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In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
Blondie (comic strip)
Blondie is an American comic strip created by cartoonist Chic Young. The comic strip is distributed by King Features Syndicate, has been published in newspapers since September 8, 1930; the success of the strip, which features the eponymous blonde and her sandwich-loving husband, led to the long-running Blondie film series and the popular Blondie radio program. Chic Young drew Blondie until his death in 1973, when creative control passed to his son Dean Young, who continues to write the strip. Young has collaborated with a number of artists on Blondie, including Jim Raymond, Mike Gersher, Stan Drake, Denis Lebrun, John Marshall. Despite these changes, Blondie has remained popular, appearing in more than 2,000 newspapers in 47 countries and translated into 35 languages. From 2006 to 2013, Blondie had been available via email through King Features' DailyINK service. Designed to follow in the footsteps of Young's earlier "pretty girl" creations Beautiful Bab and Dumb Dora, Blondie focused on the adventures of Blondie Boopadoop—a carefree flapper girl who spent her days in dance halls along with her boyfriend Dagwood Bumstead, heir to a railroad fortune.
The name "Boopadoop" derives from the scat singing lyric, popularized by Helen Kane's 1928 song "I Wanna Be Loved by You." On February 17, 1933, after much fanfare and build-up, Blondie and Dagwood were married. After a month-and-a-half-long hunger strike by Dagwood to get his parents' blessing, as they disapproved of his marrying beneath his class, they disinherited him. Left only with a check to pay for their honeymoon, the Bumsteads were forced to become a middle-class suburban family; the marriage was a significant media event, given the comic strip's popularity. The catalog for the University of Florida's 2005 exhibition, "75 Years of Blondie, 1930–2005," notes: Blondie's marriage marked the beginning of a change in her personality. From that point forward, she assumed her position as the sensible head of the Bumstead household, and Dagwood, cast in the role of straight man to Blondie's comic antics, took over as the comic strip's clown. "Dagwood Bumstead and family, including Daisy and the pups, live in the suburbs of Joplin, Missouri," according to the August 1946 issue of The Joplin Globe, citing Chic Young.
Blondie Bumstead: The eponymous leading lady of the comic strip. Blondie is a smart and responsible woman, she can be stressed at times due to her young family and Dagwood's antics, despite being laid-back and patient, Blondie does get upset sometimes. She is extremely beautiful, with gold hair, gentle curls, a shapely figure. A friend once told Dagwood that Blondie looked like a'million bucks'. In 1991, she began a catering business with Tootsie. Dagwood Bumstead: Blondie's husband. A kind and loving yet clumsy, naïve and lazy man whose cartoonish antics are the basis for the strip, he has a large, insatiable appetite for food. Dagwood is fond of making and eating the mile-high Dagwood sandwich, he celebrates the most insignificant holidays, approaches Thanksgiving with the same reverence most people reserve for Christmas. His continuous antagonistic and comical confrontations with his boss Mr. Dithers, for numerous reasons including Dagwood's laziness and silly mistakes, is a subplot that gets considerable attention in the strip.
His klutziness is a fundamental part of his encounters with Mr. Beasley the mailman. Another subplot deals with his neighbor Herb. Dagwood can often be seen napping on his own couch. Alexander Bumstead: the elder child of Blondie and Dagwood, in his late teens referred to by his pet name "Baby Dumpling." As a child, he was mischievous and precocious. As a teenager, he is athletic and intelligent. Despite resembling his father, he is more down-to-earth like his mother, his full name, revealed in the November 7, 1934 strip, is Alexander Hamilton Bumstead. Cookie Bumstead: the younger child of Blondie and Dagwood, in her early teens. Cookie is portrayed as a sweet, bubbly teenage girl whose interests include dating, hanging out with friends, clothes, her appearance has changed the most compared to the other characters. As a child she had long curly hair with a black bow holding a long curl on the top of her head; as a young teen she wore her hair in a ponytail with curly bangs. As an older teen she wore her hair long with a black headband.
She dropped the hair band and wore her hair with bangs and flipped to the sides. Her current hairstyle flipped at sides. Daisy: The Bumsteads' family dog whose best friend is Dagwood and who changes her expression in response to Dagwood's comments or other activities, she gave birth to puppies in the years of the comic. Mr. Beasley the Postman: The Bumsteads' mailman with whom Dagwood seems to always collide with and knock down as Dagwood hurriedly leaves the house. Mr. Julius Caesar Dithers: Founder of the J. C. Dithers Dagwood's boss, he believes the best thing in life is money. Although it does not seem like it at the workplace, Mr. Dithers is a good-hearted man. Mrs. Cora Dithers: Mr. Dithers' wife, she gets into fights with him as she exerts control over her husband. She is great friends with Blondie. Herb Woodley: Dagwood's best friend and next-door neighbor. Herb, can be selfish and mean at times when he doesn't return the expensive power tools and favors that he borrows fr
Prince Valiant in the Days of King Arthur, or Prince Valiant, is an American comic strip created by Hal Foster in 1937. It is an epic adventure that has told a continuous story during its entire history, the full stretch of that story now totals more than 4000 Sunday strips; the strip appears weekly in more than 300 American newspapers, according to its distributor, King Features Syndicate. HRH Edward, the Duke of Windsor, called Prince Valiant the "greatest contribution to English literature in the past hundred years". Regarded by comics historians as one of the most impressive visual creations syndicated, the strip is noted for its realistically rendered panoramas and the intelligent, sometimes humorous, narrative; the format does not employ word balloons. Instead, the story is narrated in captions positioned at the bottom or sides of panels. Events depicted are taken from various time periods, from the late Roman Empire to the High Middle Ages, with a few brief scenes from modern times. While drawing the Tarzan comic strip, Foster wanted to do his own original newspaper feature, he began work on a strip he called Derek, Son of Thane changing the title to Prince Arn.
King Features manager Joseph Connelly renamed it Prince Valiant. In 1936, after extensive research, Foster pitched his concept to William Randolph Hearst, who had long wanted to distribute a strip by Foster. Hearst was so impressed. Prince Valiant began in full-color tabloid sections on Saturday February 13, 1937; the first full page was strip # 16. The internal dating changed from Saturday to Sunday with strip #66; the full-page strip continued until 1971, when strip #1788 was not offered in full-page format—it was the last strip Foster drew. The strip continues today by other artists in a half-page format; the setting is Arthurian. Valiant is a Nordic prince from Thule, located near present day Trondheim on the Norwegian coast. Early in the story Valiant arrives at Camelot where he becomes friends with Sir Gawain and Sir Tristram. Earning the respect of King Arthur and Merlin, he becomes a Knight of the Round Table. On a Mediterranean island he meets the love of his life, Queen of the Misty Isles, whom he marries.
He fights the Huns with his powerful Singing Sword, Flamberge, a magical blade created by the same enchanter who forged Arthur's Excalibur. Val travels to Africa and America and helps his father regain his lost throne of Thule, usurped by the tyrant Sligon; when the strip starts in 1937, Val is five years old. The first episodes follow the youth through the wild Fens district of Britain with his father, the deposed King Aguar of Thule; when Val encounters the witch Horrit she predicts he will have a life of adventure, noting that he will soon experience grief. Arriving home, Val discovers. Not long after this come encounters with Gawain, with gigantic creatures and with the glory of Camelot. Steve Donoghue comments: At first, in the earliest months of Prince Valiant, Foster’s Arthurian England might be confused with the Cimmeria of Conan the Barbarian: monsters abound; as a boy, Val fights a ‘dragon’ that looks a lot like a plesiosaur, he fires his arrows at a rampaging swamp-turtle the size of a Zamboni.
But only a few installments this has sublimated somewhat into history: when Val saves his new friend Sir Gawain from a robber knight and Gawain decides to take the villain to Camelot for summary judgement from King Arthur, the whole party is at one point attacked by another enormous beast—only this time it’s a salt water crocodile!... When they all at length succeed in killing the beast, Val is outraged that Gawain still seeks to have the man tried before King Arthur; the young prince speaks up in his outrage before the great king, his queen Guinevere and his feared wizard Merlin—and so a career at Camelot is born. Val becomes Gawain’s squire and immediately accompanies him on a quest, during which Gawain is captured and Val must use his wits—smiling and laughing the whole time—to free his mentor. On the trip, Gawain is wounded, the large panel where Val gets him back to Camelot is Foster’s first genuine visual show-stopper in the strip. Val acquires the Singing Sword in strips from 1938; the original owner of the Singing Sword is Prince Arn of Valiant's rival for the maid Ilene.
The two men put aside their differences. Arn hands Valiant the charmed sword to help him hold back their pursuers while he himself rides ahead to free Ilene; the pair continue in their efforts to rescue Ilene discovering that she has been killed in a shipwreck. Arn gives the Singing Sword to Valiant after the two part as friends. In the series it is mentioned that the Singing Sword is a sister to King Arthur's Excalibur. In the strips from 1939 Val is knighted by King Arthur, the following year, he helps to restore his father as King of Thule. Moving across Britain and the Holy Land, Val fights invading Goths and Saxons. In 1946, shortly after Val marries Aleta, she is kidnapped by the Viking raider Ulfran. Val's pursuit takes him past the Shetland Islands, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and the Saint Lawrence River, arriving at Niagara Falls 1,000 years before Columbus. Defeating Ulfran, Val is reunited with Aleta, the couple spend that winter with friendly Native Americans. In the strip dated August 31, 1947, Prince Arn, their first son, is born in America, Val celebrates by getting drunk.
The infant Arn is named after Prince Arn of Ord. Va
Baby Blues is an American comic strip created and produced by Rick Kirkman and Jerry Scott since January 7, 1990. Distributed by King Features Syndicate since 1995, the strip focuses on the MacPherson family and on the raising of the three MacPherson children; when the strip debuted, the MacPherson family consisted of newborn Zoe. The first strip took place in the hospital room. Two more children—Hammie, the middle child and the only son, Wren, the youngest child—were added to the family. Both Kirkman and Scott have drawn from their own parenting experiences as a source for the strip's content; the strip features three families. MacPherson is in focus. Butch and Bunny together with Mike makes occasional appearances. Darryl MacPherson: The father. Age: Mid-thirties. A manager by profession, noticeable with his large nose, he is sometimes unaware of his wife's exhausted state. In various strips, Zoe and Hammie wait to meet him right when he gets home from work. In some strips, he appears to dislike a kids' show called "The Whistling Monkey Cowboy Band".
One example is while Wren is obsessed with the merchandise, Wanda jokingly states that Bill Murray and Robin Williams have finished working on a "Whistling Monkey Cowboy Band" movie whereupon Darryl retreats to the roof. He tends to swear when accidentally injuring himself or frustrated which Wren repeats in some strips, he tends to make mistakes, such as in Wren's ultrasound, he mistakes her for a boy. He has red hair, is an only child. Wanda MacPherson: The mother. Age: 36. Though she had a job as a public relations executive, she chose to become a stay-at-home mother after Zoe was born. However, she becomes jealous of the women she regards as better mothers, she is afraid of snakes. She is deathly allergic to cats and rabbits, she still loves them. She springs into action without thinking twice, such as when she saw a woman hit her child in the middle of the grocery store and promptly intervened whereupon she got into a major scuffle with the woman in question, she wondered if she did the right thing or not.
Zoe MacPherson: The oldest sibling, age: 9. She tends to fuss the most over, she likes to blame things on Hammie a lot when she was the one who did something wrong. Her middle name was Jennifer, but a strip dated April 9, 2007, identified her middle name was changed to Madison. Zoe is not a brat but an average child; this is represented when she is shown playing with toys, watching children's shows, playing with other children, not having a clear view of the world earlier on in the strip. She and Wren do not have any known cousins because the only aunt they have is single and has no kids. At one point early on, she was a huge fan of Barbie, though her ideas about how she is a fan of Barbie vary between wanting to become a real life Barbie when she grows up or using her to beat up her toys while pretending that she's some sort of monstrous freak, her teddy bear is called Christina Candle Flower Sparkle Jelly Bean Kissy Mooch. Hamish MacPherson II: The middle sibling called Hammie, age: 7, he has great fondness and uninhibited enthusiasm for trucks, can tell their model by sight, as proven in several strips.
He has freckles and his hair is black like Wanda's. He is the only MacPherson child, he did not have freckles until the June 2006 strip. His first words were "buh-dozer" and "bazooka," much to Wanda's dismay, he likes to tell Wanda or sometimes Darryl when Zoe teases or bullies him, but he gets mad less than Zoe. He likes annoying Zoe or watching her get into trouble, he was named after his great-great-grandfather, called "Ham". His teddy bear is called Twuck. Wren MacPherson: The youngest sibling, age: 19 months, she does not seem to be as much of a nuisance as her older siblings. Wren is a curious baby, she is shown climbing on top of things or grabbing at things. She said her first words on Monday, May 19, 2008. Wanda explained that she thought of her name when a bird collided with a window during breakfast time in the hospital; as of February 16, 2009, Wren is able to stand. She has learned the words "up", "down", "%*@#! Cramp", she has shown an annoyance several times to her parents by holding her legs stiff so they couldn't change her diaper.
More she had her first birthday. On September 27, 2014, she has grown a full head of hair instead of a hair tuft, her eyes are less wide than the other MacPhersons. She has a teddy bear called Mr. Woggles. Butch and Bunny: Bunny and her seeming perfection in terms of appearance and lifestyle is the target of any possible jealousy from Wanda. Nearly all main adult characters dislike Bunny and have tricked her in some way or another. Bunny seems to be oblivious to how she irritates anyone else around her, she is oblivious to the needs of others and thereby comes off as self-centered and tactless. Bunny has Butch. Together, they have three sons: Bogart, identical twins Wendell John and Wendell Jon; the latter two were born August 10, 2002. In one strip, Zoe has said that when Bunny is not looking, she shuffles the twins, which proves that Bunny cannot te