Alpha Flight is a fictional team of Canadian superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The characters premiered in The Uncanny X-Men #120, were created to serve as part of the anti-hero Wolverine's backstory. Marvel published an Alpha Flight comic book series from 1983 to 1994; the team serves as Canada's premier superhero team akin to America's Avengers. Created by writer and artist John Byrne, the team first appeared in The Uncanny X-Men #120. Most team members have distinctly Canadian attributes, such as having Inuit/First Nations or French heritage. Throughout most of its history, the team has worked for Department H, a fictional branch of Canada's Department of National Defence that deals with super-powered villains; the team was merely a part of the backstory of the X-Men's Wolverine but, in 1983, Marvel launched an eponymous series featuring the group, which continued until 1994, lasting 130 issues as well as annuals and miniseries. There have been three short-lived revivals since most an eight-issue limited series in 2011–12, after the resurrection of the team in the one shot comic Chaos War: Alpha Flight during the Chaos War event.
Alpha Flight was preceded by a team called "The Flight". This team first appeared in Alpha Flight Special vol. 2, #1. Inspired by the debut of the Fantastic Four, James Hudson refined the purpose of Department H to find and/or develop Canada's superheroes. New recruit Groundhog joins Snowbird, St. Elmo, Stitch and Smart Alec in training. Within a week, the Flight is pressed into their first battle with Egghead's incarnation of the Emissaries of Evil. Egghead threatens the United States from Canadian soil with a nuclear missile. Smart Alec disables the missile's guidance system. Smart Alec panics leading to St. Elmo transforming the bomb into light. St. Elmo loses himself in the process. Groundhog and Dr. Michael Twoyoungmen scold Hudson for sending the team into battle while so inexperienced, with a near psychotic leader and someone who folds under pressure. Hudson thus makes plans for a tiered team system, leading to the formation of Alpha and Gamma Flight. Alpha Flight first appeared in X-Men #120, in which they are sent to follow up on Vindicator's first mission to retrieve Wolverine from the X-Men.
The initial makeup of Alpha Flight was drawn from all corners of Canada and included: Guardian: Originally Weapon Alpha Vindicator, James MacDonald Hudson is a scientist from London, Ontario who wears a suit of battle-armor, allowing him to fly and manipulate Earth's magnetic field. Guardian is sometimes the team leader, wears a stylized Canadian maple leaf flag on his costume. Northstar: Jean-Paul Beaubier from Montreal, Quebec is a mutant with powers of super-speed and light generation, he is the team's gay member Aurora: Jeanne-Marie Beaubier is Northstar's twin sister who suffers from dissociative identity disorder. Like her brother, she is a mutant with powers of super-speed, light generation, molecular acceleration. Sasquatch: Walter Langowski is a scientist from Vancouver, British Columbia who can transform into a giant fur-covered beast resembling a Sasquatch; this character developed his powers from a Hulk-inspired gamma radiation experiment, affected by a solar-flare. It was explained that Sasquatch is a mystical monster.
Shaman: Michael Twoyoungmen is a First Nations medicine man from Calgary, Alberta. He is both a skilled sorcerer. Snowbird: Also known as Narya, she is an Inuit demi-goddess from Yellowknife, Northwest Territories who can transform into animals of the north. According to Byrne, both Guardian and Snowbird were "fan characters", created before he became professionally involved in comics, he created all the remaining members while working on X-Men #120 designing them to be balanced with the X-Men in power; the first Alpha Flight comic book series started in 1983 which ran until 1994. Promoted from Beta Flight despite Department H being closed down by the Canadian government were: Marrina: An amphibious woman from Newfoundland, she was a former member of Beta Flight before joining Alpha Flight, she is part of an extraterrestrial invading force known as the Plodex. Puck: Eugene Judd is a dwarf bouncer from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan with enhanced strength and extraordinary acrobatic abilities. Heather MacNeil is married to James Hudson.
After Guardian's apparent death in Alpha Flight #12, she becomes the leader of the team. She takes a replication of his costume and takes the codename of Vindicator Guardian. Alpha Flight continued for 130 issues, introduced dozens of characters and villains. In 1997, Marvel relaunched the series with different characters; the new additions to the roster included: Flex: Adrian Corbo is a mutant with the ability to transform his limbs into sharp weapons. He is the half-brother of Radius. Manbot: Bernie Lechenay is a human/Box robot cyborg. Murmur: Arlette Truffaut is a young mutant from Quebec City, Quebec with powers of mind-control and teleportation. Radius: Jared Corbo is a mutant with the ability to create a force field. General Clarke: The sinister new director of Department H, responsible for many of the dark plots surrounding the team. Gains some measure of redemption with his sacrifice in issue #12. Returning members were Vindicator, a de-aged Guardian (who turned out to be a c
Andrea Arnold, OBE is an English filmmaker and former actress. She won an Academy Award for her short film Wasp in 2005, her feature films include Red Road, Fish Tank, American Honey, all of which have won the Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival. Arnold has directed four episodes of the Prime Video series Transparent, as well as all seven episodes of the second season of the HBO series Big Little Lies. Arnold was born in Dartford, the eldest of four children, she was born when her mother was only 16 years old and her father was 17, they separated when she was young. Growing up on a council estate, she spent her youth days exploring the "chalk pits, fields and motorways" of Dartford, her mother had to bring up all four children alone, reminiscent of Arnold's own directorial debut short, Wasp. When people are asked if the story is in any way autobiographical, Arnold replies "I grew up in a working class family, so I guess you could say I write from what I know."As a young girl, she was writing dark stories about human experience.
In an interview, Arnold speaks about how when she was 10 years old, she wrote her first play that expressed her "horror" of the slave trade, a few years while studying for a dance GCSE, she made a performance piece. All the other kids would just dance. I remember the examiners sitting there looking at me, perplexed." Arnold left high school. When Arnold was 18 years old she began working as a host and actress for a children's TV show called No. 73. She worked in TV for the next 10 years. Arnold realized she could turn her stories into films, so she studied at the American Film Institute of Los Angeles where she gained experience in the film industry. In explaining why she moved from London to study film in the U. S. she states, "I felt my lack of education and accent always held me back in the eyes of the gatekeepers". After finishing school and returning to Britain she had her daughter and began making short films for TV. After leaving school in the late 1970s, Arnold got her first TV jobs as a dancer on shows that included Top of the Pops.
She first came to prominence as an actress and television presenter alongside Sandi Toksvig, Nick Staverson and Neil Buchanan in the 1980s children's television show No. 73. This Saturday morning show on ITV, in which she played Dawn Lodge, had a similar premise to that of The Kumars at No. 42 in the way that the show was part sitcom, part chat show and based at a domestic residence. In addition to these parts, the show had the usual mix of music and cartoons, in keeping to the formula of British Saturday morning children's TV of the 1980s. After a couple of years of experience in front of the camera, Arnold realized, "Television was great fun and I went along for the ride, but I never felt that comfortable in front of the camera". In 1988 No. 73 had morphed into 7T3, with the set being moved from the Maidstone house to that of a theme park. This revamp would only last the season, but Arnold would be seen for another two years in the same timeslot as part of the Motormouth presenting team. In 1990 she presented and wrote for the environmental awareness show for teens, A Beetle Called Derek.
This featured Benjamin Zephaniah and gave exposure to The Yes/No People of Stomp fame. After retiring from her career as a television presenter, Arnold studied directing at the AFI Conservatory in Los Angeles and trained in screenwriting at the PAL Labs in Kent, her early short films included Dog. She won the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film for Wasp, in 2004, she was named a Screen International Star of Tomorrow. In 2003, she directed an episode of the Channel 4 series Coming Up titled "Bed Bugs", though she is sometimes erroneously credited as "Andrew Arnold" for the work. Red Road is the first instalment of Advance Party, a planned set of three conceptually-related films by different first-time directors. Set on a housing estate in Glasgow, the revenge-themed story centres on a CCTV operator who develops an obsession with someone she observes, for reasons that become clear through the progress of the film; the picture has won the British director comparisons with established names such as Michael Haneke and Lars von Trier.
Screen International critic Allan Hunter said the film was "likely to emerge as one of the discoveries of this year's Cannes Film Festival." It went on to win the Jury Prize at Cannes that year. She won the 2007 BAFTA Award for Outstanding Debut by a British Writer, Director or Producer for directing Red Road. In 2008, Arnold was reported to be directing an adaptation of Gillian Flynn's novel Sharp Objects for French production company Pathé, but the project never materialized. In 2011, she was reported to be working on a television project with writer Danny Brocklehurst called Dirty, but this project failed to materialize, her 2009 film Fish Tank premiered at the 62nd Cannes Film Festival, where she once again won the Jury Prize. The film went on to win the BAFTA Award for Outstanding British Film in 2010. In 2011, she completed shooting an adaptation of Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights, produced by London's Ecosse Films; the film was shown in competition at the 68th Venice International Film Festival in September where it won the Golden Osella for Best Cinematography.
Government of the Republic of South Africa v Fibrespinners & Weavers Ltd is an important case in South African contract law. It was heard in the Appellate Division by Wessels ACJ, Trollip JA, Hofmeyr JA, Miller JA and Trengove AJA on 15 February 1978, with judgment handed down on 21 March; the appellant government of South Africa had instituted action in a Local Division against the respondent, Fibrespinners & Weavers, for damages for the loss of certain grainbags, stored by the respondent for reward in terms of a contract of deposit. In terms of a letter written by the government, replacing the terms of the original contract, Fibrespinners was, in consideration for arranging and maintaining, inter alia, an all-risks insurance policy covering the grainbags, "absolved from all responsibility for loss of or damage howsoever arising in respect of" the grainbags "whilst in the care of your company and in or upon any premises owned or used by your company." Over a period of time a quantity of the grainbags had been stolen by three persons, one of whom was Fibrespinners' chief security officer.
The government averred that Fibrespinners was liable on the following alternative grounds: by reason of its breach of contract in failing, upon demand, to deliver to the government the grainbags in question. Fibrespinners excepted to the claim on the grounds that the averments in the particulars were insufficient to sustain the cause of action. In an appeal, the government contended that the exemption clause in the letter, which did not in terms refer to negligence, had to be construed in accordance with the contra proferentem rule as not relating to liability for loss or damage caused by negligence, but only to liability which arose from some other cause, such as breach of contract, that the exemption clause applied only where compensation was claimed on a contractual basis, not a delictual basis; the court held that the intention of the parties in regard to the exemption clause was to substitute in the government's favour a right of recourse against the insurance company in the place of such rights of recourse as appellant had against Fibrespinners as bailee.
The court held further that in law Fibrespinners was liable to compensate the government if the loss or damage was caused by its own wilful wrongdoing or negligent conduct. The words of the exemption were, the court found, prima facie sufficiently comprehensive in their ordinary meaning to bring under the protective umbrella of the exemption the liability for the loss or damage in 1. Or 2. Above; as to the government's contention that the possibility that negligent conduct on the part of the bailee might give rise to alternative causes of action, the one based on contract and the other on delict, the court ruled that this could not render the exemption clause ambiguous and thereby necessitate the use of aids to interpretation. Fibrespinners only required, could only be granted, exemption from liability for any loss or damage caused by unintentional unlawful conduct: that is, for any loss or damage caused by its breach of contract or by negligence on its part or the part of its employees, it was that exemption which the worded clause sought to achieve and those risks that the stipulated insurance sought to cover.
As to the government's contention that there was no justification for so restricting the plain meaning of the words of the exemption clause as contended for, the court determined that there was no reason of public policy why it should be held that, in so far as the clause referred to loss or damage caused by Fibrespinners' gross negligence, it was not enforceable. The decision in the Durban and Coast Local Division, in Government of the Republic of South Africa v Fibre Spinners & Weavers Ltd was thus confirmed. South African contract law Du Plessis, Jacques, et al; the Law of Contract in South Africa. Edited by Dale Hutchison, Chris-James Pretorius, Mark Townsend and Helena Janisch. Cape Town, Western Cape: Oxford University Press, 2010. Government of the Republic of South Africa v Fibrespinners & Weavers Ltd 1978 SA 794. Government of the Republic of South Africa v Fibre Spinners & Weavers Ltd 1977 SA 324