Theta is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter Teth. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value 9. In Ancient Greek, θ represented the aspirated voiceless dental plosive /t̪ʰ/, but in Modern Greek it represents the voiceless dental fricative /θ/. In its archaic form, θ was written as a cross within a circle, as a line or point in circle. Archaic crossed forms of theta are seen in the wheel letters of Linear A and Linear B; the cursive form ϑ was retained by Unicode as U+03D1 ϑ "GREEK THETA SYMBOL", separate from U+03B8 θ "GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA". For the purpose of writing Greek text, the two can be font variants of a single character, but θ and ϑ are used as distinct symbols in technical and mathematical contexts. In Latin script used for the Gaulish language, theta developed into the tau gallicum, conventionally transliterated as Ð, although the bar extends across the centre of the letter; the phonetic value of the tau gallicum is thought to have been.
The early Cyrillic letter fita developed from θ. This letter existed in the Russian alphabet until the 1918 Russian orthography reform. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, represents the voiceless dental fricative, as in thick or thin, it does not represent the consonant in the, the voiced dental fricative. A similar-looking symbol, described as a lowercase barred o, indicates in the IPA a close-mid central rounded vowel; the lowercase letter θ is used as a symbol for: A plane angle in geometry An unknown variable in trigonometry A special function of several complex variables One of the Chebyshev functions in prime number theory The potential temperature in meteorology The score of a test taker in item response theory Theta Type Replication: a type of bacterial DNA replication specific to circular chromosomes Threshold value of an artificial neuron A Bayer designation letter applied to a star in a constellation. According to Porphyry of Tyros, the Egyptians used an X within a circle as a symbol of the soul.
Johannes Lydus says that the Egyptians used a symbol for Kosmos in the form of theta, with a fiery circle representing the world, a snake spanning the middle representing Agathos Daimon. The Egyptians used the symbol of a point within a circle to represent the sun, which might be a possible origin of its use as the Sun's astrological glyph, it is worthwhile to note that θῆτα has the same numerical value in isopsephy as Ηλιος: 318. In classical Athens, it was used as an abbreviation for the Greek θάνατος and as it vaguely resembles a human skull, theta was used as a warning symbol of death, in the same way that skull and crossbones are used in modern times, it survives on potsherds used by Athenians. Petrus de Dacia in a document from 1291 relates the idea that theta was used to brand criminals as empty ciphers, the branding rod was affixed to the crossbar spanning the circle. For this reason, use of the number theta was sometimes avoided where the connotation was felt to be unlucky—the mint marks of some Late Imperial Roman coins famously have the sum ΔΕ or ΕΔ substituted as a euphemism where a Θ would otherwise be expected.
Greek ThetaCoptic ThetheCyrillic FitaMathematical ThetaThese characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style. Ѳ, ѳ—Fita, a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Greek theta ʘ—Bilabial click Voiceless dental fricative Theta nigrum
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many different local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Eucleidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version, still used to write Greek today; these twenty-four letters are: Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, Ω ω. The Greek alphabet is the ancestor of the Cyrillic scripts. Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek had only a single form of each letter. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed between the fifth century BC and today.
Modern and Ancient Greek use different diacritics. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics and other fields. In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the letters of the Greek alphabet have stable and consistent symbol-to-sound mappings, making pronunciation of words predictable. Ancient Greek spelling was near-phonemic. For a number of letters, sound values differ between Ancient and Modern Greek, because their pronunciation has followed a set of systematic phonological shifts that affected the language in its post-classical stages. Examples Notes Among consonant letters, all letters that denoted voiced plosive consonants and aspirated plosives in Ancient Greek stand for corresponding fricative sounds in Modern Greek; the correspondences are as follows: Among the vowel symbols, Modern Greek sound values reflect the radical simplification of the vowel system of post-classical Greek, merging multiple distinct vowel phonemes into a much smaller number.
This leads to several groups of vowel letters denoting identical sounds today. Modern Greek orthography remains true to the historical spellings in most of these cases; as a consequence, the spellings of words in Modern Greek are not predictable from the pronunciation alone, while the reverse mapping, from spelling to pronunciation, is regular and predictable. The following vowel letters and digraphs are involved in the mergers: Modern Greek speakers use the same, modern symbol–sound mappings in reading Greek of all historical stages. In other countries, students of Ancient Greek may use a variety of conventional approximations of the historical sound system in pronouncing Ancient Greek. Several letter combinations have special conventional sound values different from those of their single components. Among them are several digraphs of vowel letters that represented diphthongs but are now monophthongized. In addition to the four mentioned above, there is ⟨ηι, ωι⟩, ⟨ου⟩, pronounced /u/; the Ancient Greek diphthongs ⟨αυ⟩, ⟨ευ⟩ and ⟨ηυ⟩ are pronounced, in Modern Greek.
In some environments, they are devoiced to, respectively. The Modern Greek consonant combinations ⟨μπ⟩ and ⟨ντ⟩ stand for and respectively. In addition, both in Ancient and Modern Greek, the letter ⟨γ⟩, before another velar consonant, stands for the velar nasal. In analogy to ⟨μπ⟩ and ⟨ντ⟩, ⟨γκ⟩ is used to stand for. There are the combinations ⟨γχ⟩ and ⟨γξ⟩. In the polytonic orthography traditionally used for ancient Greek, the stressed vowel of each word carries one of three accent marks: either the acute accent, the grave accent, or the circumflex accent; these signs were designed to mark different forms of the phonological pitch accent in Ancient Greek. By the time their use became conventional and obligatory in Greek writing, in late antiquity, pitch accent was evolving into a single stress accent, thus the three signs have not corresponded to a phonological distinction in actual speech since. In addition to the accent marks, every word-initial vowel must carry either of two so-called "breathing marks": the rough breathing, marking an /h/ sound at the beginning of a word, or the smooth breathing, marking its absence.
The letter rho, although not a vowel carries a rough breathing in word-initial position. If a rho was geminated within a word, the first ρ always had the smooth breathing and the second the rough breathing leading to the transliteration rrh; the vowel letters ⟨α, η, ω⟩ carry an additional diacritic in certain words, the so-called iota subscript, which has the shape of a small vertical stroke or a miniature ⟨ι⟩ below the letter. This iota represents the former offglide of what were long diphthongs, ⟨ᾱι, ηι, ωι⟩, which became monophthongized during antiquity. Another diacritic used in Greek is the diaeresis; this system of diacritics was first developed by the scholar Aristophanes of Byzantium, who worked at the Musaeum in Alexandria during the third century BC. Aristophanes of Byzantium was the first to divide poems into lines, rather than writing them like prose, introduced a series of signs for textual criticism. In 1982, a new, simplif
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Archaic Greek alphabets
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet, the standard today, around 400 BC. All forms of the Greek alphabet were based on the shared inventory of the 22 symbols of the Phoenician alphabet, with the exception of the letter Samekh, whose Greek counterpart Xi was used only in a sub-group of Greek alphabets, with the common addition of Upsilon for the vowel /u, ū/; the local, so-called epichoric, alphabets differed in many ways: in the use of the consonant symbols Χ, Φ and Ψ. The system now familiar as the standard 24-letter Greek alphabet was the regional variant of the Ionian cities in Asia Minor, it was adopted in Athens in 403 BC and in most of the rest of the Greek world by the middle of the 4th century BC. A basic division into four major types of epichoric alphabets is made according to their different treatment of additional consonant letters for the aspirated consonants and consonant clusters of Greek.
These four types are conventionally labelled as "green", "red", "light blue" and "dark blue" types, based on a colour-coded map in a seminal 19th-century work on the topic, Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets by Adolf Kirchhoff. The "green" type is closest to the Phoenician; the "red" type is the one, transmitted to the West and became the ancestor of the Latin alphabet, bears some crucial features characteristic of that development. The "blue" type is the one from which the standard Greek alphabet emerged. *Upsilon is derived from waw. The "green" type uses no additional letters beyond the Phoenician set, also goes without Ξ. Thus, the aspirated plosives /pʰ/, /kʰ/ are spelled either as Π and Κ without a distinction from unaspirated /p/, /k/, or as digraphs ΠΗ, ΚΗ; the clusters /ps/, /ks/ are spelled ΠΣ, ΚΣ. This is the system found in Crete and in some other islands in the southern Aegean, notably Thera and Anaphe; the "red" type lacks Phoenician-derived Ξ for /ks/, but instead introduces a supplementary sign for that sound combination at the end of the alphabet, Χ.
In addition, the red alphabet introduced letters for the aspirates, Φ = /pʰ/ and Ψ = /kʰ/. Note that the use of Χ in the "red" set corresponds to the letter "X" in Latin, while it differs from the standard Greek alphabet, where Χ stands for /kʰ/, Ψ stands for /ps/. Only Φ for /pʰ/ is common to all non-green alphabets; the red type is found in most parts of central mainland Greece, as well as the island of Euboea, in colonies associated with these places, including most colonies in Italy. The "light blue" type still lacks Ξ, adds only letters for /pʰ/ and /kʰ/. Both of these correspond to the modern standard alphabet; the light blue system thus still has no separate letters for the clusters /ps/, /ks/. In this system, these are spelled ΦΣ and ΧΣ, respectively; this is the system found in several Aegean islands. The "dark blue" type is the one that has all the consonant symbols of the modern standard alphabet: in addition to Φ and Χ, it adds Ψ, Ξ; this system is found in the cities of the Ionian dodecapolis, Knidos in Asia Minor, in Corinth and Argos on the northeastern Peloponnese.
The letter eta had two different functions, both derived from the name of its Phoenician model, hēth: the majority of Greek dialects continued to use it for the consonant /h/, similar to its Phoenician value. However, the consonant /h/ was progressively lost from the spoken language, in those dialects where this had happened early on in the archaic period, Η was instead used to denote the long vowel /ɛː/, which occurred next in its name and was thus, in the /h/-less dialects, its natural acrophonic value. Early psilotic dialects include eastern Ionic Greek, the Aeolic Greek of Lesbos, as well as the Doric Greek of Crete and ElisThe distribution of vocalic Η and Ε differs further between dialects, because the Greek language had a system of three distinct e-like phonemes: the long open-mid /ɛː/, the long close-mid /eː/, the short vowel /e/. In the psilotic dialects of Anatolia and adjacent eastern Aegean islands, as well as Crete, vocalic Η was used only for /ɛː/. In a number of Aegean islands, notably Rhodes, Milos and Paros, it was used both for /h/ and for /ɛː/ without distinction.
In Knidos, a variant letter was invented to distinguish the two functions: Η was used for /h/, for /ɛː/. In south Italian colonies Taranto, after c. 400 BC, a similar distinction was made between Η for /ɛː/, for /h/. This latter symbol was turned into the diacritic sign for rough breathing by the Alexandrine grammarians. In Naxos the system was different: here, the same letter was used for /h/ and for a long vowel, but only in those cases where a long e-like sound had
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. Specialist literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership, United States versus European approaches. U. S. academic environments define leadership as "a process of social influence in which a person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, behavior, power and values, intelligence, among others. Sanskrit literature identifies ten types of leaders. Defining characteristics of the ten types of leaders are explained with examples from history and mythology. Aristocratic thinkers have postulated that leadership depends on genes. Monarchy takes an extreme view of the same idea, may prop up its assertions against the claims of mere aristocrats by invoking divine sanction.
On the other hand, more democratically inclined theorists have pointed to examples of meritocratic leaders, such as the Napoleonic marshals profiting from careers open to talent. In the autocratic/paternalistic strain of thought, traditionalists recall the role of leadership of the Roman pater familias. Feminist thinking, on the other hand, may object to such models as patriarchal and posit against them attuned and consensual empathetic guidance, sometimes associated with matriarchies. Comparable to the Roman tradition, the views of Confucianism on "right living" relate much to the ideal of the scholar-leader and his benevolent rule, buttressed by a tradition of filial piety. Leadership is a matter of intelligence, humaneness and discipline... Reliance on intelligence alone results in rebelliousness. Exercise of humaneness alone results in weakness. Fixation on trust results in folly. Dependence on the strength of courage results in violence. Excessive discipline and sternness in command result in cruelty.
When one has all five virtues together, each appropriate to its function one can be a leader. — Sun Tzu Machiavelli's The Prince, written in the early 16th century, provided a manual for rulers to gain and keep power. In the 19th century the elaboration of anarchist thought called the whole concept of leadership into question. One response to this denial of élitism came with Leninism, which demanded an élite group of disciplined cadres to act as the vanguard of a socialist revolution, bringing into existence the dictatorship of the proletariat. Other historical views of leadership have addressed the seeming contrasts between secular and religious leadership; the doctrines of Caesaro-papism had their detractors over several centuries. Christian thinking on leadership has emphasized stewardship of divinely provided resources—human and material—and their deployment in accordance with a Divine plan. Compare servant leadership. For a more general take on leadership in politics, compare the concept of the statesperson.
The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has continued for centuries. Philosophical writings from Plato's Republic to Plutarch's Lives have explored the question "What qualities distinguish an individual as a leader?" Underlying this search was the early recognition of the importance of leadership and the assumption that leadership is rooted in the characteristics that certain individuals possess. This idea that leadership is based on individual attributes is known as the "trait theory of leadership". A number of works in the 19th century – when the traditional authority of monarchs and bishops had begun to wane – explored the trait theory at length: note the writings of Thomas Carlyle and of Francis Galton, whose works have prompted decades of research. In Heroes and Hero Worship, Carlyle identified the talents and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. Galton's Hereditary Genius examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when his focus moved from first-degree to second-degree relatives, Galton concluded that leadership was inherited.
In other words, leaders were born, not developed. Both of these notable works lent great initial support for the notion that leadership is rooted in characteristics of a leader. Cecil Rhodes believed that public-spirited leadership could be nurtured by identifying young people with "moral force of character and instincts to lead", educating them in contexts which further developed such characteristics. International networks of such leaders could help to promote international understanding and help "render war impossible"; this vision of leadership underlay the creation of the Rhodes Scholarships, which have helped to shape notions of leadership since their creation in 1903. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. In reviewing the extant literature and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies, the overall evidence suggested that people who are leaders in one situation may not be leaders in other situations.
Subsequently, leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring indivi
An ox known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal. Oxen are castrated adult male cattle. Cows or bulls may be used in some areas. Oxen are used for plowing, for transport, for threshing grain by trampling, for powering machines that grind grain or supply irrigation among other purposes. Oxen may be used to skid logs in forests in low-impact, select-cut logging. Draft oxen are yoked in pairs. Light work such as carting household items on good roads may only require one pair, while for heavier work, further pairs would be added as necessary. A team used for a heavy load over difficult ground might exceed ten pairs. Oxen are thought to have first been harnessed and put to work around 4000 BC. Working oxen are taught to respond to the signals of the ox-driver; these signals are given by verbal command and body language, reinforced by a goad, whip or a long pole. In pre-industrial times, most teamsters were known for their loud voices and forthright language.
Verbal commands for working animals vary throughout the world. In North America, the most common commands are: Back: back up Gee: turn to the right Get up: go Haw: turn to the left Whoa: stopIn the New England tradition, young castrated cattle selected for draft are known as working steers and are painstakingly trained from a young age, their teamster makes or buys as many as a dozen yokes of different sizes for each animal as it grows. The steers are considered trained at the age of four and only become known as oxen. A tradition in south eastern England was to use oxen as dual-purpose animals: for beef. A plowing team of eight oxen consisted of four pairs aged a year apart; each year, a pair of steers of about three years of age would be bought for the team and trained with the older animals. The pair would be kept for about four years sold at about seven years old to be fattened for beef – thus covering much of the cost of buying that year's new pair. Use of oxen for plowing survived in some areas of England until the early twentieth century.
Pairs of oxen were always hitched the same way round, they were given paired names. In southern England it was traditional to call the near-side ox of a pair by a single-syllable name and the off-side one by a longer one. Ox trainers favor larger animals for their ability to pull heavier loads, they are therefore of larger breeds, are males because they are larger. Females can be trained as oxen, but they are smaller. Bulls are used in many parts of the world as oxen Asia and Africa. Working oxen have oxshoes, which are metal devices nailed into their hooves, used to protect them from excessive wear; the continual strain borne on their feet by the weight they carry may injure and lead to cracking of the hooves, just as with horses. Despite this, in England, not all working oxen were shod. Since their hooves are cloven, two separate parts are required for each hoof, unlike the single shoe of a horse. Oxshoes are of a flat shape with an outline similar to a half-moon or a banana, either have or do not have caulkins, are fitted in symmetrical pairs to the hooves.
Unlike horses, oxen are not able to balance on three legs while a farrier shoes the fourth. In England, shoeing was accomplished by laying the ox on the ground and lashing all four feet to a heavy wooden tripod until the shoeing was complete. A similar technique was used in Serbia and, in a simpler form, in India, where it is still practiced. In Italy, where oxen may be large, shoeing is accomplished using a massive framework of beams in which the animal can be or lifted from the ground by slings passed under the body; such devices may today be of metal. Similar devices are found in France, Germany, Spain and the United States, where they may be called ox slings, ox presses or shoeing stalls; the system was sometimes adopted in England where the device was called a crush or trevis. The shoeing of an ox lifted in a sling is the subject of John Singer Sargent's painting Shoeing the Ox, while A Smith Shoeing an Ox by Karel Dujardin shows an ox being shod standing, tied to a post by the horns and balanced by supporting the raised hoof.
While less efficient and sensibly less prevalent than horses, the riding of cattle as a means of transportation has happened throughout history, the act is sometimes known as ox riding and oxback riding. There are many forms of riding equipment used by oxen, some differ from those used by horses. A wide-girthed saddle is mounted on the ox’s back for the rider to sit on. A bridle may attach to reins. While horses may have a bit, the near-equivalent for cattle is the nose ring, although this procedure is painful to the ox; as mentioned, they are not only controlled by being steered using reins.
Omega is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet. In the Greek numeric system/Isopsephy, it has a value of 800; the word means "great O", as opposed to omicron, which means "little O". In phonetic terms, the Ancient Greek Ω is a long open-mid o, comparable to the vowel of British English raw. In Modern Greek, Ω represents the same sound as omicron; the letter omega is transcribed ō or o. As the last letter of the Greek alphabet, Omega is used to denote the last, the end, or the ultimate limit of a set, in contrast to alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet. Ω was not part of the early Greek alphabets. It was introduced in the late 7th century BC in the Ionian cities of Asia Minor to denote the long half-open, it is a variant of omicron, broken up with the edges subsequently turned outward. The Dorian city of Knidos as well as a few Aegean islands, namely Paros and Melos, chose the exact opposite innovation, using a broken-up circle for the short and a closed circle for the long /o/.
The name Ωμέγα is Byzantine. The modern lowercase shape goes back to the uncial form, a form that developed during the 3rd century BC in ancient handwriting on papyrus, from a flattened-out form of the letter that had its edges curved further upward. In addition to the Greek alphabet, Omega was adopted into the early Cyrillic alphabet. See Cyrillic omega. A Raetic variant is conjectured to be at the origin or parallel evolution of the Elder Futhark ᛟ. Omega was adopted into the Latin alphabet, as a letter of the 1982 revision to the African reference alphabet, it has had little use. See Latin omega; the uppercase letter Ω is used as a symbol: In chemistry: For oxygen-18, a natural, stable isotope of oxygen. In physics: For ohm – SI unit of electrical resistance. Unicode has a separate code point for the ohm sign, but it is included only for backward compatibility, the Greek uppercase omega character is preferred. In statistical mechanics, Ω refers to the multiplicity in a system; the solid angle or the rate of precession in a gyroscope.
In particle physics to represent the Omega baryons. In astronomy, Ω refers to the density of the universe called the density parameter. In astronomy, Ω refers to the longitude of the ascending node of an orbit. In mathematics and computer science: In complex analysis, the Omega constant, a solution of Lambert's W function In differential geometry, the space of differential forms on a manifold. A variable for a 2-dimensional region in calculus corresponding to the domain of a double integral. In topos theory, the subobject classifier of an elementary topos. In combinatory logic, the looping combinator, In group theory, the omega and agemo subgroups of a p-group, Ω and ℧ In group theory, Cayley's Ω process as a partial differential operator. In statistics, it is used as total set of possible outcomes. In number theory, Ω is the number of prime divisors of n. In notation related to Big O notation to describe the asymptotic behavior of functions. Chaitin's constant; as part of logo or trademark: The logo of Omega Watches SA.
Part of the original Pioneer logo. Part of the Badge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. Part of the mission patch for STS-135, as it was the last mission of the Space Shuttle program; the logo of the God of War video game series based on Greek mythology. In God of War, it is revealed; the logo of E-123 Omega, a Sonic the Hedgehog character. The logo of the Heroes of Olympus series, based on Greek mythology; the logo of the Ultramarines in Warhammer 40,000 The logo of Primal Groudon, the version mascot of Pokémon Omega Ruby. The logo of Darkseid in DC comics One of the logos of professional wrestler Kenny Omega Other The symbol of the resistance movement against the Vietnam-era draft in the United States Year or date of death Used to refer to the lowest-ranked wolf in a pack In eschatology, the symbol for the end of everything In molecular biology, the symbol is used as shorthand to signify a genetic construct introduced by a two-point crossover Omega Particle in the Star Trek universe The final form of NetNavi bosses in some of the Mega Man Battle Network games The personal symbol for Death, as worn by Death in the Discworld series by Terry Pratchett The symbol to represent Groudon in Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire A secret boss in the Final Fantasy series called Omega Weapon.
A character from the series Doctor Who called Omega, believed to be one of the creators of the Time Lords on Gallifrey. The minuscule letter ω is used as a symbol: Biochemistry and chemistry: Denotes the carbon atom furthest from the carboxyl group of a fatty acid In biochemistry, for one of the RNA polymerase subunits In biochemistry, for the dihedral angle associated with the peptide group, involving the backbone atoms Cα-C'-N-Cα In biology, for the fitness. In genomics, as a measure of evolution at the protein level Physics Angular velocity or angular frequency In computational fluid dynamics, the specific turbulence dissipation rate In meteorology, the change of pressure with respect to time of a parcel o