The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War. The Alsatian part lay in the Rhine Valley on the west bank of the Rhine River and east of the Vosges Mountains; the Lorraine section was in the upper Moselle valley to the north of the Vosges. The territory encompassed 93% of Alsace and 26% of Lorraine, while the rest of these regions remained part of France. For historical reasons, specific legal dispositions are still applied in the territory in the form of a "local law". In relation to its special legal status, since its reversion to France following World War I, the territory has been referred to administratively as Alsace-Moselle. Since 2016, the historical territory is now part of the French administrative region of Grand Est. Alsace-Lorraine had a land area of 14,496 km2, its capital was Straßburg. It was divided in three districts: Oberlelsaß, whose capital was Kolmar, had a land area of 3,525 km2 and corresponds to the current department of Haut-Rhin Unterelsaß, whose capital was Straßburg, had a land area of 4,755 km2 and corresponds to the current department of Bas-Rhin Lothringen, whose capital was Metz, had a land area of 6,216 km2 and corresponds to the current department of Moselle The largest urban areas in Alsace-Lorraine at the 1910 census were: Straßburg: 220,883 inhabitants Mülhausen: 128,190 inhabitants Metz: 102,787 inhabitants Diedenhofen: 69,693 inhabitants Colmar: 44,942 inhabitants The modern history of Alsace-Lorraine was influenced by the rivalry between French and German nationalism.
France long sought to attain and preserve its "natural boundaries", which were the Pyrenees to the southwest, the Alps to the southeast, the Rhine River to the northeast. These strategic claims led to the annexation of territories located west of the Rhine river in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. What is now known as Alsace was progressively conquered by Louis XIV in the 17th century, while Lorraine was incorporated in the 18th century under Louis XV. German nationalism, which resurfaced following the French occupation of Germany under Napoleon, sought to unify all the German-speaking populations of the former Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation into a single nation-state; as various German dialects were spoken by most of the population of Alsace and Moselle, these regions were viewed by German nationalists to be rightfully part of hoped-for united Germany in the future. We Germans who know Germany and France know better what is good for the Alsatians than the unfortunates themselves.
In the perversion of their French life they have no exact idea of. In 1871, the newly created German Empire's demand for Alsace from France after its victory in the Franco-Prussian War was not a punitive measure; the transfer was controversial among the Germans: The German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, was opposed to it, as he thought it would engender permanent French enmity toward Germany. Some German industrialists did not want the competition from Alsatian industries, such as the cloth makers who would be exposed to competition from the sizeable industry in Mulhouse. Karl Marx warned his fellow Germans: "If Alsace and Lorraine are taken France will make war on Germany in conjunction with Russia, it is unnecessary to go into the unholy consequences." However, the German Emperor, Wilhelm I sided with army commander Helmuth von Moltke, other Prussian generals and other officials who argued that a westward shift in the French border was necessary for strategic military and ethnographic reasons.
From an ethnic perspective, the transfer involved people who for the most part spoke Alemannic German dialects. From a military perspective, by early 1870s standards, shifting the frontier away from the Rhine would give the Germans a strategic buffer against feared future French attacks. Due to the annexation, the Germans gained control of the fortifications of French-speaking Metz, as well as Strasbourg on the left bank of the Rhine and most of the iron resources of Lorraine. However, domestic politics in the new Reich may have been decisive. Although it was led by Prussia, the new German Empire was a decentralized federal state; the new arrangement left many senior Prussian generals with serious misgivings about leading diverse military forces to guard a prewar frontier that, except for the northernmost section, was part of two other states of the new Empire – Baden and Bavaria. As as the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, these states had been Prussia's enemies. In the new Empire's constitution, both states, but Bavaria, had been given concessions with regard to local autonomy, including partial control of their military forces.
For this reason, the Prussian General Staff argued that it was necessary for the Reich's frontier with France to be under direct Prussian control. Creating a new Imperial Territory out of French territory would achieve this goal: although a Reichsland would not be part of the Kingdom of Prussia, being governed directly from Berlin it would be under Prusso-German control. Thus, by annexing Alsace-Lorraine, Berlin was able to avoid complications with Baden and Bavaria on such matters as new fortifications. Memories of the Napoleonic Wars were still quite fresh in the 1870s. Right up until the Franco-Prussian War, the French had maintained a long-standing desire to establish their entire eastern frontier on the Rhine, th
The Elsässisches Fahnenlied was written by Emil Woerth in German when Alsace-Lorraine was part of the German Empire. It was adopted as the official anthem of Alsace-Lorraine in 1911. After World War I, the short-lived independent Republic of Alsace-Lorraine became part of France in late 1918. Elsässisches Fahnenlied in mp3 http://www.deutsche-schutzgebiete.de/reichsland_elsass-lothringen.htm http://emig.free.fr/ALSACE/Rot_un_Wiss.html
Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. In the Middle Ages it was a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire, a de facto independent state ruled by the prince-bishop who had the ex officio title of count, it was annexed to France by King Henry II in 1552. It formed part of the province of the Three Bishoprics. Since 1801 the Metz diocese has been a public-law corporation of cult. Metz was a bishopric by 535, but may date from earlier than that. Metz's Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains is built on the site of a Roman basilica, a location for the one of the earliest Christian congregations of France; the diocese was under the metropolitan of Trier. After the French Revolution, the last prince bishop, Cardinal Louis de Montmorency-Laval fled and the old organization of the diocese was broken up. With the Concordat of 1801 the diocese was re-established covering the departments of Moselle and Forêts, was put under the Archdiocese of Besançon.
In 1817 the parts of the diocese which became Prussian territory were transferred to the Diocese of Trier. In 1871 the core areas of the diocese became part of Germany, in 1874 Metz diocese reconfined to the borders of the new German Lorraine department became subject to the Holy See; as of 1910 there were about 533,000 Catholics living in the diocese of Metz. When the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State was enacted, doing away with public-law religious corporations, this did not apply to the Metz diocese being within Germany. After World War I it was returned to France, but the concordatary status has been preserved since as part of the Local law in Alsace-Moselle. In 1940, after the French defeat, it came under German occupation till 1944 when it became French again. Together with the Archdiocese of Strasbourg the bishop of the see is nominated by the French government according to the concordat of 1801; the concordat further provides for the clergy being paid by the government and Roman Catholic pupils in public schools can receive religious instruction according to diocesan guide lines.
According to the traditional list of bishops, the current bishop Pierre René Ferdinand Raffin is the 105th bishop of Metz. According to this list, the first bishop was Saint Clement sent by Saint Peter himself to Metz; the first authenticated bishop however is Sperus or Hesperus, bishop in 535. Many of the bishops were declared holy or blessed, like Saint Arnulf, Saint Chrodegang or Saint Agilram. Adelbero was bishop of Metz in 933 AD; the bishop of Metz is appointed by the President of the Republic. Willibrord Benzler, O. S. B. 1901–1919 Jean-Baptiste Pelt, 1919–1937 Joseph-Jean Heintz, 1938–1958 Paul Joseph Schmitt, 1958–1987 Pierre René Ferdinand Raffin, O. P. 1987–2013 Jean-Christophe Lagleize, 2013–presentAuxiliary bishopsJean-Pierre Vuillemin, appointed 8 January 2019 Catholic Church in France Website of the diocese Catholic hierarchy Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Metz". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
Duchy of Alsace
The Duchy of Alsace was a large political subdivision of the Frankish Empire during the last century and a half of Merovingian rule. It corresponded to the territory of Alsace and was carved out of southern Austrasia in the last decade of the reign of Dagobert I to stabilise the southern reaches of Austrasia against Alemannia and Burgundy. By the late Middle Ages, the region was considered part of Swabia; the term "Alsace" derives from the Germanic ali-land-sat-ja, meaning "one who sits in another land." Alsace was Alemanni territory, but not so much as Alemannia proper, east of the Rhine: it was, the "other" land in which some Alemanni had settled. In the late Roman Empire, a district of Alsace had been established in the region. Under Chlothar II, Alsace and Alemannia were granted the Pactus Alamannorum. In 596, Childebert II bequeathed Alsace to his son Theuderic II, raised there; this attached it to Burgundy, but in 610 Theudebert II, Theuderic's brother of Austrasia, forced Alsace' cession to him only to lose it two years to Burgundy again.
In 623, when Chlothar II granted Austrasia to Dagobert, he excluded Alsace, the Vosges, the Ardennes, but was shortly after forced to concede it to Dagobert by the Austrasian nobility. Sometime between 629 and 631 Dagobert granted it as a dukedom to Gundoin, a Frank from the Austrasian heartland of the Meuse valley, a move which tied Alsace more to the Austrasian court. Gundoin's duchy comprised both sides of the Vosges, the Burgundian Gate, the Transjura; the creation of a duchy of Alsace corresponded with the creation of counties in the region. Thitherto counties had not been found in most of Austrasia, but by the eighth century they were common in the south; the counts of Alsace were known in contemporary Latin texts by the title grafio, which may have indicated a different office from that of the traditional comes, used in the more Romanised parts of Gaul. Under Gundoin's successors, the famous Etichonids, the counties — and Alsace was divided into a Nordgau and Sundgau — were brought under direct ducal control.
From the beginning, Gundoin had used monasteries and monastic foundation as tools in spreading his authority and in developing his regional economy by employing the industry of monks for secular benefit. Alsace was first spoken of as a ducatus in the 730s, though the correspondence of Alsace with the territory of the early duces can be inferred quite easily; the term ducatus alsacensi, "Duchy of Alsace," only came into use under Louis the Pious, though there exists disputed evidence of its use as early as 735–737. Following the suppression of the Alemanni in 742–746 by Carloman, son of Charles Martel, the duchy of Alsace was dissolved in 742 when a successor for the deceased Duke Liutfrid was not named. While some historians have suggested an antipathy between the Etichonids and the Arnulfings to explain the dissolution of their power in Alsace, the Etichonids were allies with the Charles Martel as early as the 720s, when he campaigned against the Alemanni, who were a constant thorn in the side of their Alsatian cousins.
Some have interpreted the tripartite web of support between Alsatian monasteries, the Etichonid dukes and counts, Theuderic IV as evidence of an attempt to stay outside of Arnulfing control. In 722, Martel first defeated the Alemanni and in 744 some rebellious Alemans invaded Alsace, implying that it was considered loyal to Martel's successors and Pepin the Short. Liutfrid himself may have died fighting on behalf of the Carolingians against the Alemanni. In any case, the peaceful dissolution of the duchy in Alsace mirrored the similar efforts of the Carolings elsewhere, while it was part of a larger effort —, notably violent in Alemannia and Aquitaine — to replace dukes, who had the power to command armies, with counts, who were royal officers responsible to and representative of royal power. Alsace remained a distinct unit after 742. With the rise in influence of Hugh of Tours, a conscious ancestor of the Etichonid dukes, Louis the Pious first made reference to the ducatus alsicensi in 816, though it was still a ducatus without a dux.
In 829, Louis's youngest son, was made duke of Alsace and Rhaetia, but in 831 his share of the empire was expanded and was made into a kingdom. By the Treaty of Verdun it was made part of the kingdom of Middle Francia under Lothair I, to the displeasure of Louis the German, who would have liked to see it attached to Alemanni in his East Francia. Upon Lothair's death in 855, Alsace became a part of Lotharingia in the threefold division of Middle Francia. Lothair II, because of his kinship with the still-powerful Etichonids, had firm support in Alsace throughout his tumultuous reign. In 867, he created the first Duke of Alsace in over a century when he granted the ducatum Elisatium to his illegitimate son Hugh, who had an ancient Etichonid name. In 869, Lothair granted protection of his kingdom to Louis the German before his death on a trip to Rome; when Louis fell ill that year, now king of all West Francia, tried to annex Alsace and made Hugh swear allegiance to him, but Louis recovered and by the Treaty of Meerssen Alsace was attached to East Francia at long last.
There is little evidence for an Alsatian dukedom after that, though some have interpreted references to an
Upper Rhenish Circle
The Upper Rhenish Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1500 on the territory of the former Duchy of Upper Lorraine and large parts of Rhenish Franconia including the Swabian Alsace region and the Burgundian duchy of Savoy. Many of the circle's states west of the Rhine river were annexed by France under King Louis XIV during the 17th century, sealed by the 1678/79 Treaties of Nijmegen; the circle was made up of the following states: The list of states making up the Upper Rhenish Circle is based in part on that in the German Wikipedia article Oberrheinischer Reichskreis. Historicalmaps.com: Historical Maps of Germany — Imperial Circles in the 16th Century
Not to be confused with Elbing, a city in Poland. Elbling is a variety of white grape which today is grown in the upstream parts of the Mosel region in Germany and in Luxembourg, where the river is called Moselle; the variety has a long history, used to cover much of Germany's vineyards from medieval times and was that country's most cultivated variety until the early 20th century, but has been in decline since. As of 2006, there were 583 hectares of Elbling vineyards in Germany, which made it the country's 23rd most grown variety of grape. Of that vineyard surface, 575 ha or 98.6% was found in the Mosel region In the same year, there were 122.9 hectares of Elbling grown in Luxembourg. It has been speculated that Elbling was grown along Mosel in Roman times, that it could be identical to the Vitis albuelis described by Lucius Columella in his De re rustica and the Vitis alba described by Pliny the Elder, although this has by no means been proven. Both Latin names mean "the white grape" and would have been corrupted to Elbling at some stage.
DNA profiling has indicated that Elbling is an offspring of Gouais blanc and a cross between Traminer and some unidentified variety. This parentage is consistent with Elbling being an ancient grape variety, incidentally, it is the same parentage as for Riesling; this parentage and history makes it that Elbling originated somewhere in the Rhine area. Elbling tends to give musts low in sugar, wines high in acid and neutral in character, which makes it used for sparkling wine, such as non-varietally labelled Mosel Sekt; when made into varietal still wine, it gives a wine, compared to a lighter and more tart version of Silvaner. Varietal Elbling wine is most found in Luxembourg. Elbling is known under the following synonyms: Albana, Alben, Albuelin, Allemand, Allemand Blanc, Alva, Biela Zrebnina, Bielovcka, Blesez, Burgauer, Burgegger, Burger Elbling, Burgundertraube Gruen, Dickelbling, Elbai Feher, Elbele, Elben Feher, Elbling Weiss, Elmene, Facun, Facun Blanc, Faucun, Frankenthal Blanc, Gemeine Traube, Geschlachter Burger, Gonais Blanc, Gouais Blanc, Grobe, Gros Blanc, Grossriesling, Haussard, Heunisch Gruen, Isodora Brachybus, Kleinbeer, Kleinberger, Klemmer, Kratkopeccelj, Kristeller, Kurzstingl, Kurzstingler, Le Gros, Marmont Vert, Mehlweisse, Mouillet, Nuernberger Zaeh, Pecek, Pezhek, Plant Commun, Plant Madame, Rauhelbene, Rheinalben, Seretonina, Silvaner Weiss, Srebonina, Suessgrobes, Tarant Bily, Tarant De Boheme, Verdin Blanc, Vert Blanc, Vert Doux, Weisselben, Weisser Dickelbling, Weisser Elbling, Weisser Sylvaner, Welschel
Musée alsacien (Strasbourg)
The Musée alsacien is a museum in Strasbourg in the Bas-Rhin department of France. It opened on 11 May 1907 and is dedicated to all aspects of daily life in pre-industrial and early industrial Alsace, it contains over 5000 exhibits and is notable for the reconstruction of the interiors of several traditional houses. It features a rich collection of artifacts documenting the everyday life of Alsatian Jews; the museum is located in several Renaissance timber framed houses on the Quai Saint-Nicolas, on the banks of the Ill river. In 1917 it was bought by the city of Strasbourg. Another, Musée alsacien exists in the city of Haguenau, 30 kilometers north of Strasbourg. Le Musée Alsacien de Strasbourg, Éditions des musées de la ville de Strasbourg 2006, ISBN 2-35125-005-2 Media related to Musée alsacien de Strasbourg at Wikimedia Commons Official website Gallery of Jewish artifacts from the museum's collection—