Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction between interpreting. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the languages into which they have translated; because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More the rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated "language localization"; the English word "translation" derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, "across" + ferre, "to carry" or "to bring".
Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another. The Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of "translation" on translatio; the Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of "translation" from an alternative Latin word, itself derived from traducere. The Ancient Greek term for "translation", μετάφρασις, has supplied English with "metaphrase" —as contrasted with "paraphrase". "Metaphrase" corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to "formal equivalence". Speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of "word-for-word translation"—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language carries more than one meaning. "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities.
The ancient Greeks distinguished between paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden, who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, "counterparts," or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language: When appear... graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since... What is beautiful in one is barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author's words:'tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense. Dryden cautioned, against the license of "imitation", i.e. of adapted translation: "When a painter copies from the life... he has no privilege to alter features and lineaments..."This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any, proposed since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome and cautioned against translating "word for word".
Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, adapters in various periods, translators have shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" as determined from context. In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, hence word order—when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice, or vice versa; the grammatical differences between "fixed-word-order" languages and "free-word-order" languages have been no impediment in this regard. The particular syntax characteristics of a text's source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language; when a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language.
Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are "untranslatable" among the modern European languages. A greater problem, however, is translating terms relating to cultural concepts that have no equivalent in the target language. For full comprehension, such situations require the provision of a gloss; the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those lang
Hollern-Twielenfleth is a municipality in the district of Stade, Lower Saxony, Germany. In the year 1059 the district Twielenfleth was founded, it belonged to the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen. In 1648 the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen, first ruled in personal union by the Swedish and from 1715 on by the Hanoverian Crown. In 1807 the ephemeric Kingdom of Westphalia annexed the Duchy, before France annexed it in 1810. In 1813 the Duchy was restored to the Electorate of Hanover, which - after its upgrade to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814 - incorporated the duchy in a real union and the ducal territory, including Hollern and Twielenfleth, became part of the Stade Region, established in 1823. Since 1976 the township Twielenfleth exists; the community is located in Altes Land, the largest fruit orchard in Europe, directly by the Lower Elbe river between Stade and Hamburg. Besides the two districts Hollern and Twielenfleth there is Bassenfleth as the third one. District Director: Tim Siol District Council: The district council, elected on 10 September 2006, includes: CDU 8 seats SPD 3 seats FWG 4 seats Twielenfleth Mill „Venti Amica“ Twielenfleth St.-Marien-Church Hollern St.-Mauritius-Church with pipe organ von Arp Schnitger old Twielenfleth lighthouse In the community Hollern-Twielenfleth you can travel with several buses.
The main bus line is 2357, which covers the following areas: Stade - Hollern-Twielenfleth - Steinkirchen - Jork - Hamburg-Cranz. All the bus lines are connected to the public transportation network of Hamburg. Homepage of Samtgemeinde Lühe Information about Hollern-Twielenfleth Information about TwielenflethPictures of Hollern-Twielenfleth
Jork is a small town on the left bank of the Elbe, near Hamburg. Jork belongs in Lower Saxony; the town is the capital of the Altes Land, one of the biggest fruit growing areas in Europe, Jork is home to a Fruit Research Center. Jork was mentioned for the first time in a deed in 1221 it belonged to the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen in secular respect; as to religion Jork belonged to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Verden. In 1648 the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen, first ruled in personal union by the Swedish and from 1715 on by the British and Hanoverian Crown. In 1807 the ephemeric Kingdom of Westphalia annexed the Duchy, before France annexed it in 1810. In 1813 the Duchy was restored to the Electorate of Hanover, which - after its upgrade to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814 - incorporated the Duchy in a real union and the ducal territory, including Jork, became part of the Stade Region, established in 1823. From 1885 to 1932 Jork served as the capital of the Prussian District of Jork, comprising Altes Land, the city of Buxtehude and its today component Neuland still an independent municipality.
The former district forms. Jork consists of 7 districts Borstel Estebrügge Hove Jork Königreich Ladekop Moorende Official website
A cherry blossom is a flower of several trees of genus Prunus the Japanese cherry, Prunus serrulata, called sakura after the Japanese. They are distributed in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere including Japan, India, Korea, Mainland China, West Siberia, Iran and Afghanistan. Along with the chrysanthemum, the cherry blossom is considered the national flower of Japan. All varieties of cherry blossom trees produce edible cherries. Edible cherries come from cultivars of the related species Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus. "Hanami" is the centuries-old practice of drinking under a blooming ume tree. The custom is said to have started during the Nara period, when it was ume blossoms that people admired in the beginning, but by the Heian period cherry blossoms came to attract more attention, hanami was synonymous with sakura. From on, in both waka and haiku, "flowers" meant "cherry blossoms"; the custom was limited to the elite of the Imperial Court, but soon spread to samurai society and, by the Edo period, to the common people as well.
Tokugawa Yoshimune planted areas of cherry blossom trees to encourage this. Under the sakura trees, people had drank sake in cheerful feasts; every year the Japanese Meteorological Agency and the public track the sakura zensen as it moves northward up the archipelago with the approach of warmer weather via nightly forecasts following the weather segment of news programs. The blossoming begins in Okinawa in January, reaches Kyoto and Tokyo at the end of March or the beginning of April, it proceeds into areas at the higher altitudes and northward, arriving in Hokkaido a few weeks later. Japanese pay close attention to these forecasts and turn out in large numbers at parks and temples with family and friends to hold flower-viewing parties. Hanami festivals celebrate the beauty of the cherry blossom and for many are a chance to relax and enjoy the beautiful view; the custom of hanami dates back many centuries in Japan. The eighth-century chronicle Nihon Shoki records hanami festivals being held as early as the third century AD.
Most Japanese schools and public buildings have cherry blossom trees outside of them. Since the fiscal and school year both begin in April, in many parts of Honshu, the first day of work or school coincides with the cherry blossom season; the Japan Cherry Blossom Association developed a list of Japan's Top 100 Cherry Blossom Spots with at least one location in every prefecture. In Japan, cherry blossoms symbolize clouds due to their nature of blooming en masse, besides being an enduring metaphor for the ephemeral nature of life, an aspect of Japanese cultural tradition, associated with Buddhist influence, and, embodied in the concept of mono no aware; the association of the cherry blossom with mono no aware dates back to 18th-century scholar Motoori Norinaga. The transience of the blossoms, the exquisite beauty and volatility, has been associated with mortality and graceful and acceptance of destiny and karma. There is at least one popular folk song meant for the shakuhachi, titled "Sakura", several pop songs.
The flower is represented on all manner of consumer goods in Japan, including kimono and dishware. The Sakurakai or Cherry Blossom Society was the name chosen by young officers within the Imperial Japanese Army in September 1930 for their secret society established with the goal of reorganizing the state along totalitarian militaristic lines, via a military coup d'état if necessary. During World War II, the cherry blossom was used to motivate the Japanese people, to stoke nationalism and militarism among the populace. Prior to the war, they were used in propaganda to inspire "Japanese spirit", as in the "Song of Young Japan", exulting in "warriors" who were "ready like the myriad cherry blossoms to scatter". In 1932, Akiko Yosano's poetry urged Japanese soldiers to endure sufferings in China and compared the dead soldiers to cherry blossoms. Arguments that the plans for the Battle of Leyte Gulf, involving all Japanese ships, would expose Japan to serious danger if they failed, were countered with the plea that the Navy be permitted to "bloom as flowers of death".
The last message of the forces on Peleliu was "Sakura, Sakura" — cherry blossoms. Japanese pilots would paint them on the sides of their planes before embarking on a suicide mission, or take branches of the trees with them on their missions. A cherry blossom painted on the side of the bomber symbolized the intensity and ephemerality of life; the first kamikaze unit had a subunit called wild cherry blossom. The government encouraged the people to believe that the souls of downed warriors were reincarnated in the blossoms. In its colonial enterprises, Imperial Japan planted cherry trees as a means of "claiming occupied territory as Japanese space". Cherry blossoms are a prevalent symbol in Irezumi, the traditional art of Japanese tattoos. In tattoo art, cherry blossoms are combined with other classic Japanese symbols like koi fish, dragons or tigers, it was used for the Tokyo 2020 Paralympics mascot Someity. Japan has a wide variety of cherry blossoms; the following species and varieties are used
The Schwinge is river of Lower Saxony, Germany, a left tributary of the Elbe. The Schwinge is 31.8 kilometres long. It rises in the Hohes Moor near Mulsum on the Stade Geest in the bifurcation area with the Oste. From there it flows in a natural, more than 20-kilometre-long upper reach towards Stade; because of its natural river scenery and its biodiversity, the floodplains of the upper reach and the meadows near Stade are protected for landscape conservation. In Stade the ca. 1000-year-old Hanse port lies at the Schwinge. Here the upper reach is isolated from tides by a sluice called Salztorschleuse since 1792; because of the deepening of the Elbe the average tidal hub of the lower reach rose to 3.3 metres, because of the backlog when the sluice gates are closed the fluctuations of the upper reach only amounts to a few decimeters. Despite the embankment the banks of the lower reach are lined with exceptional rare fresh water mudflats; the Schwinge is a 4.6-kilometre-long federal waterway from the Elbe to the Salztorschleuse.
Since the completion of the Schwingesperrwerk, a flood barrier near the mouth of the river in 1971, all places at the Schwinge are protected better against storm surges. The 16-metre-wide gap is closed with two gates. From the Late Middle Ages until the 1950s the Schwinge was used for the transport of goods with smack-like ships called "Ewer". During dredging of the Schwinge and the Hansehafen countless historic artefacts were found, including famous Ulfberht swords from the 8th to 12th century. Today, the leisure and sports boat traffic dominates the shipping on the lower reach, the upper reach beyond Stade isn't navigable. List of rivers of Lower Saxony
The Niederelbe is a 108 kilometers long section of the river Elbe, from western Hamburg downstream to its mouth into the North Sea near Cuxhaven. Starting at Mühlenberger Loch near Finkenwerder, Hamburg, it widens from 2 km to 18 km. Once passing the Hamburg state border, the Niederelbe forms the border between the states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein; the Niederelbe forms part of the Elbe section named the Unterelbe, comprising all parts of the Elbe influenced by the North Sea's tides, starting further inland at the sluice in Geesthacht. List of rivers of Hamburg List of rivers of Lower Saxony List of rivers of Schleswig-Holstein Media related to Elbe in Hamburg at Wikimedia Commons