Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populous, the second largest autonomous community in the country; the Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville, its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in south-western Europe south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha. Andalusia is the only European region with both Atlantic coastlines; the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central.
To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus; the toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic; the etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate; the region's history and culture have been influenced by the native Iberians, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths, Jews, Muslim Moors and the Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities who reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista. Andalusia has been a agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe.
However, the growth of the community in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone. The region has a strong identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are or Andalusian in origin; these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are prevalent in other regions of Spain. Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C in summer high temperatures. Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe followed by Almería, its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, "Al-Andalus". However, the etymology of the name "Al-Andalus" is disputed, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name has changed over the centuries.
The Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía. The name was adopted to refer to those territories still under Moorish rule, south of Castilla Nueva and Valencia, corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baetica in Latin sources; this was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the adjectival form of the Arabic language al-Andalus, the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today; the term referred to territories under Muslim control. In the Estoria de España of Alfonso X of Castile, written in the second half of the 13th century, the term Andalucía is used with three different meanings: As a literal translation of the Arabic al-Ándalus when Arabic texts are quoted.
To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada and Murcia. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself León y de toda Andalucía. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley but not the Kingdom of Granada; this was the most common significance in Early modern period. From an administrative point of view, Granada remained separate for many years after the completion of the Reconquista due, above all, to its emblematic character as the last territory regained, as the seat of the important Real Chancillería de Granada, a court of last resort. Stil
Emirate of Granada
The Emirate of Granada known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar. After Prince Idris left Iberia to take the Almohad Caliphate leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids; the Nasrid emirs were responsible for building the Alhambra palace complex. By 1250, the Emirate was the last part of the Iberian peninsula held by the Muslims, it corresponded to the modern Spanish provinces of Granada, Almería, Málaga. Andalusian Arabic was the mother tongue of the majority of the population. For two more centuries, the region enjoyed considerable economic prosperity, it was conquered by the Crown of Castile and dissolved with the 1491 Treaty of Granada, ending the Granada War. In January 1492 Muhammad XII of Granada, the last Nasrid ruler of Granada, formally relinquished his sovereignty and surrendered his territories to Castile moving to Morocco in exile. With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Córdoba in June 1236, Mohammed I ibn Nasr aligned Granada with Ferdinand III of Castile in 1246, thereby creating a tributary state, or taifa, under the Crown of Castile.
Granada remained a tributary state for the next 250 years, with Nasrid emirs paying tribute to Castilian kings in the form of gold from present-day Mali and Burkina Faso, carried to Iberia through the merchant routes in the Sahara. The Nasrids provided military assistance to Castile for its conquest of areas under Muslim control, most notably Seville in November 1248 and the Taifa of Niebla in 1262. In 1305, Granada conquered Ceuta, but lost control of the city in 1309 to the Kingdom of Fez with the assistance of the Crown of Aragon. Granada re-captured Ceuta a year but again lost it in 1314. Granada again held the city from 1315 to 1327. In 1384, Granada again re-took Ceuta but lost it definitively to Kingdom of Fez in 1386. Ceuta was taken by the Portuguese Empire in 1415 and by the Spanish Empire in 1580. Granada's peace with Castile broke down on various occasions. Granada lost territory to Castile at the Battle of Teba in 1330. In 1340, Granada under Yusuf I supported the failed Marinid invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, which ended at the Battle of Río Salado.
Granada's status as a tributary state and its favorable geographic location, with the Sierra Nevada as a natural barrier, helped to prolong Nasrid rule and allowed the Emirate to prosper as a regional entrepôt with the Maghreb and the rest of Africa. The city of Granada was one of the largest cities during this time: it accepted numerous Muslim refugees expelled from Christian controlled areas, doubling the size of the city and becoming the largest city of Europe in 1450 in terms of population. During this time there were 137 mosques in the Medina of Grenada. Granada served as a refuge for Muslims fleeing during the Reconquista. Regardless of its comparative prosperity, intra-political strife was constant. Skirmishes along the border of Granada occurred and territory was lost to Castile. Granada was integrated in Mediterranean trade networks and financed by Genoese bankers aiming to gain control of the gold trade carried in through Saharan caravan routes. However, after Portugal opened direct trade routes to Sub-Saharan Africa by sea in the 15th century, Granada became less important as a regional commercial center.
With the union of Castile and Aragon in 1469, these kingdoms set their sights on annexing Granada. The war of Granada would offer an opportunity for Ferdinand and Isabella to harness the restless Castilian nobility against a common enemy and instill subjects with a sense of loyalty to the crown; the Emirate's attack on the Castilian frontier town of Zahara in December 1481 led to a prolonged war. The Granada War began in 1482, with Christian forces capturing Alhama de Granada in February 1482; this marked the beginning of a grinding 10-year war. The Christian force was made up of troops provided by Castilian nobles and the Santa Hermandad, as well as Swiss mercenaries; the Catholic Church encouraged other Christian countries to offer their troops and their finances to the war effort. Meanwhile, civil war erupted in Granada as a result of succession struggles in the Nasrid ruling house. Castile used this internal strife as an opportunity to push further into Granada. By 1491, the city of Granada itself lay under siege.
On November 25, 1491, the Treaty of Granada was signed. On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, gave up complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos; the Christian ousting of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula with the conquest of Granada did not extinguish the spirit of the Reconquista. Isabella urged Christians to pursue a conquest of Africa. About 200,000 Muslims are thought to have emigrated to North Africa after the fall of Granada. Under the conditions of surrender, the Muslims who remained were guaranteed their property, laws and religion; this however, was not the case, causing the Muslims to rebel against their Christian rulers, culminating with an uprising in 1500. The rebellion was seen as a chance to formally end the treaty of Granada, the rights of Muslims and Jews were withdrawn. Muslims in the area were given the choice of conversion. In 1568–1571, the descendants of the converted Muslims revolted again, leading to their expulsion from the former Emirate to North Africa and Anatolia.
For Jews as well, a period of mixed religious tolerance and persecution under Mus
Edward FitzGerald "Gerald" Brenan, CBE, MC was a British writer and hispanist who spent much of his life in Spain. Brenan is best known for The Spanish Labyrinth, a historical work on the background to the Spanish Civil War, for South from Granada: Seven Years in an Andalusian Village, he was appointed CBE in the Diplomatic Service and Overseas List of 1982. Brenan was born in Malta into a well-off Anglo-Irish family, while his father was serving there in the British Army, he was educated at Radley, a boarding school in England, which he hated due to the bullying he endured. His autobiographic works make it clear that he did not enjoy a good relationship with his father, Major Hugh Brenan. At the age of 18, to spite his father who wanted him to train for an army career at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, he set off with an older friend, the occasional photographer and eccentric, John Hope-Johnstone, to walk to China. Between August 1912 and January 1913 they walked 1,560 miles, reaching Bosnia before lack of money made them turn back.
Brenan spent the next ten months in Germany, learning the language in preparation for joining the Indian Police Service, but this plan was interrupted by the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914. He joined the British Army and served in France throughout the war. After being demobbed in 1919, Hope-Johnstone introduced Brenan to the Bloomsbury Group. In 1919 he moved to Spain, from 1920 on he rented a house in the small village of Yegen, in the Alpujarras district of the province of Granada, he spent his time catching up on the education which he felt he had missed by not attending university, in writing. An important factor in his moving to Spain was his calculation that his small income would go further there. Despite the remoteness of his new home, contacts with the Bloomsbury Group continued with his best friend Ralph Partridge and Partridge's first wife Dora Carrington, with whom Brenan had an affair. In the late 1920s he formed a relationship with his maid, Juliana Martin Pelegrina, which in 1931 resulted in the birth of a daughter, Miranda Helen, who became a physician based in France.
In 1930, he met novelist Gamel Woolsey in Dorset. During the Spanish Civil War and for many years afterwards they lived in Aldbourne in Wiltshire. Brenan was permitted to return to Spain in 1953 despite holding views which were critical of Franco's regime. Gamel Woolsey died in Spain in 1968 of cancer, is buried at the English Cemetery, Malaga. Brenan spent most of the remainder of his life in Churriana near Malaga and after her death in Alhaurín el Grande, Málaga. In 1984 Brenan was moved in controversial circumstances to a nursing home in Pinner, but he returned to Spain after the authorities there made special arrangements to provide him with the nursing care on which he depended. At the time of his death, his body was donated to the Medicine Faculty of Málaga for medical research and cremated. A Life of One's Own and A Personal Record together make up his autobiography. Jack Robinson. A Picaresque Novel as George Beaton Doctor Partridge's Almanack for 1935 as George Beaton Shanahan's Old Shebeen, or The Mornin's Mornin' The Spanish Labyrinth: An Account of the Social and Political Background of the Civil War The Spanish Scene Current Affairs No.7 The Face of Spain The Literature of the Spanish People – From Roman Times to the Present Day South From Granada: Seven Years in an Andalusian Village A Holiday by the Sea A Life of One's Own: Childhood and Youth The Lighthouse Always Says Yes St John of the Cross: His life and Poetry with Lynda Nicholson A Personal Record, 1920–1972 The Magnetic Moment.
He. Intended as an Autobiographical Sequence of Thoughts" Diarios sobre Dora Carrington y otros escritos, editorial Confluencias, 2012, he left uncompleted a work on Spanish poetry, published posthumously as La Copla Popular Española. Samuel West portrays Brenan in the 1995 British biographical film Carrington about the life of the English painter Dora Carrington and directed by Christopher Hampton based on the book Lytton Strachey by Michael Holroyd. Matthew Goode portrays Brenan in the 2003 Goya Award winning Spanish film Al sur de Granada and directed by Fernando Colomo, based on the 1957 autobiographical book South from Granada. Xan Fielding, Best of Friends; the Brenan–Partridge Letters Jonathan Gathorne-Hardy, The Life of Gerald Brenan The Writer Gerald Brenan Gerald Brenan Collection at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin Information on the Alpujarras English writer in the Alpujarras valley, in Spain Works at Open Library
Jamón serrano is a type of dry-cured Spanish jamón which includes most varieties other than those made with black Iberian pigs. It is served in thin slices diced; the majority of serrano hams are made from a landrace breed of white pigs or from commercial breeds such as Duroc and are not to be confused with the more expensive jamón ibérico, made from black Iberian pigs. These aged hams were known as a delicacy in the days of the Roman Empire. Though not expensive in Spain and the European Union, duties imposed on imported meats and exchange rates make these hams more costly outside the EU. Where available, the meat can be purchased sliced, in chunks, or as a complete, bone-in ham. Jamón serrano has TSG status; the TSG certification attests that a particular food product objectively possesses specific characteristics which differentiate it from all others in its category, that its raw materials, composition, or method of production have been consistent for a minimum of 30 years. Jamón serrano described variously as jamón reserva, jamón curado, jamón extra are all produced from compound-fed white pigs.
Fresh hams are trimmed and cleaned stacked and covered with salt for about two weeks to draw off excess moisture and preserve the meat from spoiling. The salt is washed off and the hams are hung to dry for about six months; the hams are hung in a cool, dry place for 6 to 18 months, depending on the climate, as well as the size and type of ham being cured. The drying sheds are built at higher elevations, why the ham is called "mountain ham". Ham in Spain List of hams List of dried foods Food portal
Berbers, or Amazighs are an ethnic group of several nations indigenous to North Africa and in some northern parts of Western Africa. Berbers constitute the populations of Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritania, northern Mali, northern Niger, a small part of western Egypt. Berber nations are distributed over an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Niger River in West Africa. Berber nations spoke the Berber language, a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. There are about 100 million Berbers in North Africa, but only some 25–30 million of them still speak the Berber language; the number of ethnic Berbers is far greater than the speakers of the Berber language, as a large part of the Berbers have lost their ancestral language and switched to other languages over the course of many decades or centuries. The majority of North Africa's population west of Egypt is believed to be Berber in ethnic origin, although due to Arabization and Islamization some ethnic Berbers identify as Arabized Berbers.
Most Berber people who speak Berber today live in Morocco, Libya, northern Mali, northern Niger. Smaller Berber-speaking populations are found in Mauritania, Burkina Faso and Egypt's Siwa town. There are large immigrant Berber communities living in France, Canada, the Netherlands, Germany and other countries of Europe; the majority of Berbers are Sunni Muslim. Although, since some Berbers have converted to Shia Islam and atheism; the Berber identity is wider than language and ethnicity and encompasses the entire history and geography of North Africa. Berbers are not an homogeneous ethnicity, they encompass a range of societies and lifestyles; the unifying forces for the Berber people may be their shared language or a collective identification with Berber heritage and history. Berbers call themselves some variant of the word i-Mazigh-en meaning "free people" or "noble men"; the name had its ancient parallel in the Roman and Greek names for Berbers such as Mazices. Some of the best known of the ancient Berbers are the Numidian king Masensen, king Yugerten, the Berber-Roman author Apuleius, Saint Augustine of Hippo, the Berber-Roman general Lusius Quietus, instrumental in defeating the major wave of Jewish revolts of 115–117 in ancient Israel.
The Berber queen Dihya, or Kahina, was a religious and political leader who led a military Berber resistance against the Arab-Muslim expansion in Northwest Africa. Kusaila was a 7th-century leader of the Berber Awerba tribe and King of the Iẓnagen confederation and resisted the Arab-Muslim invasion. Yusef U Tashfin was a Muslim king of the Berber Almoravid dynasty. Abbas Ibn Firnas was a Berber-Andalusian prolific inventor and early pioneer in aviation. Ben Bettota was a medieval Berber explorer who departed from Tanja and traveled the longest known distances of his time and chronicled his impressions of hundreds of nations and cultures; the name Berber derives from an ancient Egyptian language term meaning "outlander" or variations thereof. The exonym was adopted by the Greeks, with a similar connotation. Among its oldest written attestations, Berber appears as an ethnonym in the 1st century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Despite these early manuscripts, certain modern scholars have argued that the term only emerged around 900 AD in the writings of Arab genealogists, with Maurice Lenoir positing an 8th or 9th century date of appearance.
The English term was introduced in the 19th century. The Berbers are the Mauri cited by the Chronicle of 754 during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, to become since the 11th century the catch-all term Moros on the charters and chronicles of the expanding Christian Iberian kingdoms to refer to the Andalusi, the north Africans, the Muslims overall. For the historian Abraham Isaac Laredo the name Amazigh could be derived from the name of the ancestor Mezeg, the translation of biblical ancestor Dedan son of Sheba in the Targum. According to Leo Africanus, Amazigh meant "free man", though this has been disputed, because there is no root of M-Z-Gh meaning "free" in modern Berber languages; this dispute, however, is based on a lack of understanding of the Berber language as "Am-" is a prefix meaning "a man, one, " Therefore, the root required to verify this endonym would be zigh, "free", which however is missing from Tamazight's lexicon, but may be related to the well attested aze "strong", Tizzit "bravery", or jeghegh "to be brave, to be courageous".
Further, it has a cognate in the Tuareg word Amajegh, meaning "noble". This term is common in Morocco among Central Atlas and Shilah speakers in 1980, but elsewhere within the Berber homeland sometimes a local, more particular term, such as Kabyle or Chaoui, is more used instead in Algeria; the Egyptians, Greeks and Byzantines mentioned various tribes with similar names living in Greater "Libya" in the areas where Berbers were found. Tribal names differ from the classical sources, but are still related to the modern Amazigh; the Meshwesh tribe among them represents the first thus identified from the field. Scholars believe it would be the same tribe called a few centuries afterwards in Greek as Mazyes by Hektaios and as Maxyes by Herodotus, while it was called after that Mazaces and Mazax in Latin sources, related to the Massylii and Masaesyli. All those names are similar and foreign renditions of the
Yegen is a village of the municipality of Alpujarra de la Sierra in the province of Granada. The village was the home of the British writer Gerald Brenan in the 1920s, he described its customs in South from Granada, one of his best-known books. Brenan stated in the book that he chose Yegen because of its favourable geography, including abundant water. In recent years the village has held events commemorating the writer's interest in local culture. A Brenan museum is being developed in the village. Most of its inhabitants are descendants of people from the northern regions of Spain that were brought to the village after the Expulsion of the Moriscos in the 17th century. At the end of the 19th century and all across the 20th century, like most of the country, was a land of emigrants that left for better opportunities in Europe and America; this situation reversed in the late 1980s and now there is a small community with a few British and other European citizens that have bought houses in Yegen as a first or second residence
E4 European long distance path
The E4 European long distance path or E4 path is one of the European long-distance paths. Starting at its westernmost point in Portugal it continues through Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Romania and Greece to end in Cyprus, it visits the Greek island of Crete Its length is more than 10,000 km, but the route through Romania and part of Bulgaria is not yet defined. An alternative route through Serbia, instead of Romania has been defined. From: Tarifa, southernmost point of mainland Spain through mountains of Andalucia and Valencia via Ronda, Alhama de Granada, Alcoi, Morella 2300 km Puigcerda in Pyrenees E of Andorra Catalan coast at Ulldecona, Tarragona via Catalan coast path, Montserrat GR4 into Pyrenees 450 km Montagne Noire Via Mont Canigou and Carcassonne, Villefort through Haut Languedoc and Cévennes, Ardèche and Rhône valleys east via GR 44, GR 4, GR 42, GR429, Swiss border near Geneva N through Vercors, Grenoble and Culoz 1100 km Follows the Jura ridgeway through the north of the country ending at village Dielsdorf.
From Dielsdorf, the E4 continues along S shores of Lake Constance via following settlements to village Rheineck at German borders. Niederglatt - Bülach - Freienstein-Teufen - Irchel - Buch am Irchel - Dorf - Andelfingen - Truttikon - Oberstammheim - Stein am Rhein - Mammern - Steckborn - Berlingen - Mannebach - Ermatingen - Gottlieben - Kreuzlingen - Münsterlingen - Güttingen - Uttwil - Romanshorn - Egnach - Arbon - Steinach - Tübach - Goldach - Rorschacherberg - Buchberg - Rheineck Alternative 1:On the route of Nordalpine Weitwanderweg 01 are exposed stretches - for experienced mountain walkers only 1. Western section of the route – 495 km through Bregenzer Wald, Lechquellengebirge, Lechtaler Alps, Wetterstein-gebirge and Rofangebirge: Bregenz – Lustenauer Hut – 22 km, middle difficult tour Lustenauer Hut – Damüls – 33 km, difficult tour Damüls – Biberacher Hut – 18 km difficult tour Biberacher Hut – Göppinger Hut – 16 km, difficult tour Göppinger Hut – Ravensburger Hut – 31 km difficult tour Ravensburger Hut – Stuttgarter Hut – 20 km, difficult tour Stuttgarter Hut – Ansbacher Hut – 28 km difficult tour Ansbacher Hut – Memminger Hut, 25 km difficult tour Memminger Hut – Steinsee Hut – 20 km difficult tour Steinsee Hut – Anhalter Hut – 25 km, difficult tour Anhalter Hut – Fernpass – 35 km, difficult tour Fernpass – Ehrwald – 20 km, middle difficult tour Ehrwald – Meiler Hut – 39 km, difficult tour Meiler Hut – Scharnitz – 30 km, middle difficult tour Scharnitz – Falken Hut – 30 km, middle difficult tour Falken Hut – Maurach am Achensee – 35 km, middle difficult tour Maurach am Achsensee – Steinberg am Rofan – 25 km, difficult tour Steinberg am Rofan – Kufstein – 43 km, easy tour 2.
Middle section of the route – 441 km through Kaisergebirge, Chiemgau Alps, Loferer Steingebirge, Hochkönig and Steinernes Meer, Dachstein Mountains and Totes Gebirge: Kufstein – Stripsenjoch Haus – 19 km, middle difficult tour Stripsenjoch Haus – Straubinger Haus – 35 km, middle difficult tour Straubinger Haus – Schmidt-Zabierow Hut – 39 km, difficult tour Schmidt-Zabierow Hut – Lofer – 16 km, middle difficult tour Lofer – Ingolstatter Haus – 31 km, middle difficult tour Ingolstatter Haus – Riemann Haus – 8 km, middle difficult tour Riemann Haus – Franz-Eduard-Matras Haus – 25 km difficult tour on glacier Franz-Eduard-Matras Haus – Werfen – 27 km, difficult tour on glacier Werfen – Lungötz – 33 km, middle difficult tour Lungötz – Adamek Hut – 29 km difficult tour Adamek Hut – Simony Hut – 12 km difficult tour on glacier Simony Hut – Bad Goisern – 32 km, middle difficult tour Bad Goisern – Loser Hut – 34 km, middle difficult tour Loser Hut – Pühringer Hut – 25 km, middle difficult tour Pühringer Hut – Priel Refuge Hut – 20 km, difficult tour Priel Refuge Hut – Vorderstoder – 18 km, middle difficult tour Vorderstoder – Spital am Pyhrn – 38 km, middle difficult tour 3.
Eastern section of the route – 478 km Through Rax, Bucklige Welt and Rosaliengebirge Spital am Pyhrn – Admont – 24 km, middle difficult tour Admont – Hess Hut – 35 km, middle difficult tour Hess Hut – Radmer an der Stube – 20 km, difficult tour Radmer an der Stube – Eisenerz – 20 km, middle difficult tour Eisenerz – Sonnschien Hut – 25 km, middle difficult tour Sonnschien Hut – Voisthaler Hut – 17 km, middle difficult tour Voisthaler Hut – Turnaueralm – 25 km, middle difficult tour Turnaueralm – Neuberg, Krampen im Mürztal – 31 km, middle difficult tour Neuberg, Krampen im Mürztal – Schneealpen Haus – 31 km, middle difficult tour Schneealpen Haus – Karl-Ludwig Haus – 21 km, difficult tour Karl-Ludwig Haus – Waxriegel Haus – 12 km, middle difficult tour Waxriegel Haus – Maria Schutz – 30 km, middle difficult tour Maria Schutz – Hochwolkersdorf – 48 km, easy tour Hoch