Alphonse Legros was a French painter, etcher and medallist. Legros was born in Dijon. While young, Legros visited the farms of his relatives, the peasants and landscapes of that part of France are the subjects of many of his works, he was sent to the art school at Dijon with a view to qualifying for a trade, was apprenticed to Maître Nicolardo, house decorator and painter of images. In 1851, Legros left for Paris to take another situation. In Paris, Legros studied with scene-painter and decorator of theatres, he attended the drawing-school of Lecoq de Boisbaudran where he found himself in sympathy with Jules Dalou and Auguste Rodin. In 1855, he attended the evening classes of the École des Beaux Arts. Legros sent two portraits to the Paris Salon of 1857: one was rejected, formed part of the exhibition of protest organized by François Bonvin in his studio; this work was presented to the museum at Tours by the artist when his friend Jean-Charles Cazin was curator. Champfleury saw the work in the Salon, sought out the artist to enlist him in the "Realists," a group round Gustave Courbet.
In 1859, Legros's L'Angelus was exhibited, the first of the church interiors for which he was best known. Two years Ex Voto was exhibited, but only obtained a mention at the Salon, he moved to England in 1864 married Frances Rosetta Hodgson. At first he lived by his teaching, he became teacher of etching at the South Kensington School of Art, in 1876 Slade Professor at University College London in succession to Edward Poynter. Whilst teaching at the Slade School Legros taught a large contingent of women, who came to be known as the Slade Girls. Through his field of sculpture he encouraged the design of medals based upon the Italian renaissance style of portrait, illustrating the character, profession or life of the individual portrayed; the Slade Girls attracted commissions from a range of societies and organisations due to the beauty and skill of their work. Pupils of note include the Casella sisters, Jessie Mothersole, Fedora Gleichen, Lilian Swainson and Elinor Hallé. Legros was naturalized as a British citizen in 1881, remained at University College for 17 years.
He would paint a torso or a head for the students in an hour or less. Legros picked up the art of etching by watching a college in Paris working at a commercial engraving, taught himself the making of medals, he considered the traditional journey to Italy an important part of artistic training, he gave part of his salary to augment the income available for a travelling studentship. He died in Watford. Works, after Legros resigned his professorship in 1892, returned to the manner of his early days—imaginative landscapes, castles in Spain, farms in Burgundy, etchings such the series of The Triumph of Death, the sculptured fountains for the gardens of the Duke of Portland at Welbeck Abbey. Pictures and etchings by Legros, went to the following galleries and museums: "Amende Honorable", "Dead Christ", bronzes and twenty-two drawings, in the Luxembourg, Paris "Landscape," "Study of a Head," and portraits of Browning, Burne-Jones, Cassel and Marshall, at the Victoria and Albert Museum, Kensington "Femmes en prière" "The Tinker" and six other works from the lonides Collection, bequeathed to South Kensington "Christening", "Barricade", "The Poor at Meat", two portraits and several drawings and etchings, collection of Lord Carlisle "Two Priests at the Organ", "Landscape" and etchings, collection of Rev. Stopford Brooke "Head of a Priest", collection of Mr Vereker Hamilton "The Weed-burner", some sculpture and a large collection of etchings and drawings, Mr Guy Knowles "Psyche," collection of Mr L W Hudson "Snow Scene," collection of George Frederic Watts RA Thirty-five drawings and etchings, the Print Room, British Museum "Jacob's Dream" and twelve drawings of the antique, Cambridge "St Jerome", two studies of heads and some drawings, Manchester "The Pilgrimage" and "Study made before the Class" "Study of Heads," Peel Pan Museum, Salford.
"Portrait of Cardinal With Patron Saint", Snite Museum of Art, Notre Dame University "Communion" This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Legros, Alphonse". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Holroyd, Charles. "Legros, Alphonse". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Dr Hans W Singer, "Alphonse Legros," Die graphischen Künste. Edward Twohig R. E. Print REbels: Haden - Palmer - Whistler and the origins of the RE ISBN 978-1-5272-1775-1. Published by the Royal Society of Painter-Printmakers in London, in 2018. 50 paintings by or after Alphonse Legros at the Art UK site The Boston Public Library's Alphonse Legros set on Flickr.com Alphonse Legros exhibition catalogs Alphonse Legros in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Marie Lang was an Austrian feminist and publisher. Born in 1858 in Vienna, Lang was raised in a upper-middle-class home. After divorcing her first husband in 1884, she married Edmund Lang and the two hosted an influential salon for politicians and intellectuals, she became interested in the women's movement at the end of the 1880s and became an influential women's rights activist. In 1893, along with Auguste Fickert and Rosa Mayreder, she founded the Allgemeiner Österreichischer Frauenverein; the organization, unlike other women's groups at the time was not affiliated with charitable endeavors and had a political motivation, in spite of provisions in Section 30, which prohibited women's political involvement. The three friends used their networks of influential politicians and intellectuals to press for changes in laws dealing with educational and employment rights, abolition of laws regulating prostitution and women teacher's celibacy, protection for illegitimate children and unwed mothers, in favor of women's suffrage.
In 1898, she was a co-founder of the women's journal Dokumente der Frauen, serving as its editor-in-chief until 1902. That year, she attended the International Abolitionist Federation's conference in London and visited the Passmore Edwards Settlement, becoming an advocate of the social programs they offered; when she returned to Austria, she gave lectures for the Frauenverein on the settlement movement. She organized the Vienna Settlement Society whose first project provided school lunches in Brigittenau. In 1901, she founded the Ottakring Settlement House in a former brewery in the Ottakring section of Vienna; the facility served as a place for women to receive social services including maternity care, nursery services, healthcare for women and children, educational training, as well as attend evening entertainments. After the suicide of her second son in 1904, Lang withdrew from the women's movement, though she continued to work with the Settlement Society. Lang served on the board of the Settlement Society from 1901 until 1909.
In 1905, she joined the Committee on Woman Suffrage, worked to change Section 30 and women's right to vote. She served as the delegate for the committee to the 1908 conference of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance in Amsterdam. During World War I she worked in a war hospital established at the Akademisches Gymnasium, performing Swedish massage therapy, her husband died in 1918 and after two years she retired from work with the Settlement Society to devote time to her family. She is remembered as one of the leading figures in the turn-of-the-century women's movement of Austria; the Settlement Society she founded remained in operation until 2003 and pioneered many social services in Austria, such as adult education and maternity care, summer camp programs, tuberculosis treatment. Marie Katharina Auguste Friederike Wisgrill was born on 8 March 1858 in Vienna, capital of the Austrian Empire, to Emilie and Karl Wisgrill, her mother was the niece of the comedian Wenzel Scholz. Her father was a master carpenter, a proponent of civil liberty, supported the Revolutions of 1848.
Her family were part of the small Viennese liberal upper-middle class and she was educated at home by a teacher from the local gymnasium. Wisgrill married the court jeweler, Theodor Köchert, in 1880 or 1881 and had one son, with him before they separated in 1884. During the marriage, she met Edmund Lang, a Jewish lawyer, Theodor's brother-in-law, through Heinrich Köchert's marriage to Melanie Lang, she and Edmund had a son, together in 1885 and were married soon after. As required by legal conventions of the time, she lost custody of her eldest son by Köchert when they divorced, but the two would remain close. Upon their marriage, Edmund converted to Protestantism. In 1886, the Langs had a second son, Erwin who would become a painter in life and marry the dancer, Grete Wiesenthal; the Langs were involved in the salon culture of Vienna, hosted gatherings of artists and politicians in their home every evening. They summered with a colony of friends in Grinzing at the Schloß Belle Vue, famously known as the place where Sigmund Freud experienced his dream, Irma's injection.
The couple created a theosophical study group with Friedrich Eckstein and Franz Hartmann. In 1888, they met Rudolf Steiner, a philosopher, introduced him to theosophical literature, as well as to Lang's friend Rosa Mayreder. Lang and Mayreder would both become influential in Steiner's development and he and Mayreder would continue a correspondence for many years. Steiner commented that Lang was the soul of the circle, that it was her personality and interest in theosophy that encouraged the participation of group members with differing views, her hospitality extended to the composer Hugo Wolf, whom she cared for in her home for many weeks during his illness. At the end of the 1880s, Lang was introduced to the women's movement by her friends, Auguste Fickert and Mayreder, she became one of the most prominent women's rights activists of her era. In 1891, Lang's daughter Lilith was born, for. In 1893, the Allgemeiner Österreichischer Frauenverein was formed by Lang and Mayreder, as one of the radical organizations in the Viennese women's movement.
More similar to organizations developed for workers than middle- and upper-class women's groups, which focused on charity, the Frauenverein supported working class rights to employment and legal protection for the poor, the abolition of laws regulating prostitution
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