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Altaic languages

Altaic is a hypothetical language family which would include the Turkic and Tungusic language families. Speakers of those languages are scattered over most of Asia north of 35 °N and in some eastern parts of Europe, extending in longitude from Turkey to Japan; the group is named after the Altai mountain range in the center of Asia. Most comparative linguists today reject the hypothesis; the Altaic family was first proposed in the 18th century. It was accepted until the 1960s, is still listed in many encyclopedias and handbooks. Since the 1950s, many comparative linguists have rejected the proposal, after supposed cognates were found not to be valid, Turkic and Mongolic languages were found to be converging rather than diverging over the centuries. Opponents of the theory proposed that the similarities are due to mutual linguistic influences between the groups concerned; the original hypothesis unified only the Turkic and Tungusic groups. Proposals to include the Korean and Japanese languages into a "Macro-Altaic" family have always been controversial.

Most proponents of Altaic continue to support the inclusion of Korean. A common ancestral Proto-Altaic language for the "Macro" family has been tentatively reconstructed by Sergei Starostin and others. Micro-Altaic includes about 66 living languages, to which Macro-Altaic would add Korean, Jeju and the Ryukyuan languages, for a total of 74; these numbers do not include earlier states of languages, such as Middle Mongol, Old Korean or Old Japanese. The earliest known texts in a Turkic language are the Orkhon inscriptions, 720–735 AD, they were deciphered in 1893 by the Danish linguist Vilhelm Thomsen in a scholarly race with his rival, the German–Russian linguist Wilhelm Radloff. However, Radloff was the first to publish the inscriptions; the first Tungusic language to be attested is the language of the ancestors of the Manchus. A writing system for it was devised in 1119 AD and an inscription using this system is known from 1185; the earliest Mongolic language of which we have written evidence is known as Middle Mongol.

It is first attested by an inscription dated to 1224 or 1225 AD, the Stele of Yisüngge, by the Secret History of the Mongols, written in 1228. The earliest Para-Mongolic text is the Memorial for Yelü Yanning, written in the Khitan large script and dated to 986 AD. However, the Inscription of Hüis Tolgoi, discovered in 1975 and analysed as being in an early form of Mongolic, has been dated to 604-620 AD; the Bugut inscription dates back to 584 AD. Japanese is first attested in the form of names contained in a few short inscriptions in Classical Chinese from the 5th century AD, such as found on the Inariyama Sword; the first substantial text in Japanese, however, is the Kojiki, which dates from 712 AD. It is followed by the Nihon shoki, completed in 720, that by the Man'yōshū, which dates from c. 771–785, but includes material, from about 400 years earlier. The most important text for the study of early Korean is the Hyangga, a collection of 25 poems, of which some go back to the Three Kingdoms period, but are preserved in an orthography that only goes back to the 9th century AD.

Korean is copiously attested from the mid-15th century on in the phonetically precise Hangul system of writing. A proposed grouping of the Turkic and Tungusic languages was published in 1730 by Philip Johan von Strahlenberg, a Swedish officer who traveled in the eastern Russian Empire while a prisoner of war after the Great Northern War. However, he may not have intended to imply a closer relationship among those languages. In 1844, the Finnish philologist Matthias Castrén proposed a broader grouping, that came to be called the Ural–Altaic family, which included Turkic and Manchu-Tungus as an "Altaic" branch, the Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic languages as the "Uralic" branch; the name "Altaic" referred to the Altai Mountains in East-Central Asia, which are the center of the geographic range of the three main families. The name "Uralic" referred to the Ural Mountains. While the Ural-Altaic family hypothesis can still be found in some encyclopedias and similar general references, after the 1960s it has been criticized.

Linguists who accept the basic Altaic family, like Sergei Starostin discard the inclusion of the "Uralic" branch. In 1857, the Austrian scholar Anton Boller suggested adding Japanese to the Ural–Altaic family. In the 1920s, G. J. Ramstedt and E. D. Polivanov advocated the inclusion of Korean. Decades in his 1952 book, Ramstedt rejected the Ural–Altaic hypothesis but again included Korean in Altaic, an inclusion followed by most leading Altaicists to date, his book contained the first comprehensive attempt to identify regular correspondences among the sound systems within the Altaic language families. In 1960, Nicholas Poppe published what was in effect a revised version of Ramstedt's volume on phonology that has since set the standard in Altaic studies. Poppe considered the issue of the relationship of Korean to Turkic-Mongolic-Tungusic not settled. In his view, there were three possibilities: Korean did not belong with the other three genealogically, but had been influenced by an Altaic substratum.

2019 UEFA ASSIST U-15 International Tournament

The 2019 UEFA ASSIST U-15 International Tournament was the 1st edition the tournament, held at Addu City, Maldives from 20 to 29 July 2019, being organised by Football Association of Maldives. In this tournament three teams participating are from AFC and one team from UEFA. All the four teams will play each other in a round robin phase and the top two teams will play the final; the FIFA Rankings of participating national teams, as of 12 July 2019: Saudi Arabia Latvia Maldives Bhutan All times are Time in the Maldives. As of 29 July 20195 GoalsDario Sits 4 GoalsKristaps Puzanovs 3 GoalsBruno Melnis 2 GoalsBikash Pradhan Jugme Namgyel Ahmed Ali Asiri Bader Waleed Alharbi Valerijs Lizunovs Markuss Marksimuss Alpens Kristers Volkvos Georgis Sackovs 1 GoalKinzang Tenzin Kalden Choeda Yoezang Rabgay Mohammed Khanaan Adam Niks Sledje Awad Abdu Dahal Mohammed Abdullah Akmari Abdulsalam Ali Barnawi Mohammed Mosa Shraheeli Own GoalTurki Mashhour Algumay

2015–16 Los Angeles Kings season

The 2015–16 Los Angeles Kings season was the 49th season for the National Hockey League franchise, established on June 5, 1967. The season began on October 7, 2015 and ended on April 23, 2016 both against the San Jose Sharks. On June 29, 2015, the Kings announced that they had terminated the contract of forward Mike Richards due to "a material breach of his Standard Player's Contract." Final stats †Denotes player spent time with another team before joining the Kings. Stats reflect time with the Kings only. ‡Traded mid-season. Stats reflect time with the Kings only. Bold/italics denotes franchise record The Kings have been involved in the following transactions during the 2015–16 season: NotesNote 1 Philadelphia to retain 50% of salary as part of trade. Note 2 Philadelphia to retain 50% of salary as part of trade. Note 3 Los Angeles to retain 15% of salary as part of trade. Note 4 Chicago to retain 50% of salary as part of trade. Below are the Los Angeles Kings' selections at the 2015 NHL Entry Draft, to be held on June 26–27, 2015, at the BB&T Center in Sunrise, Florida.

Draft notesThe Los Angeles Kings' first-round pick went to the Boston Bruins as the result of a trade on June 26, 2015 that sent Milan Lucic to Los Angeles in exchange for Martin Jones, Colin Miller and this pick. A The Los Angeles Kings' second-round pick was re-acquired as the result of a trade on March 5, 2014 that sent Hudson Fasching and Nicolas Deslauriers to Buffalo in exchange for Brayden McNabb, Jonathan Parker, Los Angeles' second-round pick in 2014 and this pick. Buffalo acquired this pick as the result of a trade on April 1, 2013 that sent Robyn Regehr to Los Angeles in exchange for a second-round pick in 2014 and this pick. B The Columbus Blue Jackets' fourth-round pick went to the Los Angeles Kings as the result of a trade on June 27, 2015 that sent a fourth-round pick in 2015 and a sixth-round pick in 2016 to Philadelphia in exchange for this pick. Philadelphia acquired this pick as the result of a trade on June 23, 2014 that sent Scott Hartnell to Columbus in exchange for R.

J. Umberger and this pick; the Los Angeles Kings' fourth-round pick went to the Philadelphia Flyers as the result of a trade on June 27, 2015 that sent Columbus' fourth-round pick in 2015 to Los Angeles in exchange for a sixth-round pick in 2016 and this pick. The Los Angeles Kings' sixth-round pick went to the Chicago Blackhawks as the result of a trade on July 16, 2013 that sent Daniel Carcillo to Los Angeles in exchange for this pick; the condition – Chicago will receive a sixth-round pick in 2015 if Carcillo plays less than 40 games with Los Angeles during the 2013–14 NHL season – was converted on January 4, 2014 when Carcillo was traded to the New York Rangers after playing only 26 games with the Kings. C The New Jersey Devils' seventh-round pick went to the Los Angeles Kings as the result of a trade on June 30, 2013 that sent a seventh-round pick in 2013 to New Jersey in exchange for this pick

John Seaton Robinson

John Seaton Robinson was a Nebraska Democratic politician. Born in Wheeling, Virginia on May 4, 1856, he studied law and was admitted to the bar by the supreme court of West Virginia in 1880, he moved to Madison, Nebraska in 1884 becoming the prosecuting attorney for Madison County, Nebraska from 1886 to 1888 and again from 1890 to 1892. He was a judge of the Nebraska's ninth judicial district from 1893 to 1895, he was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-sixth and Fifty-seventh Congresses unsuccessfully running for reelection in 1902. He is buried in Crownhill Cemetery in Madison. "Robinson, John Seaton". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved January 22, 2006. "Robinson, John Seaton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 22, 2006. John Seaton Robinson at Find a Grave

Kodō Nomura

Kodō Nomura was the pen-name of Nomura Osakazu, a novelist and music critic in Shōwa period Japan. He used the pen-name Araebisu for his music criticism, he is famous for his creation of the fictional detective Zenigata Heiji. Nomura was born in the rural district of Shiwa county, Iwate prefecture in northern Japan, the younger son of a farmer; as a youth, he loved to read, one of his favorite works was the Chinese classic Outlaws of the Marsh. He was sent to boarding school in Morioka, where he met Kindaichi Kyosuke a noted linguist and Namura's lifelong friend. One year behind him in the same school was future poet Ishikawa Takuboku, he attended Tokyo Imperial University, but left to work as a journalist for the Hochi Shimbun, a newspaper based in Tokyo. He continued to work as a journalist for the paper until it merged with the Yomiuri Shimbun in 1942. While working as a journalist, Nomura began to write popular fiction, notably historical novels, which appeared in serialized form in the literary journal Bungei Shunju.

His most famous work was a series of detective stories set in the Edo period called Zenigata Heiji torimono hikae. The first episode appeared in Bungei Shunju in 1931, (with a hiatus during World War II, the story continued for 383 episodes over the next 26 years; the main characters in the story were modeled after Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's famous detective pair, Sherlock Holmes and Dr Watson. The popularity of the story led to a movie adaptation in the year. Between 1931 and 1967, a total of 30 movies and an long-running and popular television series, were made; the story won the Kikuchi Kan Prize in 1958. Nomura wrote other novels, including another detective series, Ikeda Daisuke torimono hikae, but none were as popular as Zenigata Heiji. Nomura died of acute pneumonia in 1963, his personal fortune was set into a scholarship fund for aspiring writers. He had donated his entire library to his home town of Shiwa in Iwate prefecture, where it now resides in a memorial museum erected in his honor.

Nomura's daughter was the novelist Matsuda Keiko. Kodo Memorial Museum in Iwate Fujikura Shiro. Zenigata Heiji no kokoro: Nomura Kodō araebisuden. Bungei Shuju. ISBN 4-16-350650-0 Hirayama, Yuichi. Ed. Japan and Sherlock Holmes. Baker Street Productions. ISBN 0-9648788-7-9 Japanese literature List of Japanese authors

Phú Quốc

Phú Quốc is the largest island in Vietnam. Phú Quốc and nearby islands, along with distant Thổ Chu Islands, is part of Kiên Giang Province as Phú Quốc District, the island has a total area of 574 square kilometres and a permanent population of 103,000. Located in the Gulf of Thailand, the district of Phú Quốc includes the island proper and 21 smaller islets. Dương Đông town, is located on the west coast, is the administrative and largest town on the island; the other township is An Thoi on the southern tip of the island. The economy is centred on agriculture and a fast-growing tourism sector. Phu Quoc has achieved fast economic growth due to its current tourism boom. Many infrastructure projects have been carried out, including several five-star resorts. Phu Quoc International Airport is the hub connecting Phú Quốc with mainland Vietnam and other international destinations. From March 2014, Vietnam allowed all foreign tourists to visit Phú Quốc visa-free for a period of up to 30 days. By 2017, the government of Vietnam planned to set up a Special Administrative Region which covered Phu Quoc Island and peripheral islets and upgrades it to a provincial city with special administration.

Phú Quốc lies south of the Cambodian coast, west of Kampot, 40 km west of Ha Tien, the nearest coastal town in Vietnam. Triangular in shape the island is 50 kilometres long from north to south and 25 kilometres from east to west in the north at its widest, it is located 17 nautical miles from Krong Kampot, 62 nautical miles from Rạch Giá and nearly 290 nautical miles from Laem Chabang, Thailand. A mountainous ridge known as "99 Peaks" runs the length of Phú Quốc, with Chúa Mountain being the tallest at 603 metres. Phu Quoc Island is composed of sedimentary rocks from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age, including heterogeneous conglomerate composition, layering thick, quartz pebbles, limestone and felsite; the Mesozoic rocks are classified in Phu Quoc Formation. The Cenozoic sediments are classified in formations of Long Toan, Long My, Hau Giang, upper Holocene sediments, undivided Quaternary. Phu Quoc is divided into 3 Metropolitan areas:Downtown Dương Đông North Cửa Cạn South An ThớiWard and commune of Phu QuocBãi Thơm Cửa Dương Dương Tơ Gành Dầu Hàm Ninh Hòn Thơm Thổ Châu Phú Quốc is famous for its two traditional products: fish sauce and black pepper.

The rich fishing grounds offshore provides the anchovy catch from. As agreed among the Vietnamese people, the best fish sauce comes from Phú Quốc; the island name is coveted and abused in the fish sauce industry that local producers have been fighting for the protection of its appellation of origin. Pepper is cultivated everywhere on the island at Ganh Dau and Cua Duong communes; the pearl farming activity began more than 20 years ago when Australian and Japanese experts arrived to develop the industry with advanced technology. Some Vietnamese pearl farms were established at that time including Quoc An. Tourism plays an important role in the economy, with the beaches being the main attraction. Phu Quoc was served by Phu Quoc Airport with air links to Ho Chi Minh City Tan Son Nhat International Airport, Ha noi, Rach Gia, Can Tho. Phu Quoc Airport was closed and replaced by the new Phu Quoc International Airport from December 2, 2012. Phu Quoc is linked with Rach Gia and Hà Tiên by fast ferry hydrofoils.

Air Mekong used to have its headquarters in Phú Quốc. Many domestic and international projects related to tourism have been carried out, including latest direct flight from Bangkok to Phu Quoc by Bangkok Airways, which could make Phú Quốc a new tourist hub in Southeast Asia. Vinpearl Phu Quoc Resorts in combination with the opening of the new Vinmec Phu Quoc International Hospital in June 2015, Phu Quoc will add an additional source of revenue to the local economy in terms of medical services, medical tourism, medical education. Phu Quoc was a simple native fishing village; the French missionary Pigneau de Behaine used the island as a base during the 1760s and 1780s to shelter Nguyễn Ánh, hunted by the Tây Sơn army. An 1856 record mentions the island: "... King Ang Duong apprise Mr. de Montigny, French envoy in visit to Bangkok, through the intermediary of Bishop Miche, his intention to yield Phu Quoc to France." Such a proposition aimed to create a military alliance with France to avoid the threat of Vietnam on Cambodia.

The proposal did not receive an answer from the French. While the war between Vietnam and France was about to begin, Ang Duong sent another letter, dated November 25, 1856, to Napoleon III to warn him on Cambodian claims on the lower Cochinchina region: the Cambodian king listed provinces and islands, including Koh Trol កោះត្រល់, as being parts of Vietnam for several years or decades. Ang Duong asked the French emperor to not annex any part of these territories because, as he wrote, despite this long Vietnamese rule, they remained Cambodian lands. In 1867, Phu Quoc's Vietnamese authorities pledged allegiance to French troops just conquering Hà Tiên. In 1939, the Governor-general of French Indochina, Jules Brévié drew a line to delimit the administrative boundaries for islands in the Gulf of Thailand: those north of the line were placed under Cambodia protectorate. Brévié made the point that the decision