Althorp is a Grade I listed stately home and estate in the civil parish of Althorp, in Daventry District, England of about 13,000 acres. By road it is about 6 miles northwest of the county town of Northampton and about 75 miles northwest of central London, it has been held by the prominent aristocratic Spencer family for more than 500 years, has been owned by Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer since 1992. It was the home of Lady Diana Spencer from her parents' divorce until her marriage to Charles, Prince of Wales. Althorp is mentioned as a small hamlet in the Domesday Book as "Olletorp", by 1377 it had become a village with a population of more than fifty people. By 1505 there were no longer any tenants living there, in 1508, John Spencer purchased Althorp estate with the funds generated from his family's sheep-rearing business. Althorp became one of the prominent stately homes in England; the mansion dates to 1688, replacing an earlier house, once visited by Charles I. The Spencer family amassed other valuable household items.
During the 18th century, the house became a major cultural hub in England, parties were held, attracting many prominent members of Great Britain's ruling class. George John, 2nd Earl Spencer, who owned Althorp between 1783 and his death in 1834, developed one of the largest private libraries in Europe at the house, which grew to over 100,000 books by the 1830s. After falling on hard times, John Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer, known as the Red Earl, in 1892 sold much of the collection to Enriqueta Rylands, building the University of Manchester Library. Many of Althorp's furnishings were sold off during the twentieth century, between 1975 and 1992 alone 20% of the contents were auctioned; the house at Althorp was a "classically beautiful" red brick Tudor building, but its appearance was radically altered, starting in 1788, when the architect Henry Holland was commissioned to make extensive changes. Mathematical tiles were added to the exterior, encasing the brick, four Corinthian pilasters were added to the front.
The grand hall entrance to the house, Wootton Hall, was cited by Sir Nikolaus Pevsner as "the noblest Georgian room in the county". The Great Dining Room in the east wing extension of the house was added in 1877 to designs by John Macvicar Anderson, its walls hung with faded, red damask silk. Numerous fireplaces and furnishings were brought to Althorp from Spencer House in London during the Blitz for safekeeping and still remain; the Picture Gallery stretches for 115 feet on the first floor of the west wing, is one of the best remaining examples of the original Tudor oak woodwork and ambiance in the mansion. It has an extensive collection of portraits, including Anthony van Dyck's War and Peace, a John de Critz portrait of James I, a Mary Beale portrait of Charles II, many others; some £2 million was spent on redecorating the house in the 1980s, during which time most of the religious paintings of Althorp were sold off. In total, the grounds of Althorp estate contain 28 listed buildings and structures, including nine planting stones.
The former falconry, now a Grade I listed building, was built in 1613. Gardener's House is listed as a Grade II* listed building in its own right, as are the Grade II listed West and East Lodges; the mustard-yellow Grade II listed Stable Block, designed by architect Roger Morris with a Palladian influence, was ordered by Charles, Fifth Earl of Sutherland in the early 1730s. The French landscape architect André Le Nôtre was commissioned to lay out the park and grounds in the 1660s, further alterations were made during the late 18th century under Henry Holland. Following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997, she was interred on a small island in the middle of the ornamental Round Oval lake. A Doric-style temple with Diana's name inscribed on top, situated across from the lake, is a tourist attraction during July and August when the house and estate are open to the public, although the exhibition centre, situated in the old stable block, closed permanently in 2013. A manor existed at Althorp in medieval times.
It was referred to in the Domesday Book as "Olletorp", meaning Olla's Thorp, believed to refer to a medieval lord named Olla. Thorp is a word of Scandinavian origin, which would have been pronounced as "throop" or "thrupp", in Danish meant "daughter's settlement". In the 13th and 15th centuries it was recorded as "Holtropp" and "Aldrop", although when the estate was bought by John Spencer in 1508 it began being referred to as "Oldthorpe"; the name today is properly pronounced as "Awltrupp", not recognised on paper and by the media. The current owner, Charles Spencer, noted that none of his family refer to it as Althorp, that his father insisted on pronouncing it "Awl-trupp"; when he assumed ownership in 1992, the BBC Pronunciation Department contacted him and the current "Althorp" was agreed upon. A hamlet named Althorp existed here in medieval times, believed to have been situated on the southwest side of the park, east of West Lodge, it was first mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as having a population of ten at the time, being part of the parish of Brington.
It was designated as an "extra parochial district" for centuries under the New Bottle Grove Hundred of Brington, but by 1874 it was being cited as an independent civil parish. 21 residents were documented in 1327, in 1377 fifty people were reported to have paid Poll Tax over the age of 14. During the 15th century the population of the village diminished, in 1505 there were no longer any tenants living there. By 1577 most of the land was converted into four substantial sheep pastures. In 1469 John Spencer's u
Stefanie Hessler is an international contemporary art curator and the current director of Kunsthall Trondheim in Trondheim, Norway. Hessler studied art theory in Germany and at Stockholm University where she received her MA in art curation in 2011. Hessler is a curator for the TBA21–Academy in London and has been the director of Kunsthall Trondheim since 2019, she is the co-founder of the experimental performance space "Andquestionmark" along with artist Carsten Höller. She has worked with artists such as Florian Hecker. Hessler has curated art exhibitions with a focus on interdisciplinary research and sensory experience, among others on the topic of ocean ecology. In 2015 she curated the 8th Momentum Biennial of Contemporary Art in Norway. In 2017 she curated the exhibition "Sugar and Speed" at the Museum of Modern Art in Recife and the project "Fishing for Islands" with Chus Martínez at the Hamburger Bahnhof in Berlin. In 2018 she curated the symposium "Practices of Attention" for the São Paulo Biennale on the politics of attention.
In 2019 she curated the exhibition "More-than-humans" by Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster and Tomás Saraceno at the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum in Madrid. She has worked with the artist Joan Jonas, curating her 2018 performance at the Tate Modern's Turbine Hall entitled "Moving Off The Land" and her 2019 exhibition and performance "Moving Off The Land II" at Ocean Space, Italy. In 2018 Hessler was one of three curators for the 6th edition of the Athens Biennale as well as the exhibition "Prospecting Ocean" with artist Armin Linke at the Institute of Marine Sciences in Venice, commissioned by TBA21–Academy and in partnership with Istituto di Scienze Marine. Hessler is a guest professor in art theory at the Royal Institute of Art in Stockholm, she curated an exhibition on the artist Juan Downey at the Institute. Hessler is the author of Prospecting Ocean published by MIT Press that explores ocean extraction through artistic research. Bruno Latour wrote a foreword to the book. Hessler is the editor of the book Tidalectics: Imagining An Oceanic Worldview through Art and Science published by MIT Press, a collection of essays and art projects.
Hessler is a writer of arts criticism and contributes to publications such as Art Review Art Agenda and Mousse Magazine
The Peltoperlidae known as roach-like stoneflies or roachflies, are a family of stoneflies. The family Peltoperlidae comprises 46 known species. Species are semivoltine. Adults of the family emerge in late spring or early summer, April through June. Larvae are flattened and brown in color, they are roach-like in appearance because of the expanded thoracic plates covering the bases of their legs and abdomens. Tapering gills occur on the thorax at the bases of the legs; these tracheal gills are key to many biological processes. No dense tufts or branching gills are found on their thoraces or abdomens, unlike other Plecoptera families; the larvae possess broad, chisel-like mandibles. Adults have two ocelli in addition to its two compound eyes. Male epiprocts are sclerotized and rod-like in shape, both genders lack cross-veins in the anal lobe of the forewings. Peltoperlidae are lotic erosional and depositional; these habitats are flowing streams marked by sediments, vascular plants, detritus. Roach-like stoneflies are found in leaf litter and debris piles trapped in either riffles or pools.
This family is considered to be clingers-sprawlers. The body of this stonefly is flattened and streamlined to aid in minimizing water resistance in a flowing stream; the Peltoperlidae are classified as in the feeding group shredders-detritivores. They mine through leaf litter in their habitats, they are a significant contributor to leaf breakdown in streams. This family is sensitive to disturbances in environmental conditions, they are intolerant to loss of coarse particulate organic matter for habitat. Given this low tolerance, Peltoperlids make potential bioindicators; these 10 genera belong to the family Peltoperlidae: Cryptoperla Needham, 1909 Microperla Chu, 1928 Peltoperla Needham, 1905 Peltoperlopsis Illies, 1966 Peltopteryx Stark, 1989 Sierraperla Jewett, 1954 Soliperla Ricker, 1952 Tallaperla Stark & Stewart, 1981 Viehoperla Ricker, 1952 Yoraperla Ricker, 1952