Underground music comprises musical genres beyond mainstream culture. Any song, not being commercialized is considered underground. Underground music may tend to express common ideas, such as high regard for sincerity and intimacy, freedom of creative expression as opposed to the formulaic composition of commercial music, appreciation of artistic individuality as opposed to conformity to current mainstream trends. Apart from the underground rock scenes in the pre-Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet Union, or the modern anti-Islamic metal scene of theocratic states in the Arabian Peninsula few types of underground music are hidden, although performances and recordings may be difficult for outsiders to find; some underground rock bands never got non-mainstream roots. They are radical, aggressive 60s bands such as The Velvet Underground, The Stooges, MC5, 70s bands like The Sex Pistols, The Damned, The Clash, 80s hardcore punk bands like Discharge; some underground styles became mainstream, commercialized pop styles, as did for example, the underground hip hop style of the early 1980s.
In the 2000s, the increasing availability of the Internet and digital music technologies has made underground music easier to distribute using streaming audio and podcasts. Some experts in cultural studies now argue that "there is no underground" because the Internet has made what was underground music accessible to everyone at the click of a mouse. One expert, Martin Raymond, of London-based company The Future Laboratory, commented in an article in The Independent, saying trends in music and politics are:... now transmitted laterally and collaboratively via the internet. You once had a series of gatekeepers in the adoption of a trend: the innovator, the early adopter, the late adopter, the early mainstream, the late mainstream, the conservative, but now it goes straight from the innovator to the mainstream. In effect, this means a boy band could be influenced by a obscure 1960s garage rock, early 1980s post punk, noise rock acts like Pussy Galore or composers of avant-garde classical music such as John Cage and Karlheinz Stockhausen, while maintaining recognizability as a boy band.
The term "underground music" has been applied to various artistic movements, for instance the psychedelic music movement of the mid-1960s, but the term has in more recent decades come to be defined by any musicians who tend to avoid the trappings of the mainstream commercial music industry otherwise it tells only truth through the music. Frank Zappa attempted to define "underground" by noting that the "mainstream comes to you, but you have to go to the underground." In the 1960s, the term "underground" was associated with the hippie counterculture and psychedelic drugs, applied to journalism and film as well as music, as they sought to communicate psychedelic experiences and Free love ideals. In modern popular music, the term "underground" refers to performers or bands ranging from artists that do DIY guerrilla concerts and self-recorded shows to those that are signed to small independent labels. In some musical styles, the term "underground" is used to assert that the content of the music is illegal or controversial, as in the case of early 1990s death metal bands in the US such as Cannibal Corpse for their gory cover art and lyrical themes.
Black metal is an underground form of music and its Norwegian scene are notorious for their association with church burnings, the occult and their Anti-Christian views. All of extreme metal is considered underground music for its extreme nature. Shlomo Sher's "philosophy for artists" argues that there are three common misconceptions about the "underground": that it refers to the rave/electronica scene. Instead, Sher claims that "underground music" is linked by shared values, such as a valuing of grassroots "reality" over music with "pre-wrapped marketing glossing it up". In a Counterpunch magazine article, Twiin argues that "Underground music is free media", because by working "independently, you can say anything in your music" and be free of corporate censorship; the genre of post-punk is considered a "catchall category for underground, indie, or lo-fi guitar rock" bands which "initially avoided major record labels in the pursuit of artistic freedom, out of an'us against them' stance towards the corporate rock world", spreading "west over college station airwaves, small clubs and independent record stores."
Underground music of this type is promoted through word-of-mouth or by community radio DJs. In the early underground scenes, such as the Grateful Dead jam band fan scenes or the 1970s punk scenes, crude home-made tapes were traded or sold from the stage or from the trunk of a car. In the 2000s, underground music podcasts. A music underground can refer to the culture of underground music in a city and its accompanying performance venues; the Kitchen is an example of what was an important New York City underground music venue in the 1960s and 1970s. CBGB is another famous New York City underground music venue claiming to be "Home of Underground Rock since 1973". Many gen
Taste of Chaos
Taste of Chaos was a live music tour, started in the winter of 2005 by Kevin Lyman, the creator of the successful Warped Tour along with his friend and business partner, John Reese. The Taste Of Chaos tour catered to fans of the post-hardcore, pop punk and metalcore genres, while offering the same low ticket price and festival-style format as the Warped Tour. In 2007, each of the seven bands playing the entire tour was a Warped Tour veteran: five had played the 2006 Warped Tour and two had played TOC previously. Taste of Chaos has been called the "Winter Warped Tour" since dates run from October through April of the next year; the tour was successful in 2005 for many of the same reasons as its summer counterpart, including cheap tickets and major bands of the genres. In the fall of 2005, the tour became international with The Used, Story of the Year, Rise Against playing in Australia and Asia; the 2008 lineup was the first to feature Japanese bands, them being Mucc, D'espairsRay and The Underneath.
In 2010, Taste of Chaos founder John Reese stated that although the tour was successful internationally, it had "run its course in America" and would be replaced by the Uproar Festival. Reese stated that the replacement was due to, "running out of bands that fit within the profile of what Taste of Chaos was." Uproar will feature hard rock bands and will begin shortly after the heavy metal tour Mayhem Festival in August 2010. Kevin Lyman expects the tour to continue in Europe, is unsure if it will return to the US. For the first time since the tour began, Taste of Chaos had no dates in 2011. On June 18, 2015, it was announced that Taste of Chaos would return with its first festival in five years; the festival took place on October 3 at the San Manuel Amphitheater in California. It was at a Taste of Chaos show in Orlando, FL, that Fueled By Ramen representative John Janick first saw Paramore, which led to them signing their first major recording contract. Ernie Ball International Battle Of The Bands started in 2006, to get popular upcoming small and unsigned bands to play the Taste of Chaos shows in their local towns across many of the tour dates.
Fans determine which band is able to win by voting for all bands though the Ernie Ball International Battle Of The Bands Website. The Top 20 Bands in each city, by way of votes will be reviewed by a panel of judges who will select One band out of the top 20 to play live in their hometown on Taste of Chaos Tour; the Top 20 vote getting bands in each city will be reviewed by the judges. One band will be selected based on the following indicators: Musicianship Ability to Draw in a Live Setting. Kevin Lyman - Founder of the Vans Warped Tour, Co-Founder of the Rockstar Taste of Chaos Tour. John Reese, Co-Founder of the Rockstar Taste of Chaos, Manager of The Used, Story of the Year. Sterling Ball - CEO of Ernie Ball Inc. Brian Ball - Marketing and Artist Relations for Ernie Ball Inc. Dustin Hinz - Promotions / Marketing for Guitar Center Inc. Brett Woitunski - CEO and Founder of purevolume.com John Oakes - Vice President of Freeze Artist Management and Co-Founder of Chaos Mobile Mike Kelso - Music Marketing Director for Rockstar Energy Drink.
Kevin Scoles - Artist Relations/Events Marketing Ernie Ball Inc. Taste of Chaos tours were conducted annually in 2005 through 2010 again in 2015 and 2016; as does the Warped Tour with their compilations, the Taste Of Chaos tour releases compilations of the bands that are on the tour. Taste of Chaos Taste of Christmas The Best of Taste of Chaos The Best of Taste of Chaos Two. Live Review of April 2006 Calgary, AB, Canada Concert by Chris Andrade for kMNR... Music News Weekly Review of April 2008 Los Angeles, CA Concert by Winnie Jaing for LA. Cityzine Official website Myspace AU & NZ TOC Myspace UK Myspace Exclusive Interview with Kevin Lyman, founder of Taste of Chaos, at TrulyHollywood.com. Ernie ball battle of the bands
Fall Out Boy
Fall Out Boy is an American rock band formed in Wilmette, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, in 2001. The band consists of lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist Patrick Stump, bassist Pete Wentz, lead guitarist Joe Trohman, drummer Andy Hurley; the band originated from Chicago's hardcore punk scene, with which all members were involved at one point. The group was formed by Wentz and Trohman as a pop punk side project of the members' respective hardcore bands, Stump joined shortly thereafter; the group went through a succession of drummers before landing Hurley and recording the group's debut album, Take This to Your Grave. The album became an underground success and helped the band gain a dedicated fanbase through heavy touring, as well as some moderate commercial success. Take This to Your Grave has been cited as an influential blueprint for pop punk music in the 2000s. With Wentz as the band's lyricist and Stump as the primary composer, the band's 2005 major-label breakthrough, From Under the Cork Tree, produced two hit singles, "Sugar, We're Goin Down" and "Dance, Dance", went double platinum, transforming the group into superstars and making Wentz a celebrity and tabloid fixture.
Fall Out Boy received a Best New Artist nomination at the 2006 Grammy Awards. The band's 2007 follow-up, Infinity on High, debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 with 260,000 first week sales, it produced two worldwide hit singles, "This Ain't a Scene, It's an Arms Race" and "Thnks fr th Mmrs". Folie à Deux, the band's fourth album, created a mixed response from fans and commercially undersold expectations. Following the release of Believers Never Die – Greatest Hits, the band took a hiatus from 2009 to 2012 to "decompress", exploring various side projects; the band regrouped and recorded Save Rock and Roll, becoming its second career number one and included the top 20 single "My Songs Know What You Did in the Dark". The same year, the band released the EP PAX AM Days, consisting of 8 punk-influenced tracks that were recorded during a two-day session with producer Ryan Adams; the band's sixth studio album, American Beauty/American Psycho peaked at number one on the Billboard 200, spawned the top-10 hit "Centuries" and the single "Uma Thurman" which reached No. 22 on the Billboard Hot 100.
This was followed by their first remix album Make America Psycho Again, which featured the remixes of all original tracks from American Beauty/American Psycho by a different artist on each song, including Migos and Wiz Khalifa. The band's seventh studio album Mania peaked at No. 1, making it the band's fourth No. 1 album and the group's sixth consecutive top 10 album. In 2018, Fall Out Boy received their second Grammy nomination for Best Rock Album for MANIA. Fall Out Boy was formed in 2001 in the Chicago suburb of Wilmette, Illinois by friends Pete Wentz and Joe Trohman. Wentz was a "visible fixture" of the small Chicago hardcore punk scene of the late 1990s, performing in various groups such as Birthright and First Born, as well the metalcore band Arma Angelus and the more political Racetraitor, "a band that managed to land the covers of Maximumrocknroll and Heartattack fanzines before releasing a single note of music". Wentz was growing dissatisfied with the changing mores of the community, which he viewed as a transition from political activism to an emphasis on moshing and breakdowns.
With enthusiasm in Arma Angelus waning, he created a pop punk side project with Trohman as an "easy and escapist" project. Trohman met Patrick Stump a drummer for grindcore band Xgrinding processX and a host of other bands that "never managed", at a Borders bookstore in Wilmette. While discussing Neurosis with a friend, Stump interrupted the conversation to correct their classification of the band in a conversation that soon shifted to the new band. Stump, viewing it as an opportunity to try out with "local hardcore celebrity" Wentz, directed Trohman to his MP3.com page, which contained sung-through acoustic recordings. Stump intended to try out as a drummer. While Wentz wanted Racetraitor bandmate Andy Hurley in the group as drummer, Hurley appeared uninterested and too busy; the band's first public performance came in a cafeteria at DePaul University alongside Stilwell and another group that performed Black Sabbath in its entirety. The band's only performance with guitarist John Flamandan and original drummer Ben Rose was in retrospect described as "goofy" and "bad", but Trohman made an active effort to make the band work, picking up members for practice.
Wentz and Stump argued over band names. After creating a short list of names that included "Fall Out Boy", a fictional character from The Simpsons and Bongo Comics, friends voted on the name; the band's second performance, at a southern Illinois university with The Killing Tree, began with Wentz introducing the band under a name Stump recalled as "very long". According to Stump, an audience member yelled out, "Fuck that, no, you're Fall Out Boy!", the band were credited in the show under that name by Killing Tree frontman Tim McIlrath. As the group looked up to McIlrath, Trohman and Stump were "die-hard" Simpsons fans, the name stuck; the group's first cassette tape demo was recorded in Rose's basement, but the band set off for Wisconsin to record a proper demo with 7 Angels 7 Plagues drummer Jared Logan, whom Wentz knew through connections in the hardcore scene. Several more members passed through the group, including drummer Mike Pareskuwicz of Subsist and guitarist T. J. "Racine" Kunasch. While Stump at this point felt unintereste
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt
Soundgarden was an American rock band formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1984 by singer and rhythm guitarist Chris Cornell, lead guitarist Kim Thayil, bassist Hiro Yamamoto. Matt Cameron became the band's full-time drummer in 1986, while bassist Ben Shepherd became a permanent replacement for Yamamoto in 1990; the band dissolved in 1997 and re-formed in 2010. Following Cornell's death in 2017, Thayil became the last remaining original member. Soundgarden was one of the seminal creators of grunge, a style of alternative rock that developed in Seattle, was the first of a number of grunge bands to sign to the record label Sub Pop. Soundgarden was the first grunge band to sign to a major label, though they did not achieve commercial success until they popularized the genre in the early 1990s with Seattle contemporaries Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, Nirvana. Soundgarden achieved its biggest success with the 1994 album Superunknown, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and yielded the Grammy Award-winning singles "Spoonman" and "Black Hole Sun".
In 1997, the band broke up due to internal strife over its creative direction. After more than a decade of working on projects and other bands, Soundgarden reunited in 2010, Republic Records released their sixth studio album, King Animal two years later. Following Cornell's suicide in 2017 and a year of uncertainty of the band's future, Thayil declared in an October 2018 interview with Seattle Times that they would not continue as Soundgarden; as of 2012, Soundgarden sold more than 10.5 million records in the United States, an estimated 25 million worldwide. VH1 ranked Soundgarden at number 14 in their special 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. Soundgarden's origins began with a band called the Shemps, which performed around Seattle in the early 1980s, featured bassist Hiro Yamamoto and drummer and singer Chris Cornell. Following Yamamoto's departure, the band recruited guitarist Kim Thayil as its new bassist. Thayil moved to Seattle from Park Forest, with Yamamoto and Bruce Pavitt, who would start the independent record label Sub Pop. Cornell and Yamamoto stayed in contact, after the Shemps broke up Cornell and Yamamoto started jamming together, were joined by Thayil.
Soundgarden formed in 1984 and included Cornell and Thayil. The band named themselves after a wind-channeling pipe sculpture titled A Sound Garden, on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration property at 7600 Sand Point Way, next to Magnuson Park in Seattle. Cornell played drums while singing, but in 1985 the band enlisted Scott Sundquist to allow Cornell to concentrate on vocals; the band traveled around playing various concerts with this lineup for about a year. Their first recordings were three songs that appeared on the 1986 compilation album for C/Z Records called Deep Six—"Heretic", "Tears to Forget" and "All Your Lies", it featured songs by fellow grunge pioneers Green River, Skin Yard, the U-Men, the Melvins. In 1986, Sundquist left the band to spend time with his family. Skin Yard's drummer Matt Cameron replaced him. A Soundgarden performance one night impressed KCMU DJ Jonathan Poneman who said: "I saw this band, everything rock music should be." Poneman offered to fund a release by the band, so Thayil suggested he team up with Bruce Pavitt.
Poneman offered to contribute $20,000 in funding for Sub Pop turning it into a full-fledged record label. Soundgarden signed to Sub Pop, the label released "Hunted Down" in 1987 as the band's first single; the B-side of "Hunted Down," "Nothing to Say," appeared on the KCMU compilation tape Bands That Will Make Money, distributed to record companies, many of whom showed interest in Soundgarden. Through Sub Pop, the band released the Screaming Life EP in 1987, the Fopp EP in 1988, a combination of the two, Screaming Life/Fopp, in 1990. Though major labels were courting the band, in 1988 they signed to the independent label SST Records for their independent album, Ultramega OK, released on October 31, 1988. Cornell said the band "made a huge mistake with Ultramega OK" because they used a producer suggested by SST who "didn't know what was happening in Seattle". According to Steve Huey of AllMusic, Soundgarden demonstrates, a "Stooges/MC5-meets-Zeppelin/Sabbath sound" on the album. Mark Miremont directed the band's first music video for "Flower," which aired on MTV's 120 Minutes.
Soundgarden supported Ultramega OK on a tour in the United States in the spring of 1989, a tour in Europe, which began in May 1989—the band's first overseas tour. Ultramega OK earned the band a Grammy Award nomination for Best Metal Performance in 1990. After touring in support of Ultramega OK the band signed with A&M Records, which caused a rift between Soundgarden and its traditional audience. Thayil said, "In the beginning, our fans came from the punk rock crowd, they abandoned us when they thought we sold out the punk tenets, getting on a major label and touring with Guns N' Roses. There were fashion issues and social issues, people thought we no longer belonged to their scene, to their particular sub-culture." The band began work on its first album for a major label, but personnel difficulties caused a shift in the band's songwriting process, according to Cornell: "At the time Hiro excommunicated himself from the band and there wasn't a free-flowing system as far as music went, so I ended up writing a lot of it."
On September 5, 1989, the band released its debut major-label album, Louder Than Love, which saw it take "a step toward the metal mainstream," according to Steve Huey of Allmusic, describing it as "a slow, grinding
The Vans Warped Tour was a traveling rock tour that toured the United States annually each summer since 1995. It is the largest traveling music festival in the United States, is the longest-running touring music festival in North America; the first Warped Tour took place in 1995, the skateboard shoe manufacturer Vans became the main sponsor of the tour starting with the second tour in 1996, when it became known as the "The Vans Warped Tour". Although Vans continued to be the main sponsor and lended its name to the festival, other sponsors participated with stages or other aspects of the festival sometimes being named after them. Warped Tour was conceived in 1995 as an eclectic alternative rock festival, but in 1996 began focusing on punk rock music. Although it has continued to be known as a punk rock festival, it has included acts of diverse genres over the years. Warped Tour founder Kevin Lyman stated that the 2018 Vans Warped Tour would be the final, full cross-country run. On December 18, 2018, Lyman revealed details for the tour's 25th anniversary, with only three events taking place in 2019.
The band times and sets can be purchased from a stand. Every year there was a "BBQ Band". In exchange for the privilege of playing on the tour, the BBQ Band prepared the post-show barbecue held for the bands and crew most evenings. Past BBQ Bands have included Dropkick Murphys, Art of Shock and "The Fabulous Rudies". One band, has been permitted for the past four years to play on the tour in exchange for working on the setup crew; the "BBQ Band" for the 2016 tour was the band Reckless Serenade. The tour started as a skate punk and third-wave ska tour, but began to feature pop punk and metalcore acts. There are some hardcore and street punk bands, such as the Casualties, the Unseen and Anti-Flag, that still play Warped Tour, as well as older bands that have played the tour numerous times since its inception The tour wasn't set up in just one way, it was set up early in the morning during the set up crews' arrival and taken down during the last show of the day. When heading into Canada, there was a bus that loaded the supplies that headed into Canada while the other bus contains the equipment that stayed in the U.
S. until the next show. In 2013, Kevin Lyman decided to allow parents free admission to the Warped Tour. Citing issues such as transportation problems for minors and the audience member demographic opening up to a younger crowd every year, Lyman determined that parents accompanying their children would be allowed into the tour for free. Parents have their own adult day care, it was known as Reverse Day Care. Grown-ups could spend the day waiting for their children in the Reverse Day Care tent. There was ample seating and fans or cooling devices to keep the parents occupied during the festival; the Warped Tour was created in 1995 by Kevin Lyman, in production with the short-lived Warp Magazine and Creative Artists Agency. The tour began June 21 at the Idaho Center in Boise and ended August 18 in Detroit; the tour was held at outdoor venues, though on rare occasions it was held indoors. In 1996, due to problems with the venue where the event was to be held, the show was forced to be moved indoors to The Capitol Ballroom nightclub in Washington DC.1996 was the first year for Vans as a sponsor and they have been the main sponsor since carrying their name in the title.
In 1998, the tour went international, including venues in Australia, Europe and the United States. In 1999, the tour started off in New Zealand and Hawaii in the New Year, it started up again in the United States for the northern hemisphere summer before ending up in Europe. The Vans Warped Tour has turned eco-friendly by using biodiesel for the production buses. In 2009, the two main stages were condensed into one and bands were given 40-minute sets, as opposed to the traditional 30 minutes across the previous two stages. Despite this, the tour decided to bring back the two main stages concept with 35-minute sets instead for the 2012 tour and beyond. In 2012, the Warped Tour traveled to London, the first time the tour has left North America since 1999. In the UK and Europe, Warped Tour is operated by English promoter Kilimanjaro Live; the Warped Tour returned to London in 2015. On February 10, 2009 details for the annual "Warped Tour Kick Off Party" were announced; the show took place on April 2, 2009 at The Key Club in West Hollywood and featured Warped Tour 2009 bands T.
S. O. L; the Adolescents, Sing it Loud, TAT, TV/TV on the bill. The tour won the Best Festival/Tour Award at the Rock on Request Awards; the Warped Tour 2012 kick off party took place March 29, 2012 at Club Nokia in Los Angeles, California featuring performances by Falling in Reverse, The Used, Dead Sara, Matt Toka and Forever Came Calling. During the Toronto date, a fan died; the band as well as Warped Tour offered their condolences on Twitter. For the first time in 14 years, Warped Tour was held in the UK in November 2012; this was the first year the show Warped Roadies premiered. The show was a behind-the-scenes look at the inner workings of the Vans Warped Tour as it travels across the country with more than 60 bands; the Warped Tour 2013 kick off party took place March 28, 2013 at Club Nokia in Los Angeles, California featuring performances by Chiodos, New Beat Fund, Gin Wigmore, MC Lars, Craig Owens, Dia Frampton, Charlotte Sometimes, Big Chocolate] Echosmith and special guests. The tour will once again return to Europe for the second year in a row with more tour dates.
For the first time sinc
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous