Crater Lake is a crater lake in south-central Oregon in the western United States. It is the main feature of Crater Lake National Park and is famous for its deep blue color and water clarity; the lake fills a nearly 2,148-foot -deep caldera, formed around 7,700 years ago by the collapse of the volcano Mount Mazama. There are no rivers flowing out of the lake. With a depth of 1,949 feet, the lake is the deepest in the United States. In the world, it ranks ninth for maximum depth, third for mean depth. Crater Lake features two small islands. Wizard Island, located near the western shore of the lake, is a cinder cone 316 acres in size. Phantom Ship, a natural rock pillar, is located near the southern shore. In 2002, one of the state's regular-issue license plate designs has featured Crater Lake; the commemorative Oregon State Quarter, released by the United States Mint in 2005, features an image of Crater Lake on its reverse. Crater Lake is in Klamath County 60 miles northwest of the county seat of Klamath Falls, about 80 miles northeast of the city of Medford.
In June 1853, John Wesley Hillman became the first non-Native American explorer to report sighting the lake he named the "Deep Blue Lake." The lake was renamed at least three times, as Blue Lake, Lake Majesty, Crater Lake. The lake is 5 by 6 miles across, with a caldera rim ranging in elevation from 7,000 to 8,000 feet and an average lake depth of 1,148 feet; the lake's maximum depth has been measured at 1,949 feet, which fluctuates as the weather changes. On the basis of maximum depth, Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States, the second-deepest in North America, the ninth-deepest lake in the world. Crater Lake is cited as the seventh-deepest lake in the world, but this ranking excludes Lake Vostok in Antarctica, beneath about 13,000 feet of ice, the recent depth soundings of O'Higgins/San Martín Lake, along the border of Chile and Argentina; when considering the mean, or average depth of lakes, Crater Lake becomes the deepest lake in the Western Hemisphere and the third-deepest in the world.
Crater Lake Institute Director and limnologist Owen Hoffman states "Crater Lake is the deepest, when compared on the basis of average depth among lakes whose basins are above sea level. The average depths of Lakes Baikal and Tanganyika are deeper than Crater Lake. Mount Mazama, part of the Cascade Range volcanic arc, was built up of andesite and rhyodacite over a period of at least 400,000 years; the caldera was created in a massive volcanic eruption between 6,000 and 8,000 years ago that led to the subsidence of Mount Mazama. About 50 cubic kilometers of rhyodacite was erupted in this event. Since that time, all eruptions on Mazama have been confined to the caldera. Lava eruptions created a central platform, Wizard Island, Merriam Cone, other, smaller volcanic features, including a rhyodacite dome, created atop the central platform. Sediments and landslide debris covered the caldera floor; the caldera cooled, allowing rain and snow to accumulate and form a lake. Landslides from the caldera rim thereafter formed debris fans and turbidite sediments on the lake bed.
Fumaroles and hot springs remained active during this period. After some time, the slopes of the lake's caldera rim more or less stabilized, streams restored a radial drainage pattern on the mountain, dense forests began to revegetate the barren landscape, it is estimated that about 720 years was required to fill the lake to its present depth of 594 metres. Much of this occurred during a period; some hydrothermal activity remains along the lake floor, suggesting that at some time in the future, Mazama may erupt once again. In 2008, scientists submerged a robot into the lake to collect more geological information to compare to the data obtained in the 1980s; the scientists hypothesized that the moss was about 6,000 years old by measuring the age of pollen that blew into the lake and mixed with the sediment. Crater Lake features a subalpine climate, with the rare dry-summer type owing to its high elevation and – like all of Oregon – the strong summer influence of the North Pacific High. In the summer, the weather is mild and dry, but in the winter is cold and the powerful influence of the Aleutian Low allows for enormous snowfalls averaging 505 inches per year and maximum snow cover averaging 139 inches or 3.53 meters.
This snow does not melt until mid-July, allows for substantial glaciers on adjacent mountains. In the winter of 1949/1950 as much as 885.1 inches of snow fell, while the less complete snow cover records show cover as high as 192 inches or 4.88 meters occurred during another unsettled winter in 1981/1982. The heaviest daily snowfall was 37.0 inches, which occurred as as February 28, 1971. Hard frost is possible into the summer, the average window for freezing temperatures is August 19 through July 7, while for measurable snowfall, October 1 through June 15. Surface temperatures of the lake range between 33 degrees Fahrenheit and 66 degrees Fahrenheit. In the summer, the lake temperature falls between 50 degrees Fahre
Pangong Tso, Tibetan for "high grassland lake" referred to as Pangong Lake, is an endorheic lake in the Himalayas situated at a height of about 4,350 m. It extends from India to China. 60% of the length of the lake lies in China. The lake is 5 km wide at its broadest point. All together it covers 604 km2. During winter the lake freezes despite being saline water, it is not geographically a separate landlocked river basin. The lake is in the process of being identified under the Ramsar Convention as a wetland of international importance; this will be the first trans-boundary wetland in South Asia under the convention. The eastern part of the lake is fresh, with the content of total dissolved solids at 0.68 g/L, while the western part of the lake is saline, with the salinity at 11.02 g/L. The brackish water of the lake has low micro-vegetation. Guides report that there are no fish or other aquatic life on the Indian side of the lake, except for some small crustaceans. On the other hand, visitors see numerous gulls over and on the lake surface.
There are some species of scrub and perennial herbs. The lake acts as an important breeding ground for a variety of birds including a number of migratory birds. During summer, the Bar-headed goose and Brahmini ducks are seen here; the region around the lake supports a number of species of wildlife including the kiang and the Marmot. The lake hosts large quantities of fish Schizopygopsis stoliczkai and Racoma labiata. Pangong Tso had an outlet to Shyok River, a tributary of Indus River, but it was closed off due to natural damming. Two streams feed the lake from the Indian side, forming wetlands at the edges. Strand lines above current lake level reveal a 5 m thick layer of mud and laminated sand, suggesting the lake has shrunken in geological scale. On the Indian side, no fish have been observed, however in the stream coming from South-eastern side, three fish species have been reported; the low biodiversity has been reported as being due to high salinity and harsh environmental conditions. Pangong Tso can be reached in a five-hour drive from Leh, most of it on a rough and dramatic mountain road.
The road crosses the villages of Shey and Sakti and traverses the Chang La, where army sentries and a small teahouse greet visitors. The road down from Chang La leads through Tangste and other smaller villages, crossing a river called Pagal Naala or "The Crazy Stream"; the spectacular lakeside is open from May to September. An Inner Line Permit is required to visit the lake as it lies on the Sino-Indian Line of Actual Control. While Indian nationals can obtain individual permits, others must have group permits accompanied by an accredited guide. For security reasons, India does not permit boating. China National Highway 219 passes by the eastern end of Pangong Tso; the lake can be accessed by driving 130 km from Shiquanhe. Tourists can rent a boat on the lake, but landing on islands is not allowed for protecting the breeding ground of the birds. There are several restaurants along the shore. Pangong Tso is in disputed territory; the Line of Actual Control passes through the lake. A section of the lake 20 km east from the Line of Actual Control is controlled by China but claimed by India.
The eastern end of the lake is in Tibet. After the mid-19th century, Pangong Tso was at the southern end of Johnson Line, an early attempt at demarcation between India and China in the Aksai Chin region; the Khurnak Fort lies on the northern bank of the lake, halfway of Pangong Tso. The Chinese has controlled the Khurnak Fort area since 1952. To the south is the smaller Spanggur Tso lake. On 20 October 1962, Pangong Tso saw military action during the Sino-Indian War, successful for the Communist People's Liberation Army. Pangong Tso is still a delicate border point along the Line of Actual Control. Incursions from the Chinese side are common. Indian filmmaker Mani Ratnam's Dil Se.. in the song "Satrangi Re" starring Shah Rukh Khan & Manisha Koirala. Featured as a filming location in The Fall; some parts of the 2008 film, Heroes. Climax scene of the 2009 film, 3 Idiots. Parts of the 2012 film Jab Tak Hai Jaan, in particular, Anushka Sharma's bikini scene were shot here; this was Actor Shah Rukh Khan's second film recorded here.
Divya Khosla Kumar 2016 Hindi film Sanam Re Surra Surra song from Shakti. Subah Hogee song from Waqt: The Race Against Time. Pyar Ke Silsile song from Na Jaane Kabse. Dil Tera Ho Gaya song from Taur Mittran Di. Dil Haara song from Tashan starring Saif Ali Khan & Kareena Kapoor Banjarey song from the movie Fugly Telugu song from Aagadu starring Mahesh Babu & Tamannaah Enna Aachu song in the 2011 Tamil movie Vedi Tso Moriri Chumar Chepzi Rudok National Large Solar Telescope, one of the world largest solar telescope proposed to be built near Pangong Tso Soda lake
Heaven Lake is a crater lake on the border between China and North Korea. It lies within a caldera atop the volcanic Paektu Mountain, a part of the Baekdudaegan mountain range and the Changbai mountain range, it is located in Ryanggang Province, North Korea, at 42.006°N 128.057°E / 42.006. The caldera which contains Heaven Lake was created by the 946 eruption of Paektu Mountain; the lake has a surface elevation of 2,189.1 m. The lake covers an area of 9.82 km2 with a south-north length of 4.85 km and east-west length of 3.35 km. The average depth of the lake is 213 maximum depth of 384 m. From mid-October to mid-June, it is covered with ice. In ancient Chinese literature, Tianchi refers to Nanming; some other well-known lakes named Tianchi include those in Taiwan. North Korean propaganda claims. In accordance with this, North Korean news agencies reported that on his death, the ice on the lake cracked "so loud, it seemed to shake the heavens and the Earth"; as part of the Korean summit, the heads of states Kim Jong-un and Moon Jae-in visited Mount Paektu and Heaven Lake on 20 September 2018.
Moon filled a bottle with some water from the lake to take back to South Korea. The mountain and the lake have high cultural significance across the Korean peninsula. Heaven Lake is alleged to be home to the Lake Tianchi Monster. On September 6, 2007, Zhuo Yongsheng shot a 20-minute video of six seal-like, finned "Lake Tianchi Monsters", near the border with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, he sent pictures of the Loch Ness Monster-type creatures to Xinhua's Jilin provincial bureau. One of them showed the creatures swimming in parallel. Another showed them together. Korean Peninsula Baekdudaegan Tourism in North Korea
Lake Sevan is the largest body of water in Armenia and the Caucasus region. It is one of the largest freshwater high-altitude lakes in Eurasia; the lake is situated at an altitude of 1,900 m above sea level. The total surface area of its basin is about 5,000 km2; the lake itself is 1,242 km2, the volume is 32.8 km3. It streams. Only 10 % of the incoming water is drained by the Hrazdan River; the lake provides 80 % of the crayfish catch of Armenia. Sevan has significant economic and recreational value, its only island is home to a medieval monastery. Sevan was exploited for irrigation of the Ararat plain and hydroelectric power generation during the Soviet period, its water level decreased by around 20 m and its volume reduced by more than 40%. Two tunnels were built to divert water from highland rivers, which halted its decline and its level began rising. Before human intervention changed the lake's ecosystem, the lake was 95 m deep, covered an area of 1,416 km2, had a volume of 58.5 km3. The lake's surface was at an altitude of 1,916 m above sea level.
The scholarly consensus is that the word Sevan originated from the Urartian word suna translated as "lake". The term is found on an 8th-century BC cuneiform inscription by the Urartian king Rusa I, found in Odzaberd, on the southern shore of the lake. Per folk etymology, Sevan is either a combination of sev + Van or sev and vank’. Russian and European sources of the 19th and early 20th century sometimes referred to the lake as Sevanga or Sevang, it is the Russified version of the Armenian sev vank’ or derives from the Armenian phrase սա է վանքը sa ē vank'ə. Since antiquity up to the Middle Ages, Sevan was known as a sea and referred to in Armenian as the Sea of Gegham. In classical antiquity, the lake was known as Lychnitis; the historic Georgian name of the lake is Gelakuni. The name Gokcha appeared in Russian and European sources during the 19th and early 20th century. Along with Lake Van and Lake Urmia, Sevan is considered one of the three great "seas" of historic Armenia, it is the only one within the boundaries of present-day Republic of Armenia, while the other two are located in Turkey and Iran, respectively.
Lake Sevan is considered the "jewel" of Armenia and is "recognized as a national treasure" in the country. The 2001 Law on Lake Sevan defines the lake as "a strategic ecosystem valuable for its environmental, social, cultural, medical, climatic and spiritual value." Naturalist and traveler Friedrich Parrot, best known for ascending Mount Ararat in 1829 for the first time in history, wrote that, It is important for the Armenian economy: being the main source of irrigation water, Sevan provides low-cost electricity, fish and tourism. Sevan originated during the early Quaternary when a Palaeo-Sevan, ten times larger than the present lake, came into existence by tectonic formation; the current lake was formed some 25 to 30 thousand years ago. Sevan was recognized as being a major potential water resource in the 19th century, its high attitude location relative to the fertile Ararat plain and limited energy resources attracted engineers to explore ways of usage of the lake's water. In his 1910 book, Armenian engineer Sukias Manasserian proposed to use Sevan's water for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation.
He proposed draining the lake by 50 m. Major Sevan would dry out, while Minor Sevan would have a surface area of 240 km2. Manasserian's proposal was adopted by the Soviet authorities in the 1930s when, under Joseph Stalin, the country was undergoing rapid industrialization. Works on the project started in 1933; the riverbed of Hrazdan was deepened thorough excavation. A tunnel was bored around 40 metres under the lake's surface; the tunnel was completed in 1949 and thereafter the Sevan's level began to drop at a rate over 1 metre per year. The water was used for irrigation and the Sevan–Hrazdan Cascade of six hydroelectric power stations on Hrazdan River. During the second half of the 20th century, the ecological condition of Lake Sevan underwent tangible changes and vast degradation due to reduced water level, increased eutrophication, detrimental impact of human activity on the biological diversity of the lake. According to Babayan et al. the lake level dropped by 19.88 m by 2002, while the volume decreased by 43.8%.
Due to the water level decrease, the quality of the water deteriorated, natural habitats were destroyed that meant loss of biodiversity. Vardanian wrote that drop of the lake level and the economic development in the basin brought about the change in hydro-chemical regime of the lake; the quality of the water deteriorated, water turbidity increased. The inner circulation of the water constituents as well as the circulation of the biological substances altered. According to Babayan et al. "by the 1950s it had become evident that the ecological and economic consenquences of extensive exploitation of the water of Lake Sevan were too undesirable to continue in the same way." In 1964 a project began to divert the Arpa River through a 49
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, therefore are distinct from lagoons, are larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are flowing. Most lakes streams. Natural lakes are found in mountainous areas, rift zones, areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic, recreational purposes, or other activities.
The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, from the Proto-Indo-European root *leǵ-. Cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in: de:Wolfslake, de:Butterlake, German Lache, Icelandic lækur. Related are the English words leak and leach. There is considerable uncertainty about defining the difference between lakes and ponds, no current internationally accepted definition of either term across scientific disciplines or political boundaries exists. For example, limnologists have defined lakes as water bodies which are a larger version of a pond, which can have wave action on the shoreline or where wind-induced turbulence plays a major role in mixing the water column. None of these definitions excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds and lakes. Definitions for lake range in minimum sizes for a body of water from 2 hectares to 8 hectares. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more.
The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. In common usage, many lakes bear names ending with the word pond, a lesser number of names ending with lake are in quasi-technical fact, ponds. One textbook illustrates this point with the following: "In Newfoundland, for example every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin every pond is called a lake."One hydrology book proposes to define the term "lake" as a body of water with the following five characteristics: it or fills one or several basins connected by straits has the same water level in all parts it does not have regular intrusion of seawater a considerable portion of the sediment suspended in the water is captured by the basins the area measured at the mean water level exceeds an arbitrarily chosen threshold With the exception of the seawater intrusion criterion, the others have been accepted or elaborated upon by other hydrology publications.
The majority of lakes on Earth are freshwater, most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a deranged drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes, but is estimated to be at least 2 million. Finland has larger, of which 56,000 are large. Most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lake's average level by allowing the drainage of excess water; some lakes do not have a natural outflow and lose water by evaporation or underground seepage or both. They are termed endorheic lakes. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use or domestic water supply. Evidence of extraterrestrial lakes exists. Globally, lakes are outnumbered by ponds: of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area. Small lakes are much more numerous than large lakes: in terms of area, one-third of the world's standing water is represented by lakes and ponds of 10 hectares or less.
However, large lakes account for much of the area of standing water with 122 large lakes of 1,000 square kilometres or more representing about 29% of the total global area of standing inland water. Hutchinson in 1957 published a monograph, regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, distribution; as summarized and discussed by these researchers, Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. This
The Tarsar Lake or Tar Sar is an almond-shaped, oligotrophic alpine lake situated in the Kashmir Valley in Aru, Anantnag district and Kashmir, India. The Tarsar Lake is dominated by the peaks of the Kolahoi mountain some 20 km to the east; the lake is separated by a mountain with a minimum peak elevation of 4,000 metres from another lake of the same nature known as Marsar Lake, in the vicinity of Dachigam National Park. Together these two lakes are referred to as the twin sisters; the 16th-century Kashmiri ruler Yusuf Shah Chak mentioned the twin lakes in his poetry, writing to his beloved: When I remember the two tresses of the comely beloved, Tears begin to flow from my eyes like streams from Tarsar and Marsar. The Tarsar Lake is drained by an outlet stream which falls into the Lidder River at Lidderwat, 15 km to the east. Being the nearest seasonal settlement, Lidderwat is located on the trek route to the lake from Aru, Pahalgam; the Marsar Lake on the other hand flows in the opposite direction of the Tarsar Lake.
During the winter, the Tarsar Lake is covered by heavy snow. The basin of the lake is surrounded by a sheet of alpine flowers; the geum, blue poppy and gentian are common. Hedysarum flowers are found in late spring throughout the area around the lake. During summer there are breeding colonies of migratory birds, including bar-headed geese, high-flying choughs, Himalayan golden eagles, cinnamon sparrows and black bulbuls; the basin of Tarsar and the adjoining Dachigam National Park constitute one of the most important habitats of the Kashmir stag, musk deer, snow leopard, Himalayan brown bear and in the higher reaches, the golden marmot. The Tarsar Lake is accessible only during the summer preferably from June to Mid September, it can be reached from Srinagar, via a 102 km motorable road which leads through Anantnag and Pahalgam to the Aru trekking camp. The alpine meadow of Lidderwat lies at the halfway point of the two-day trek to the lake and happens to be the basecamp for most of the trekkers.
One could come back to his basecamp at Lidderwat in the same day. An alternate route leads through Ganderbal and a trekking starting point at Surfraw in the Sind Valley. Due to the steepness of the trek, it is preferable to approach the lake by the Aru-Lidderwat trek and return via the Surfraw-Sind Valley trek. On this route, walkers may see Nallah of Surfraw village. Another accessible route to Tarsar and Marsar is a place called Nage-Baren via Tral; the other route least tread is via Dachigam Srinagar. Trekking on this route leads to Marsar Lake first and crossing a mountain of an elevation of some 4200m to the fish shaped Tarsar Lake
Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms that are not closely related, is thus polyphyletic. Including organisms ranging from unicellular microalgae genera, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata and phloem, which are found in land plants; the largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example and the stoneworts. No definition of algae is accepted. One definition is that algae "have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment and lack a sterile covering of cells around their reproductive cells". Although cyanobacteria are referred to as "blue-green algae", most authorities exclude all prokaryotes from the definition of algae.
Algae constitute a polyphyletic group since they do not include a common ancestor, although their plastids seem to have a single origin, from cyanobacteria, they were acquired in different ways. Green algae are examples of algae that have primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Diatoms and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga. Algae exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies, from simple asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual reproduction. Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such as the phyllids of bryophytes, rhizoids in nonvascular plants, the roots and other organs found in tracheophytes. Most are phototrophic, although some are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy; some unicellular species of green algae, many golden algae, euglenids and other algae have become heterotrophs, sometimes parasitic, relying on external energy sources and have limited or no photosynthetic apparatus.
Some other heterotrophic organisms, such as the apicomplexans, are derived from cells whose ancestors possessed plastids, but are not traditionally considered as algae. Algae have photosynthetic machinery derived from cyanobacteria that produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria. Fossilized filamentous algae from the Vindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6 to 1.7 billion years ago. The singular alga retains that meaning in English; the etymology is obscure. Although some speculate that it is related to Latin algēre, "be cold", no reason is known to associate seaweed with temperature. A more source is alliga, "binding, entwining"; the Ancient Greek word for seaweed was φῦκος, which could mean either the seaweed or a red dye derived from it. The Latinization, fūcus, meant the cosmetic rouge; the etymology is uncertain, but a strong candidate has long been some word related to the Biblical פוך, "paint", a cosmetic eye-shadow used by the ancient Egyptians and other inhabitants of the eastern Mediterranean.
It could be any color: black, green, or blue. Accordingly, the modern study of marine and freshwater algae is called either phycology or algology, depending on whether the Greek or Latin root is used; the name Fucus appears in a number of taxa. The algae contain chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain circular DNA like that in cyanobacteria and are interpreted as representing reduced endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. However, the exact origin of the chloroplasts is different among separate lineages of algae, reflecting their acquisition during different endosymbiotic events; the table below describes the composition of the three major groups of algae. Their lineage relationships are shown in the figure in the upper right. Many of these groups contain some members; some retain plastids, but not chloroplasts. Phylogeny based on plastid not nucleocytoplasmic genealogy: Linnaeus, in Species Plantarum, the starting point for modern botanical nomenclature, recognized 14 genera of algae, of which only four are considered among algae.
In Systema Naturae, Linnaeus described the genera Volvox and Corallina, a species of Acetabularia, among the animals. In 1768, Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin published the Historia Fucorum, the first work dedicated to marine algae and the first book on marine biology to use the new binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus, it included elaborate illustrations of seaweed and marine algae on folded leaves. W. H. Harvey and Lamouroux were the first to divide macroscopic algae into four divisions based on their pigmentation; this is the first use of a biochemical criterion in plant systematics. Harvey's four divisions are: red algae, brown algae, green algae, Diatomaceae. At this time, microscopic algae were discovered and reported by a different group of workers studying the Infusoria. Unlike macroalgae, which were viewed as plants, microalgae were considered animals because they are motile; the nonmotile microalgae were sometimes seen as stages of the lifecycle of plants, macroalgae, or animals. Although used as a taxonomic category in some pre-D