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Alternate reality game

An alternate reality game is an interactive networked narrative that uses the real world as a platform and employs transmedia storytelling to deliver a story that may be altered by players' ideas or actions. The form is defined by intense player involvement with a story that takes place in real time and evolves according to players' responses. Subsequently, it is shaped by characters that are controlled by the game's designers, as opposed to being controlled by an algorithm as in a computer or console video game. Players interact directly with characters in the game, solve plot-based challenges and puzzles, collaborate as a community to analyze the story and coordinate real-life and online activities. ARGs use multimedia, such as telephones and mail but rely on the Internet as the central binding medium. ARGs are growing in popularity, with new games appearing and an increasing amount of experimentation with new models and subgenres, they tend to be free to play, with costs absorbed either through supporting products or through promotional relationships with existing products.

However, pay-to-play models exist as well. There is a great deal of debate surrounding the characteristics by which the term "alternate reality game" should be defined. Sean Stacey, the founder of the website Unfiction, has suggested that the best way to define the genre was not to define it, instead locate each game on three axes in a sphere of "chaotic fiction" that would include works such as the Uncyclopedia and street games like SF0 as well. Several experts, point to the use of transmedia, "the aggregate effect of multiple texts/media artifacts," as the defining attribute of ARGs; this prompts the unique collaboration emanating from ARGs as well. It's a game that's social and comes at you across all the different ways that you connect to the world around you." Among the terms essential to understanding discussions about ARGs are: Puppet-master – A puppet-master or "PM" is an individual involved in designing and/or running an ARG. Puppet-masters are allies and adversaries to the player base, creating obstacles and providing resources for overcoming them in the course of telling the game's story.

Puppet-masters remain behind the curtain while a game is running. The real identity of puppet masters may not be known ahead of time; the Curtain – The curtain, drawing from the phrase, "Pay no attention to the man behind the curtain," is a metaphor for the separation between the puppetmasters and the players. This can take the traditional form of absolute secrecy regarding the puppetmasters' identities and involvement with the production, or refer to the convention that puppet-masters do not communicate directly with players through the game, interacting instead through the characters and the game's design. Rabbit-hole/Trailhead – A rabbit-hole, or trailhead, marks the first media artifact, be it a website, contact, or puzzle, that draws in players. Most ARGs employ a number of trailheads in several media to maximize the probability of people discovering the game; the rabbit-hole is a website, the most updated, cost-effective option. This Is Not A Game – Setting the ARG form apart from other games is the This Is Not A Game sentiment popularized by the players themselves.

It is the belief that "one of the main goals of the ARG is to deny and disguise the fact that it is a game at all." Computer/console/video games. While ARGs use the internet as a central binding medium, they are not played on a computer and do not require the use of special software or interfaces. Non-player characters in ARGs are controlled in real time by the puppetmasters, not computer algorithms. Role-playing games and Live action role-playing games; the role of the puppetmaster in creating ARG narratives and the puppetmaster's relationship with an ARG's players bears a great deal of similarity to the role of a game master or referee in a role-playing game. However, the role of the players is quite different. Most ARGs do not have any fixed rules—players discover the rules and the boundaries of the game through trial and error—and do not require players to assume fictional identities or roleplay beyond feigning belief in the reality of the characters they interact with; the This Is Not A Game aesthetic is distinctive to ARGs, not being present in the RPGs or LARPs.

Massively multiplayer online role-playing games. As outlined above with computer games and traditional role-playing games, non-player characters in ARGs are controlled by real people in real time, not by computer AI. Viral marketing/internet hoaxes. While ARGs are used as a type of viral marketing, they diverge from the philosophy behind "sponsored consumers" or other viral marketing practices that attempt to trick consumers into believing that planted shills for a product are other independent consumers, they diverge from sites or narratives that genuinely try to convince visitors that they are what they c

Corning (town), New York

Corning is a town in Steuben County, New York, US. The town is in the eastern part of borders the city of Corning; the town population was 6,426 at the 2000 census. The town is named after a financier; the first settlement was near the current city of Corning around 1789. The Town of Corning began as the "Town of Painted Post" in 1796. In 1836, the name was changed to honor an important investor in the local economy; the community of Corning set itself apart as a village in 1848 and became a city in 1890. The town of Corning was incorporated in 1852. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.3 square miles, of which 0.4 square miles of it is water. The Chemung River, formed by the confluence of the Cohocton River and the Tioga River a few miles west of the town, flows through the town, the city of Corning; the east town line is the border of Chemung County. Interstate 86, New York State Route 17, New York State Route 225, New York State Route 352, New York State Route 414, New York State Route 415 pass through the town.

As of the census of 2000, there were 6,426 people, 2,491 households, 1,840 families residing in the town. The population density was 174.1 people per square mile. There were 2,626 housing units at an average density of 71.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.25% White, 2.46% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 1.35% Asian, 0.11% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.67% of the population. There were 2,491 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $44,649, the median income for a family was $51,470. Males had a median income of $40,542 versus $25,804 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,149. About 5.9% of families and 8.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under age 18 and 2.8% of those age 65 or over. Corning Community College – A public junior college west of South Corning. Corning Manor – A hamlet southeast of Corning city by Interstate 86. Denmark – A hamlet and suburban community northeast of Corning city. East Corning – A location near the east town line on NY-352. French Mill – A hamlet south of Corning on NY-225. Gibson – A hamlet southeast of Corning city on the north bank of the Chemung River. Guthrie Corning Hospital Narrows Creek – A stream entering the Chemung River by Gibson. Post Creek – A stream entering the Chemung River by Corning city.

Riverside – A village located on NY-415 that borders the city of Corning on its west side. South Corning – A village located on NY-225 south of the city of Corning. Corning area chamber of commerce Town of Corning history/links Corning Museum of Glass

2016 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final

The 2016 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final was the 129th event of its kind and the culmination of the 2016 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship. It was played at Croke Park in Dublin on 4 September 2016; this was the 18th All-Ireland season. Of the previous 17, Tipperary won 10 and Kilkenny 7, it was the fifth final between Tipperary and Kilkenny since 2009, with Kilkenny leading the series 3-1. Kilkenny were chasing three in a row with Tipperary looking for a first All-Ireland since 2010; the final was shown live in Ireland on RTÉ One as part of The Sunday Game live programme, presented by Michael Lyster from Croke Park, with studio analysis from Liam Sheedy, Henry Shefflin and Ger Loughnane. Match commentary was provided by Ger Canning with analysis by Michael Duignan; the game was shown live on Sky Sports, presented by Rachel Wyse and Brian Carney. Tipperary clinched their 27th All-Ireland title winning on a 2-29 to 2-20 scoreline, their victory marked the first time since the 1960s that Tipperary had won multiple All-Ireland titles in a single decade, having only won one title each in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.

This was the seventh time in eight years that the counties have played each other in the championship, with Kilkenny winning 5 times. Kilkenny went into the final having won 36 All Ireland titles, 11 titles in the last 15 years, with Tipperary on 26 titles, 2 titles over the same period; the teams had played each other 26 times in the championship, the first time being in 1887, with Kilkenny winning 12 times and Tipperary winning on 13 occasions with one draw in 2014. Since the 2010 All-Ireland Final, Kilkenny have 10 wins and a draw in 13 league and championship games against Tipperary. Kilkenny had played in 65 All-Ireland finals, winning 36, losing 25 and drawing 4, with Tipperary having appeared in 40 All-Ireland finals, winning 26, losing 12 and drawing 2; the final was Kilkenny manager Brian Cody's 84th championship match as manager since taking over at the start of 1999 season. Kilkenny had won 68, drawn six and lost nine of the previous matches, the defeats being against Galway in 2001, 2005 and 2012, Cork in 1999, 2004 and 2013, Wexford in 2004, Tipperary in 2010 and Dublin in 2013.

Tipperary were bidding to become the first Munster champions to win the All-Ireland title since Cork in 2005. The Tipperary team that won the 1991 All-Ireland Final was presented to the crowd before the match to mark 25 years. Tipperary manager Michael Ryan who played on that team was represented by his mother for the presentation. With a stadium capacity of 82,300, the 32 individual county boards will receive 60,000 tickets. Schools and third level colleges will get 2,500 tickets, while season ticket holders will be entitled to 5,500 tickets. 1,000 tickets will be given to overseas clubs. The Camogie, Ladies' Football and Rounders Associations are each allocated about 200 tickets, as are the jubilee teams and mini-7s which play at half-time; the match was a sell-out. The 2016 All-Ireland Minor Hurling Final was played between Tipperary and Limerick as a curtain-raiser to the senior final. Tipperary went on to win the final on a 1-21 to 0-17 scoreline; the Tipperary minor team were captained by Brian McGrath, brother of Noel and John McGrath who went to win the senior final with Tipperary.

On 22 August 2016 the officials were chosen for the final by the GAA, with Brian Gavin being named as the referee. Barry Kelly was the standby referee with Colm Lyons of Cork the other linesman and John Keane of Galway the sideline official; the umpires were Michael Gavin, David Gavin, William Flynn, all from Clara and PJ Lawlor from Ferbane/Belmont. The match was his fourth All-Ireland final having been the referee in 2011, 2013, the replay in 2014, it was confirmed on 15 August that Kilkenny's Michael Fennelly would miss the final after he ruptured his achilles tendon in the semi-final replay victory over Waterford. Kilkenny named their starting fifteen on Friday 2 September and it showed two changes to the one which defeated Waterford in the semi-final replay with Kevin Kelly included at corner-forward; the other change saw Kieran Joyce replacing Michael Fennelly. Michael Ryan made one change to the Tipperary team for the final with John O’Dwyer coming in at top of the right instead of Nial O Meara with John McGrath moving to top of the left.

There were five All-Ireland Final debutants in Tipperary's starting line-up. Seamus Callanan opened the scoring after two minutes with a point from out on the left which he hit over his left shoulder. Kevin Kelly equalized for Kilkenny in the fifth minute before TJ Reid scored from a free to put Kilkenny into a one-point lead. After ten minutes, Séamus Kennedy scored his first championship point to make it four points all, after fifteen minutes it was six all. John O’Dwyer scored a point after twenty five minutes to level the scores at nine all; the half-time score was Tipperary 0-14 Kilkenny 0-12 with every single Tipperary forward scoring from play. The sides were level 10 times in the first half. Seamus Callinan had five points in the first half and scored the first point of the second half from a free to open the lead to three points. After forty-one minutes, Kevin Kelly scored a goal for Kilkenny when he scoped and flicked the ball into the empty net in front of the hill 16 end. Seamus Callinan got the next score from a free to put one point between them.

Jason Forde who had come on as a substitute a minute earlier for Michael Breen scored a point to level the game in the forty fifth minute. Two minutes John O’Dwyer picked up the ball and cut in from the left and hit a low shot from distance that flew into the back of the net to put Tipperary into a four-point lead. Pauric

Jean-Louis-Auguste Commerson

Jean-Louis-Auguste Commerson was a 19th-century French writer and playwright. A specialist of puns and journalistic "canards", Commerson wrote many humorous books, including Pensées d'un emballeur pour faire suite aux « Maximes » de François de La Rochefoucauld, Un million de bouffonneries, Le Petit Tintamarre, La Petite Encyclopédie bouffonne and Un million de chiquenaudes et menus propos tirés de la Gazette de Merluchon, he authored comédies en vaudevilles, alone or in collaboration, established the periodical Le Tam-tam. He signed most of his works of his surname but only used the pen names Joseph-Prudhomme and Joseph Citrouillard. 1840: Les Trente, « drame national » in four acts and in verse 1845: Un souper sous la Régence, comédie-vaudeville in one act, with Raymond Deslandes, Théâtre des Délassements-Comiques, 15 November 1846: Les Fleurs animées, vaudeville in one act, with Charles Labie and Xavier de Montépin, Théâtre du Vaudeville, 13 July 1849: Ma tabatière ou Comment on arrive, comédie-vaudeville in four tableaux, with the Cogniard brothers, Théâtre du Gymnase-Dramatique, 15 March 1849: Une bonne fille, vaudeville in one act, Théâtre de la Porte-Saint-Martin, 11 November 1849: Les Fredaines de Troussard, vaudeville in one act, with Édouard Brisebarre and Charles Potier, Théâtre des Folies-Dramatiques, 13 November 1853: Les Deux Marguerite, vaudeville in one act, with Félix Dutertre de Véteuil, Théâtre des Variétés, 12 July 1853: La Pêche aux corsets, vaudeville in one act, with Eugène Furpille, Théâtre de la Gaîté, 22 October 1854: Un mari à l'étouffée, vaudeville in one act, with Eugène Chavette, Théâtre des Folies-Dramatiques, 28 January 1854: Les Binettes contemporaines, review in three acts and 7 tableaux, with Clairville and J. Cordier, Théâtre du Palais-Royal, 23 December 1855: Où sont les pincettes? folie-vaudeville in one act, with Eugène Chavette, Théâtre des Folies-Dramatiques, 13 June 1855: Un suicide à l'encre rouge, vaudeville in one act, with Eugène Furpille, Théâtre de la Gaîté, 10 September 1856: Un monsieur bien mis, vaudeville in one act, with Henri Rochefort, Théâtre des Folies-Dramatiques, 10 March 1859: Le Jugement de Pâris, operetta in one act mingled with dances and extravaganza, with Ernest Alby, music by Laurent de Rillé, théâtre des Folies-Nouvelles, 11 February 1859: La Clarinette mystérieuse, vaudeville in one act, with Jules Moinaux, Théâtre des Folies-Dramatiques, 18 June 1860: Quatre femmes sur les bras, with Théodore Labourieu, Théâtre de la Gaîté, 17 March 1860: Le Marchand de parapluies, revue in three acts, with Paul Faulquemont, Théâtre Beaumarchais, 17 Decembre 1864: La Vengeance de Pistache, vaudeville in one act, with Amable Bapaume, théâtre Déjazet, 26 Mars 1866: Doña Framboisias, folie-vaudeville in one act, with Amable Bapaume, Théâtre des Folies-Marigny, 6 July 1867: Les Vacances de Cadichet, vaudeville n one act, with Amable Bapaume, Théâtre des Folies-Dramatiques, 22 July 1922: Les Plaisirs de la ville, poèmes dédiés aux jolies femmesText online 1825: Contes et NouvellesText online 1825: Hommage à La FayetteText online 1851: Pensées d'un emballeur pour faire suite aux « Maximes » de La Rochefoucauld, foreword by Théodore de BanvilleText online in Bibliothèque des calembours.

Reprint: Garnier, 1978. 1854: Le Code civil dévoilé, dédié aux emballeurs, aux réfugiés polonais et aux gardes nationaux sans ouvrage et notamment aux licenciés de l'École de droit, pour cause d'incapacité notoire 1854: Rêveries d'un étameur, pour faire suite aux pensées de Blaise Pascal 1854: Un million de bouffonneries, ou Le Blagorama français 1854–1855: Les Binettes contemporaines, par Joseph Citrouillard, reviewed by Commerson, to compete with those of Eugène de Mirecourt, portraits by Nadar, 10 vol. 1854–1855 Texte en ligne 1 2 3 4 5 1857: Le Petit Tintamarre, humorous weeklyText online 1858: Lettre d'un vieux fou à un jeune sageText online 1860: Petite encyclopédie bouffonneText online c.1880: Un million de chiquenaudes et menus propos tirés de la « Gazette de Merluchon » Le Tam-tam, magazine hebdomadaire de littérature, d'arts, de sciences et d'industrie was a newspaper published by Commerson from 1835. It would change titles several times during its publication: Le Tam-tam républicain, organe des clubs.

Jean-Baptiste Dalès called Dalès ainé collaborated with this paper, sometimes called "former Tam-Tam" to distinguish it from two other publications by Commerson: Le Tam-tam, revue critique des Polichinels politiques, religieux et autres by Napoléon Citrouillard, specimen issue 10 March 1871. 1872-1877. According to Jacques Rouvière, the sentence "Cities should be built in the country, the air is healthier"" attributed to Alphonse Allais, is to be found in the Pensées d'un emballeur by Commerson. In fact, it seems that this joke was in Le Pamphlet provisoire illustré

Bidhan Chandra College, Rishra

Bidhan Chandra College known as Rishra College, is one of the oldest colleges at Rishra, in the Hooghly district, West Bengal, India. It offers undergraduate courses in arts and sciences, it is affiliated to University of Calcutta. It was established in 1957. Mathematics Computer Science Physics Electronics Geography Economics Environmental Science Bengali English Hindi Sanskrit History Political Science Philosophy Economics Education Commerce In 2016 the college has been awarded B grade by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council; the college is recognized by the University Grants Commission. Official website

History of the Knights Templar

The Knights Templar were the elite fighting force of their day trained, well-equipped and motivated. Not all Knights Templar were warriors; the mission of most of the members was one of support – to acquire resources which could be used to fund and equip the small percentage of members who were fighting on the front lines. There were three classes within the orders; the highest class was the knight. When a candidate was sworn into the order, they made the knight a monk, they wore white robes. The knights could receive no private letters, he can not have any vow in any other Order. He could not have debt more than he could pay, no infirmities; the Templar priest class was similar to the modern day military chaplain. Wearing green robes, they conducted religious services, led prayers, were assigned record keeping and letter writing, they always wore gloves. The mounted men-at-arms represented the most common class, they were called "brothers", they were assigned two horses each and held many positions, including guard, squire or other support vocations.

As the main support staff, they wore black or brown robes and were garbed in chain mail or plate mail. The armor was not as complete as the knights; because of this infrastructure, the warriors were well-trained and well armed. Their horses were trained to fight in combat armored; the combination of soldier and monk was a powerful one, as to the Templar knights, martyrdom in battle was one of the most glorious ways to die. The Templars were shrewd tacticians, following the dream of Saint Bernard who had declared that a small force, under the right conditions, could defeat a much larger enemy. One of the key battles in which this was demonstrated was at the Battle of Montgisard; the famous Muslim military leader Saladin was attempting to push toward Jerusalem from the south, with a force of 26,000 soldiers. He had pinned the forces of Jerusalem's King Baldwin IV, about 500 knights and their supporters, near the coast, at Ascalon. Eighty Templar knights and their own entourage attempted to reinforce.

They met Saladin's troops at Gaza, but were considered too small a force to be worth fighting, so Saladin turned his back on them and headed with his army towards Jerusalem. Once Saladin and his army had moved on, the Templars were able to join King Baldwin's forces, together they proceeded north along the coast. Saladin had made a key mistake at that point – instead of keeping his forces together, he permitted his army to temporarily spread out and pillage various villages on their way to Jerusalem; the Templars took advantage of this low state of readiness to launch a surprise ambush directly against Saladin and his bodyguard, at Montgisard near Ramla. Saladin's army was spread too thin to adequately defend themselves, he and his forces were forced to fight a losing battle as they retreated back to the south, ending up with only a tenth of their original number; the battle was not the final one with Saladin, but it bought a year of peace for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the victory became a heroic legend.

Another key tactic of the Templars was that of the "squadron charge". A small group of knights and their armed warhorses would gather into a tight unit which would gallop full speed at the enemy lines, with a determination and force of will that made it clear that they would rather commit suicide than fall back; this terrifying onslaught would have the desired result of breaking a hole in the enemy lines, thereby giving the other Crusader forces an advantage. The Templars, though small in number joined other armies in key battles, they would be the force that would ram through the enemy's front lines at the beginning of a battle, or the fighters that would protect the army from the rear. They fought alongside King Louis VII of France, King Richard I of England. In addition to battles in Palestine, members of the Order fought in the Spanish and Portuguese Reconquista. Though an Order of poor monks, the official papal sanction made the Knights Templar a charity across Europe. Further resources came in when members joined the Order, as they had to take oaths of poverty, therefore donated large amounts of their original cash or property to the Order.

Additional revenue came from business dealings. Since the monks themselves were sworn to poverty, but had the strength of a large and trusted international infrastructure behind them, nobles would use them as a kind of bank or power of attorney. If a noble wished to join the Crusades, this might entail an absence of years from their home. So some nobles would place all of their wealth and businesses under the control of Templars, to safeguard it for them until their return; the Order's financial power became substantial, the majority of the Order's infrastructure was devoted not to combat, but to economic pursuits. By 1150, the Order's original mission of guarding pilgrims had changed into a mission of guarding their valuables through an innovative way of issuing letters of credit, an early precursor of modern banking. Pilgrims would visit a Templar house in their home country, depositing their valuables; the Templars would give them a letter which would describe their holdings. Modern scholars have stated that the letters were encrypted with a cipher alphabet based on a Maltese Cross.