkin's fort, with the American militia a mile away, Butler organized an ambush, he ordered Fort Wintermute set on fire, the Patriots, believing it signified a British retreat, advanced rapidly. Butler told the Seneca to lie flat on the ground; the militia advanced to within a hundred yards of the British rangers and fired three volleys at them. The Seneca rose to their feet, fired one time, charged the militia to engage in hand to hand combat. Accounts indicate. An order to reform the Patriot line instead turned into a frantic rout as the inexperienced militiamen panicked and began to run, it became a deadly footrace. The victorious Loyalists and Iroquois killed all who were captured, only 5 prisoners were taken alive.
Butler reported. The next morning Colonel Nathan Denison agreed to surrender Forty Fort and two other posts, along with what remained of his militia. Butler paroled them on their promise to take no part in further hostilities. Non-combatants were spared and only a few inhabitants were molested after the forts' surrender. Colonel Butler wrote: "But what gives me the sincerest satisfaction is that I can, with great truth, assure you that in the destruction of the settlement not a single person was hurt except such as were in arms, to these, in truth, the Indians gave no quarter." An American farmer wrote: "Happily these fierce people, satisfied with the death of those who had opposed them in arms, treated the defenseless ones, the woman and children, with a degree of humanity hitherto unparalleled". Colonel Denison and his men did not honor their parole, within the year they would participate in attacks on Iroquois villages. According to one source, 60 Patriot bodies were found on the battlefield and another 36 on the line of the retreat.
All were buried in a common grave. Out of 1,000 men available, John Butler reported only two Loyalist Rangers and one Indian killed, eight Indians wounded, he claimed that his force took 227 scalps, burned 1,000 houses, drove off 1,000 cattle plus many sheep and hogs. Of the 60 Continentals and 300 militiamen involved, only about 60 escaped the disaster, though Graymont states about 340 killed; the Seneca Indians were angered by the accusations of atrocities they said they had not committed, at the militia taking arms after being paroled. That year, Joseph Brant under the command of Butler further retaliated in the Cherry Valley massacre. Reports of the massacres of prisoners and atrocities at Wyoming infuriated the American public. Afterward, Colonel Thomas Hartley arrived with Hartley's Additional Continental Regiment to defend the valley to try to harvest the crops, they were joined by a few militia companies, including that of Captain Denison, who violated his parole to join the force. In September and Denison ascended the east branch of the Susquehanna with 130 soldiers, destroying Indian villages as far as Tioga and recovering a large amount of plunder taken during the raid.
Pocahontas was a Native American woman notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. She was the daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of a network of tributary tribes in the Tsenacommacah, encompassing the Tidewater region of Virginia, she saved the life of Colonist John Smith in 1607, being held captive by her tribe, by placing her head upon Smith's when her father raised his war club to execute him. Pocahontas was captured and held for ransom by the Colonists during hostilities in 1613. During her captivity, she took the name Rebecca; when the opportunity arose for her to return to her people, she chose to remain with the Colonists. She married tobacco planter John Rolfe in April 1614 at age 17, she bore their son Thomas Rolfe in January 1615. In 1616, the Rolfes travelled to London where Pocahontas was presented to English society as an example of the "civilized savage" in hopes of stimulating investment in the Jamestown settlement, she became something of a celebrity, was elegantly fêted, attended a masque at Whitehall Palace.
In 1617, the Rolfes set sail for Virginia, but Pocahontas died at Gravesend of unknown causes, aged 20 or 21. She was buried in St George's Church, Gravesend in England, but her grave's exact location is unknown, as the church has been rebuilt. Numerous places and products in the United States have been named after Pocahontas, her story has been romanticized over the years, she is a subject of art and film. Many famous people have claimed to be among her descendants through her son, including members of the First Families of Virginia, First Lady Edith Wilson, American Western actor Glenn Strange, Las Vegas performer Wayne Newton, astronomer Percival Lowell. Pocahontas's birth year is unknown, but some historians estimate it to have been around 1596. In A True Relation of Virginia, Smith described meeting Pocahontas in the spring of 1608 when she was "a child of ten years old". In a 1616 letter, he again described her as she was in 1608, but this time as "a child of twelve or thirteen years of age".
Pocahontas was the daughter of Chief Powhatan, paramount chief of Tsenacommacah, an alliance of about 30 Algonquian-speaking groups and petty chiefdoms in Tidewater, Virginia. Her mother's name and origin are unknown, but she was of lowly status. Henry Spelman of Jamestown had lived among the Powhatan as an interpreter, he noted that, when one of the paramount chief's many wives gave birth, she was returned to her place of origin and supported there by the paramount chief until she found another husband. According to Powhatan traditions, Pocahontas's mother died in childbirth; the Mattaponi Reservation people are descendants of the Powhatans, their oral tradition claims that Pocahontas's mother was the first wife of Powhatan, that Pocahontas was named after her. According to colonist William Strachey, "Pocahontas" was a childhood nickname meaning "little wanton". Strachey's 1610 account describes her as a child visiting the fort at Jamestown and playing with the young boys. According to anthropologist Helen C.
Rountree, Pocahontas revealed her secret name to the colonists "only after she had taken another religious—baptismal—name" of Rebecca. Pocahontas is viewed as a princess in popular culture. In 1841, William Watson Waldron of Trinity College, Dublin published Pocahontas, American Princess: and Other Poems, calling her "the beloved and only surviving daughter of the king", she was her father's "delight and darling", according to colonist Captain Ralph Hamor but she was not in line to inherit a position as a weroance, sub-chief, or mamanatowick. Instead, Powhatan's brothers and sisters and his sisters' children all stood in line to succeed him. In his A Map of Virginia, John Smith explained how matrilineal inheritance worked among the Powhatans: His kingdom descendeth not to his sonnes nor children: but first to his brethren, whereof he hath three namely Opitchapan and Catataugh. First to the eldest sister to the rest: and after them to the heires male and female of the eldest sister. Pocahontas is most famously linked to colonist Captain John Smith who arrived in Virginia with 100 other settlers in April 1607 where they built a fort on a marshy peninsula on the James River.
The colonists had numerous encounters over the next several months with the people of Tsenacommacah—some of them friendly, some hostile. A hunting party led by Powhatan's close relative Opechancanough captured Smith in December 1607 while he was exploring on the Chickahominy River and brought him to Powhatan's capital at Werowocomoco. In his 1608 account, Smith describes a great feast followed by a long talk with Powhatan, he does not mention Pocahontas in relation to his capture, claims that they first met some months later. Margaret Huber suggests that Powhatan was attempting to bring Smith and the other colonists under his own authority, he offered Smith rule of the town of Capahosic, close to his capital at Werowocomoco, as he hoped to keep Smith and his men "nearby and better under control". In 16