Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, in the past has manufactured trucks, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail vehicles. According to the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, in 2016 Renault was the ninth biggest automaker in the world by production volume. By 2017, the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance had become the world's biggest seller of light vehicles, bumping Volkswagen AG off the top spot. Headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, the Renault group is made up of the namesake Renault marque and subsidiaries, Automobile Dacia from Romania, Renault Samsung Motors from South Korea, AvtoVAZ from Russia. Renault has a 43.4% controlling stake in Nissan of Japan, a 1.55% stake in Daimler AG of Germany. Renault owns subsidiaries RCI Banque, Renault Retail Group and Motrio. Renault has various joint ventures, including Renault Pars; the French government owns a 15% share of Renault.
Renault Trucks known as Renault Véhicules Industriels, has been part of AB Volvo since 2001. Renault Agriculture became 100% owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer CLAAS in 2008. Together Renault and Nissan invested €4 billion in eight electric vehicles over three to four years beginning in 2011. Renault is known for its role in motor sport rallying, Formula 1 and Formula E, its early work on mathematical curve modeling for car bodies is important in the history of computer graphics. The Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault Frères by Louis Renault and his brothers Marcel and Fernand. Louis was a bright, aspiring young engineer who had designed and built several prototypes before teaming up with his brothers, who had honed their business skills working for their father's textile firm. While Louis handled design and production and Fernand managed the business; the first Renault car, the Renault Voiturette 1CV, was sold to a friend of Louis' father after giving him a test ride on 24 December 1898.
In 1903, Renault began to manufacture its own engines. The first major volume sale came in 1905 when Société des Automobiles de Place bought Renault AG1 cars to establish a fleet of taxis; these vehicles were used by the French military to transport troops during World War I which earned them the nickname "Taxi de la Marne." By 1907, a significant percentage of London and Paris taxis had been built by Renault. Renault was the best-selling foreign brand in New York in 1907 and 1908. In 1908 the company produced 3,575 units; the brothers recognised the value of publicity that participation in motor racing could generate for their vehicles. Renault made itself known through succeeding in the first city-to-city races held in Switzerland, producing rapid sales growth. Both Louis and Marcel raced company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903 Paris-Madrid race. Although Louis never raced again, his company remained involved, including Ferenc Szisz winning the first Grand Prix motor racing event in a Renault AK 90CV in 1906.
Louis took full control of the company as the only remaining brother in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. Fernand died in 1909 and Louis became the sole owner, renaming the company Société des Automobiles Renault. Renault fostered its reputation for innovation from early on. At the time, cars were luxury items; the price of the smallest Renaults at the time were 3000 francs. In 1905, the company introduced mass production techniques and Taylorism in 1913. Renault manufactured commercial cargo vehicles in the pre-war years; the first real commercial truck from the company was introduced in 1906. During World War I, it branched out into ammunition, military aircraft engines and vehicles such as the revolutionary Renault FT tank; the company's military designs were so successful that Louis was awarded the Legion of Honour for his company's contributions. The company exported engines to American automobile manufacturers for use in such automobiles as the GJG, which used a Renault 26 horsepower or 40 hp four-cylinder engine.
Louis Renault enlarged Renault's scope after 1918, producing industrial machinery. The war led to many new products; the first Renault tractor, the Type GP was produced between 1919 and 1930. It was based on the FT tank. Renault struggled to compete with the popular small, affordable "people's cars," while problems with the stock market and the workforce slowed the company's growth. Renault had to find a way to distribute its vehicles more efficiently. In 1920, Louis signed one of its first distribution contracts with Gustave Gueudet, an entrepreneur from northern France; the pre-First World War cars had a distinctive front shape caused by positioning the radiator behind the engine to give a so-called "coalscuttle" bonnet. This continued through the 1920s. Only in 1930 did all models place the radiator at the front; the bonnet badge changed from circular to the familiar and continuing diamond shape in 1925. Renault introduced new models at the Paris Motor Show, held in September or October of the year.
This led to confusion about model years. For example, a "1927" model was produced in 1928. Renault cars ranged from small to large. For example
Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an RR, or Rear-engine, Rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the RMR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor bus, this layout has become rare in passenger cars. Most of the traits of the RR configuration are shared with the mid-engine rear-wheel-drive, or MR. Placing the engine near the driven rear wheels allows for a physically smaller, less complex, more efficient drivetrain, since there is no need for a driveshaft, the differential can be integrated with the transmission referred to as a transaxle; the front-engine front-wheel-drive layout has this advantage. Since the engine is the heaviest component of the car, putting it near the rear axle results in more weight over the rear axle than the front referred to as a rear weight bias; the farther back the greater the bias.
Typical weight bias for an FR, is 55/45 front/rear. A static rear weight requires less forward brake bias, as load is more evenly distributed among all four wheels under braking. A rear weight bias means that the driven wheels have increased traction when accelerating, allowing them to put more power on the ground and accelerate faster; the disadvantage to a rear weight bias is that the car can become unstable and tend to oversteer when decelerating. When this happens, rotational inertia dictates that the added weight away from the axis of rotation will be more to maintain the spin under braking; this is an inherent instability in the design, making it easier to induce and more difficult to recover from a slide than in a less rear-weight-biased vehicle. Under hard acceleration, the decreased weight over the front wheels means less traction, sometimes producing a tendency for rear-engined cars to understeer out of a corner. In these respects, an RR can be considered to be an exaggeration of MR - harder braking and earlier acceleration, increased oversteer.
In off road and low-traction situations, the RR layout has some advantages compared to other 2WD layouts. The weight is biased towards the driven wheels- as with FF vehicles; this both reduces the tendency for the undriven wheels to dig in. In addition, the driving and steering requirements are split between front and rear- as with FR vehicles- making it less for either to lose traction. Many dune buggies use a Volkswagen beetle as the donor car for this reason; the relative simplicity and light weight compared to 4WD can therefore sometimes outweigh the disadvantage of only having two driven wheels. Where RR differs from MR is in that the engine is located outside the wheelbase; the major advantage of MR - low moment of inertia - is negated somewhat, there is more room for passengers and cargo. Furthermore, because both axles are on the same side of the engine, it is technically more straightforward to drive all four wheels, than in a mid-engined configuration. A rear-mounted engine has empty air behind it when moving, allowing more efficient cooling for air-cooled vehicles.
For liquid-cooled vehicles, this layout presents a disadvantage, since it requires either increased coolant piping from a front-mounted radiator, or relocating the radiator to the sides or rear, adding air ducting to compensate for the lower airflow at the rear of the car. Due to the handling difficulty, the need for more space efficiency, the near ubiquitous use of liquid-cooled engines in modern cars, most manufacturers have abandoned the RR layout; the major exception is Porsche, who has developed the 911 for over 40 years and has taken advantage of the benefits of RR while mitigating its drawbacks to acceptable levels with the help of electronic aids. One of first RR cars was Tatra 77 of 1934, the first serial-produced aerodynamic car, designed by Hans Ledwinka. Tatra used this layout until end of production of T700 in 1999. In case of T613 and T700 Tatra used layout with engine above rear axle, which reduced some disadvantages of RR layout. Mercedes-Benz produced several models of RR cars in this period, starting with the 130H.
The radical 1930s Tatra format was an influence on Ferdinand Porsche's'People's Car' for Adolf Hitler. As well as being the most produced car it set a trend for RR small cars that lasted well into the 1960s; the final form of the RR Volkswagen was the Type 3 of 1961, which flattened the engine, allowing for luggage spaces front and rear. A similar format has been revived with the 2014 Renault Twingo III and second-generation Smart Forfour. Porsche has continued to develop its 911 model as a rear-engined vehicle, although they have introduced multiple all-wheel-drive models. Most notably, the 911 Turbo has been sold as AWD-only since the release of the 993 model. Race-oriented models such as the GT3 and twin-turbocharged GT2 remain RR, however. Another manufacturer to implement the RR configuration was the
Chappe et Gessalin
Chappe et Gessalin is the short-form of the name of French coachbuilder "Carrosserie Chappe Frères et Gessalin". The company did contract assembly for other automobile manufacturers, it was the parent of Automobiles CG, a French automobile maker founded in 1966 which built and sold complete cars under its own name. The story of Chappe et Gessalin began in the commune of Saint-Maur-des-Fosses near Paris. In that year the Carrosserie Chappe was founded by Jean Chappe. Working with him were his three sons, Abel and Louis and an apprentice, Amédée Gessalin; the shop did bodywork in both steel. The Second World War interrupted the company's activities for a time but they resumed at the end of hostilities. In 1946 Jean sold the carrosserie to his three sons. By that time Amédée was a part of the family, having married the Chappe's eldest daughter Marie-Louise; the brothers added his name to the masthead and the company became "Carrosserie Chappe Frères et Gessalin". On the death of Amédée his son Jean took his father's place in the company.
The new company's work included commercial vehicles, a specialty being the construction of firetruck bodies on truck frames produced by Delahaye. They carved out a niche doing more specialized work, such as bodywork in duralumin for Talbot and repairs on the Delahaye 135, 136 and Talbot T26 racing cars owned by Charles Pozzi, who would become a major dealer in Ferrari and Maserati cars. Before his death Amédée Gessalin taught his son how to plan vehicles. Jean, an admirer of great Parisian designers Chapron and Figoni, worked on honing his own skills by attending evening classes taught by these men. Chappe et Gessalin provided the aluminum bodywork for the Bosvin-Michel Speciale throughout its many revisions; this car was driven by Guy Michel. It had a tubular-steel frame and was noteworthy in being one of the first cars to mount its engine amidships; the BMS was a regular at Montlhéry, won the Bol d'Or in 1952 and 1953. Another project that Chappe et Gessalin were involved with was the SCVS-DB specials.
These cars, given chassis numbers 1065 and 1066 by Renault, were a project of Renault dealers Jean Rédélé and Louis Pons. The cars were built by the small French firm of Deutsch-Bonnet with aluminum bodywork by Chappe et Gessalin. Power came from a Renault 4CV engine. One of the cars appeared at Le Mans in 1953. In the early 1950s Chappe et Gessalin began experimenting with Fibre-reinforced plastic. Using resins and techniques imported from the United States they started producing lightweight automobile bodies for sportscars and racing cars from a succession of independent fabricators and small manufacturers. Deutsch-Bonnet themselves became a client of Chappe et Gessalin, who started by providing plastic noses for DB's monomil single-seaters and bodywork for other racers and would go on to build 200 copies of DB's "Le Mans" road car; when the founders of Deutsch-Bonnet, René Bonnet and Charles Deutsch, ended their partnership in 1961 and established separate car companies, they both continued to use lightweight fibreglass bodywork supplied by Chappe et Gessalin.
René Bonnet went to them to develop bodywork for his new Djet. For Charles Deutsch Chappe et Gessalin produced the body of the Panhard-powered racing CDs and built 160 of the Panhard CD road cars; the company worked with less well-known companies such as Camille Martin's UMAP and Raymond Gaillard's Arista. Apart from the SCVS-DB cars, throughout the 1950s Jean Rédélé was involved in several automotive projects, including several Rédélé Spéciales, the Marquis, PlastiCar, others. Rédélé crossed paths with Chappe et Gessalin and would in time become their most famous client of all; as a young man Jean Gessalin drew a small coupé based on Renault 4CV mechanicals as a design exercise for himself, which design he left behind while away performing his compulsory military service. On his return he discovered. A Renault concessionaire named Charles Escoffier saw the car and contacted his son-in-law, Jean Rédélé. 25 copies of the car were ordered from Chappe et Gessalin to be sold by Rédélé as the "Alpine".
Renault backed the new company, numbered the car "106". With the release of the A106 in 1955 the Alpine company was born. In 1960, just as production of the A106 ended, Chappe et Gessalin moved their operations to the commune of Brie-Comte-Robert, still near Paris. Chappe et Gessalin continued to build the A106 coupé and the subsequent A106 cabriolet though the cabriolet was styled by Michelotti. After 251 copies were built, the A106 was succeeded by the A108 and again, Chappe et Gessalin built the coupé, as well as a new 2+2; this time, Alpine opted to build the cabriolet version themselves. Rédélé had set up a new company named RDL to bring bodywork in-house with Alpine; the A108 was in turn replaced by the A110, but this time Chappe et Gessalin would only be doing bodywork and paintwork for the A110 GT4 2+2. Final assembly was done at the Alpine works in Dieppe, although the car carried CG badges on its flanks. In the early 1960s, the staff at Chappe et Gessalin had grown to around 40 people.
While it continued working with a variety of car builders, demand from one of its largest customers, was diminishing as Alpine's associated bodyworks, RDL, took over production of most Alpine models. In 1964 management at Chappe et Gessalin began planning to become an automobile manufacturer in their own right; the new venture would be known as Automobiles CG. While there were the skills in-house to do the styling and mechan
The Renault Twingo is a four passenger city car manufactured and marketed by the French automaker Renault, introduced in 1992 and in its third generation. The first generation Twingo debuted at the Paris Motor Show on 5 October 1992, receiving its formal market launch in continental European markets beginning in April 1993. Renault launched the second-generation Twingo in the summer of 2007 — and the third generation debuted at the 2014 Geneva Motor Show, receiving its formal market launch in September 2014. Twingo is a portmanteau of the words twist and tango; the original Twingo was launched in April 1993, was sold in Europe's LHD markets until August 2007, received intermediate restylings in 1998, 2000 and 2004. It was never sold in RHD markets. Designed under the direction of Patrick Le Quément, Renault's chief designer; the car derived from a series of concepts developed through the W60 project when Gaston Juchet was Renault's chief designer. The project was aimed at replacing the Renault 4 with a minivan model.
Le Quément chose a Jean-Pierre Ploué design to develop the production version. He included an unconventional front end layout resembling a "smile." The interior equipment was mounted on a central console to free space. Renault had participated in the 1981 to 1984'Mono-Box' ECO 2000 car project, along with PSA Peugeot Citroën and the French Government; the Twingo I's electronic centrally mounted instrument panel had a speedometer, fuel gauge, clock and trip recorder controlled via a stalk located button. A strip of warning lights was located behind the steering wheel; the rear seat featured a sliding mechanism, to enable either increased boot space or rear seat legroom. The boot parcel shelf was attached to the inside of the tailgate, lifted with the tailgate — or could clip back against the rear window when not required. All engines were replaced with an 8 valve 1.15 litre 60 hp unit. A 16 valve 75 hp version was added in 2000. Manufactured at the Flins Renault Factory from the time of its launch until 28 June 2007, the Twingo I was manufactured in Taiwan, Spain and Uruguay from 1999 to 2002, remaining in production into 2012 in Colombia, by the Sofasa conglomerate for the South American market.
Twingo I SafetyEuroNCAP results: Adult Occupant:, score 23 Pedestrian:, score 11 In April 1993, the Twingo launched with only one trim level, four exterior colours: coral red, Indian yellow, coriander green and overseas blue. The car retailed at a price of 55,000FF. In June 1994, new exterior colours were introduced along with minor interior changes, as well as optional power windows, locks with remote keyless entry, mirrors. Four months the Twingo Easy model was launched, with a semi automatic gearbox. In September 1995, the first of many special Twingo editions launched, while in built airbags become optional. In July 1996, a new 1149 cc engine was fitted to replace the previous engine from the Renault 5. Alongside the new engine came the Twingo Matic model, equipped with a 3-speed automatic gearbox. Various improvements were made including the addition of a third brake light. Two years the Twingo underwent its first major restyling revisions to the interior and dashboard; the front and rear lights were revised, front orange indicator lights were merged into the headlamp housing.
Two months the top of the range Twingo Initiale model launched. In September 2000, the Twingo underwent its second major restyling. Additions included larger 14" wheels, revised door trims with larger door pockets, a black trunk opener lever and cup holders in front of the gearstick. December 2000, a new 1.2 litre 16v engine launched, with 75 hp. In April 2001, a new semi automatic gearbox called Quickshift. Additional revisions followed including new interior trims and wheel covers. In Japan, Renault was licensed by Yanase Co. Ltd. but in 1999, Renault purchased a stake in Japanese automaker Nissan after Nissan had faced financial troubles following the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble in 1991 and subsequent Lost Decade. As a result of Renault's purchase of interest, Yanase canceled its licensing contract with Renault in the spring of 2000, Nissan Motor Co. Ltd took over as the sole licensee, hence sales of the Twingo I in Japan were transferred from Yanase Store locations to Nissan Red Stage Store locations.
September 2004 marked the third major Twingo revision. The Renault logo was fitted to the boot lid, side rubbing strips were added and a new range of exterior colours launched. On 28 June 2007, Twingo I production ended in France, being replaced by the Twingo II. On 30 June 2007 2,478,648 units from the Twingo I were produced; the Renault Twingo I production went on into Colombia until 8 June 2012. In total there were over 2.6 million units of the first generation Twingo produced. After presenting an initial concept at the 2006 Mondial de l'Automobile, Renault debuted the production Twingo II at the 2007 Geneva Motor Show with French market trim levels named Authentique, Initiale, Dynamique and GT. Using the floorpan of the Renault Clio II, the Twingo II offered improved crash protection and was available in LHD & RHD configurations. Production subsequently moved to the Revoz plant in Novo Mesto, Slovenia. In January 2008, Renault debuted the Twingo Renaultsport 133, with a new 133 hp 1,598 cc engine, at the 2008 Geneva Motor Show.
In August 2013, ordering and production of the 133 model ended. In July 2011, Renault debuted a facelifted Twingo II at the Frankfurt Motor Show, featuring a design language subsequently used on their entire rang
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
The Renault Talisman is a large family car manufactured by the French car manufacturer Renault. It is marketed in South Korea as the Renault Samsung SM6. Renault executives stated that, like the new Espace V crossover, it will not be engineered for markets with LHT, such as the United Kingdom, Malta, Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia and New Zealand, due to the decline in the traditional saloon market; the saloon version of the Talisman was first unveiled on 6 July 2015, at the Château de Chantilly by Renault's CEO Carlos Ghosn, with an estate version scheduled to be revealed at the 2015 Frankfurt Motor Show. The two versions were codenamed LFD and KFD; the car is based on the CMF-CD platform, jointly developed by Renault and Nissan, is the second Renault car to use it following the Espace. The use of the new platform is aimed at giving the Talisman a production volume advantage, that its predecessor never achieved; the Talisman is larger than the Laguna, with a lower centre of gravity. Renault focused on design and comfort with the aim of regaining market share in the large family car segment.
Daimler personnel visited the car manufacturing site at Douai, gave input on quality control and perceived quality. According to Renault staff, they wanted to give the car the “fluid and emotional” aspect of smaller models from the company, they tried to achieve a more "classic" styling than the used for its predecessor with the aim of gaining market share from the business fleets. The Talisman is the first mid sized Renault saloon since the Renault 18 in the 1980s, for which no hatchback body is available either as standard or as an option; the car had five trim levels for Europe. In March 2018, Renault unveiled a sportier trim level powered by a 1.8-litre petrol engine called S-Edition, aimed to be introduced in the market by September 2018. In South Korea, the car was launched with up to four trim levels, although their number varied according to the engine used. In 2018, Renault Samsung introduced a minor facelift for the South Korean market, with some exterior changes, interior equipment updates and a new couloring option.
The car has a four wheel steering system, not available in the South Korean version. It incorporates a system which allows adjusting all car settings between four pre set options called Comfort, Sport and Neutral, a user configurable option called Perso; as an optional, the Talisman has a new infotainment system with an 8.7 inch touchscreen introduced in the fifth generation Espace, called R-Link 2. The equipment include adaptive cruise control, lane departure warning, traffic sign detection with excess speed warning and blind spot alert; the car scored a five star rating at the 2015 Euro NCAP tests. Gearboxes are six/seven speed dual-clutch automatic, six speed manual and CVT. Suspension is made of Pseudo MacPherson struts on front and a semi rigid axle on rear, with an optional active suspension system. Brakes are discs on both axles; the Talisman is powered by a range of petrol and diesel engines in both South Korea. The diesel engined versions were not sold in South Korea, while there is a liquefied petroleum gas version for the South Korean market only.
In August 2016, a diesel version was introduced for the South Korean market. The use of the Talisman name is intended as a way of unifying Renault nomenclature across the world, as Renault sells in China a similar car named Talisman. Renault said the name "conjures up notions of both power. At the same time, Talisman is an easy word to pronounce and understand the world over"; the Renault Talisman is a concept executive car designed after the 1995 Renault Initiale Concept line by Renault chief designer Patrick le Quément, it was presented at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2001. The first sketches were drawn in the beginning of 2000, first referred as Renault Z12. There were four final 1/5 scale models and a judging team, led by Patrick le Quément, selected this coupé; the Talisman was designed as a three-door 2+2 coupé with four comfortable seats, but with only two gullwing doors and a coupé style ending. It applies the "Touch Design" concept, where the principal objective is to make materials and controls soft and ergonomic.
On 20 June 2001, the vehicle was named "Talisman", having referred as Renault Z12. The equipment is formed by LCD screens instead of mirrors, GPS and a Tag Heuer clock in the middle of the board; the board slides up giving access to a giant glovebox. The seats are coloured of dark red, curiously, the seat belts are fixed at the opposite side of every car. Four massive 380 mm six pistons disc brakes are in charge of stopping the car. There are twin metallic suitcases located in the trunk, fixed to it; the design of the Talisman was followed by the Mégane IV. Official website Official website Official website
Paris Motor Show
The Paris Motor Show is a biennial auto show in Paris. Held during October, it is one of the most important auto shows with many new production automobile and concept car debuts; the show presently takes place in Paris expo Porte de Versailles. The Mondial is scheduled by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, which considers it a major international auto show. In 2016, the Paris Motor Show welcomed 1,253,513 visitors, making it the most visited auto show in the world, ahead of Tokyo and Frankfurt; the key figures of the show are: 125 000 m2 of exhibition, 8 pavilions, 260 brands from 18 countries, 65 world premieres, more than 10 000 test drives for electric and hybrid cars, more than 10 000 journalists from 103 countries. Until 1986, it was called the Salon de l'Automobile; the show was held annually through 1976. The show was the first motor show in the world, started in 1898 by industry pioneer, Albert de Dion. After 1910 it was held at the Grand Palais in the Champs-Élysées.
During the First World War motor shows were suspended, meaning that the show of October 1919 was only the 15th "Salon". There was again no Paris Motor Show in 1925, the venue having been booked instead for an Exhibition of Decorative Arts. In October 1926 the Motor Show returned; the outbreak of war again intervened in 1939 when the 33rd Salon de l'Automobile was cancelled at short notice. Normality of a sorts returned some six years and the 33rd "Salon" opened in October 1946. In January 1977, it was announced that no Paris Motor Show would take place that year, because of the "current economic situation": at the same time the organisers confirmed that a 1978 Auto Salon for Paris was planned; the 65th Salon de Paris duly opened on 15 October 1978 in the modern buildings of the Parc des Expositions on the south-western edge of central Paris at the Porte de Versailles, where the show had been held since 1962. 1898 1st 1913 14th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1919 15th "Salon de l'Automobile" The first "Salon" since 1913.9 October 1919 65 French automobile makers exhibited.
At least 118 exhibitors in total. There was no "Salon de l'Automobile" in 1920 1921 16th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1922 17th "Salon de l'Automobile" 4 October 1922 81 French automobile makers exhibited 113 exhibitors in total.1923 18th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1924 19th "Salon de l'Automobile" 2 October 1924 78 French automobile makers exhibited 116 exhibitors in total. There was no "Salon de l'Automobile" in 1925 due to the venue having been allocated to an Exhibition of Decorative Arts 1926 20th "Salon de l'Automobile" 7 October 1926 81 French automobile makers exhibited and 42 non French automobile industry businesses exhibited. 126 exhibitors in total1927 21st "Salon de l'Automobile" 1928 22nd "Salon de l'Automobile" 1929 23rd "Salon de l'Automobile" 1930 24th "Salon de l'Automobile" 2 October 1930 46 French automobile makers and 46 non French automobile makers exhibited. 92 exhibitors in total.1931 25th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1 October 1931 39 French automobile makers and 37 non French automobile makers exhibited.
79 exhibitors in total.1932 26th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1933 27th "Salon de l'Automobile" 5 October 1933 26 French automobile makers exhibited.1934 28th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1935 29th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1936 30th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1937 31st "Salon de l'Automobile" 7 October 1937 22 French automobile makers exhibited.1938 32nd 1946 33rd 1947 34th "Salon de l'Automobile" 23 October 1947 27 French automobile makers exhibited.1948 35th 1949 36th 1950 37th 1951 38th "Salon de l'Automobile" 4 October 1951 23 French automobile makers exhibited.1952 39th 1953 40th 1954 41st 1955 42nd 1956 43rd 1957 44th "Salon de l'Automobile" 3 October 1957 24 French automobile makers exhibited.1958 45th 1959 46th 1960 47th 1961 48th "Salon de l'Automobile" 5 October 1961 9 French automobile makers exhibited. 1962 49th SalonThis was the first year the show was held at the Porte de Versailles on the outskirts of Paris.1963 50th 1964 51st 1965 52nd "Salon de l'Automobile" October 1965 9 French automobile makers exhibited.
1966 53rd 1967 54th "Salon de l'Automobile" 6 October 1967 8 French automobile makers exhibited, plus one coachbuilder Citroën Dyane world premiere1968 55th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1976 63rd "Salon de l'Automobile" known as a "Salon of Sobriété"Ferrari 400 world premiere1978 64th "Salon de l'Automobile" 15 October 19781998 Paris Motor Show 2000 Paris Motor Show 2002 Paris Motor Show 2004 Paris Motor Show 2006 Paris Motor Show 2008 Paris Motor Show 2010 Paris Motor Show 2012 Paris Motor Show 2014 Paris Motor Show 2016 Paris Motor Show 2018 Paris Motor Show Media related to Mondial de l’Automobile de Paris at Wikimedia Commons Official website Template:Paris Motor Show