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Arcade Pool

Arcade Pool is a pool simulation game developed and published in 1994 by Team17 for the Amiga home computer system. The game was ported to the PC, a special CD32 release soon followed; the game is a top-down pool simulator. Although simple, the physics are accurate; the game featured many UK and United States variations of pool as well as two variations of ball set. Computer-controlled players are named after members of Team17 Staff; the computer-controlled players with the lowest difficulty are all named after staff of Future Publishing-owned Amiga gaming magazine Amiga Power, adding more fuel to the fierce rivalry between the two companies. A particular point of humour in the game stems from an Illegal Move message that appears, stating that you have "pocketed your opponent's ball". This, of course, refers to pocketing balls. A sequel, Arcade Pool 2, was published in 1999 by MicroProse, it was an updated and overhauled version of the original, albeit with Internet play and additional play modes

Capital and corporal punishment in Judaism

Capital and corporal punishment in Judaism has a complex history, a subject of extensive debate. The Bible and the Talmud specify capital punishment by the "Four Executions of the Court," — stoning, burning and strangulation — for the most severe transgressions, the corporal punishment of flagellation for intentional transgressions of negative commandments that do not incur one of the Four Executions. According to Talmudic law, the authority to apply capital punishment ceased with the destruction of the Second Temple; the Mishnah states that a Sanhedrin that executes one person in seven years — or seventy years, according to Eleazar ben Azariah — is considered bloodthirsty. During the Late Antiquity, the tendency of not applying the death penalty at all became predominant in Jewish courts. In practice, where medieval Jewish courts had the power to pass and execute death sentences, they continued to do so for grave offenses, although not the ones defined by the law. While it was recognized that the use of capital punishment in the post-Second Temple era went beyond the biblical warrant, the rabbis who supported it believed that it could be justified by other considerations of Jewish law.

Whether Jewish communities practiced capital punishment according to rabbinical law, whether the rabbis of the Talmudic era supported its use in theory, has been a subject of historical and ideological debate. The 12th-century Jewish legal scholar Maimonides stated that "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death." Maimonides argued that executing a defendant on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting "according to the judge's caprice". Maimonides was concerned about the need for the law to guard itself in public perceptions, to preserve its majesty and retain the people's respect; the position of Jewish Law on capital punishment formed the basis of deliberations by Israel's Supreme Court. It has been carried out by Israel's judicial system only twice, in the cases of Adolf Eichmann and Meir Tobianski. Warrants for the infliction of capital punishment, as opposed to private retribution or vengeance, are found in the Pentateuchal codes for the commission of any one of the following crimes: adultery.

Only in comparatively few instances is the particular mode of death incurred by the commission of a crime prescribed. Blasphemy, Sabbath-breaking, prostitution by a betrothed virgin, or deceiving her husband at marriage as to her chastity, the rebellious son are, according to the Pentateuchal laws, to be punished with death by stoning. With reference to all other capital offenses, the law ordains that the perpetrator shall die a violent death adding the expression, "His blood shall be upon him." This expression, as we shall see presently, post-Biblical legislation applies to death by stoning. The Bible speaks of hanging, according to the rabbinical interpretation, not as a mode of execution, rather, of exposure after death; the harshness of the death penalty indicated the seriousness of the crime. Jewish philosophers argue that the whole point of corporal punishment was to serve as a reminder to the community of the severe nature of certain acts; this is. The numerous references to a death penalty in the Torah underscore the severity of the sin, rather than the expectation of death.

This is bolstered by the standards of proof required for application of the death penalty, which has always been stringent. The Mishnah outlines the views of several prominent first-century CE Rabbis on the subject: "A Sanhedrin that puts a man to death once in seven years is called a murderous one. Rabbi Eliezer ben Azariah says,'Or once in 70 years.' Rabbi Tarfon and Rabbi Akiba said,'If we had been in the Sanhedrin, no death sentence would have been passed'. The Sanhedrin stopped issuing capital punishment either after the Second Temple was destroyed, in 70 CE, or, according to passages in the Talmud, in 30 CE, when the Sanhedrin were moved out of the Hall of Hewn Stones. Other sources, such as Josephus, disagree; the issue is debated because of the relevancy to the New Testament trial of Jesus. Ancient rabbis did not like the idea of capital punishment, interpreted the texts in a way that made the death penalty non-existent; the idea of killing someone for a crime they commit is frowned upon in the Jewish tradition.


Redeemer Lutheran Church (Elmhurst, Illinois)

Redeemer Lutheran Church is a congregation of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod in Elmhurst, Illinois, a western suburb of Chicago. Founded in 1928, there were 495 baptized members. Three of Redeemer's pastors held rather long tenures. Worth Setzer served for nearly 31 years, Rev. George Bornemann for 17 years, Rev. Richard Drews for 26 years. Rev. Robert Fitzpatrick served for 7 years. Moreso Rev. Scott Stiegemeyer served at Redeemer for five years; this church is designed in a reserved mixture of Gothic and Neo-Baroque styles, possesses artwork covering a number of different movements, including medieval-style stained glass, carved wooden doors, a contemporary piece representing the Holy Spirit which hangs in the northern transept. Founded at an April 19, 1928 meeting at Hawthorne Elementary School, the congregation had only 22 English-language Lutheran members after splitting off from Immanuel Lutheran Church, which would only provide services in German; the first worship service had been held Easter Sunday, April 8, in the auditorium of the same school with attendees from Immanuel Lutheran Church and Trinity Lutheran Church of Villa Park, Illinois.

Rev. H. H. Hartmann was the field missionary of the Northern Illinois District of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri and Other States, both he and Rev. H. Prange of Trinity Lutheran Church, Oak Park, provided the group with organizational guidance. By May 25 the core group had grown to 40 people, who approved a preliminary organization and elected officers; the fledgling congregation chose to join the English District of the LCMS. The rolls were finalized with 109 people. Rev. G. Schuessler, president of the English District, arranged for visiting pastors to lead worship. In October 1928 the English District approved the new church's constitution and by-laws, thus chartering them as a congregation. On October 29, the group elected its first committees. Dr. Edward Marquardt chaired a building committee, tasked with planning for the congregation’s first purpose-built facility. In January 1929 the group purchased land in an elm-shaded residential area at the northwest corner of Kenilworth Avenue and St. Charles Road as the future site for their church.

In April of that year they hired the Hotchkiss & Edgar architectural partners, the same firm that had designed Immanuel Lutheran, to design the Elmhurst building, held the groundbreaking ceremony on Sunday, October 20, 1929. The building was larger than was required by the size of the congregation, but members expected the congregation to grow through missionary outreach; the church building, described at the time as a restrained modern Gothic-style building, was complete by May 18, 1930 and was characterized as "one of the most attractive and imposing houses of worship in Elmhurst." Three worship services were planned for the dedication activities. At 10:45 a.m. Rev. W. F. Wilk of St. Louis preached. At 3:00 p.m. Rev. G. Schuessler, president of the English District, preached a sermon, while the St. John Lutheran Church choir of La Grange, sang. LCMS vice-president Rev. William Dallmann preached at the 8:00 p.m. service, with singing by the West Suburban Male Quartet. On the three subsequent evenings services were led by English District vice-president Rev. E. F. Haertel.

The church was equipped with a Møller pipe organ, but the instrument was repossessed by the organ builder during the Great Depression. In 1953, a new Reuter organ was installed to take its place. Fifty years congregational leaders, led by cantor and organist Ann Burns, began to interview area companies to obtain bids on reconditioning and enhancing the Reuter organ. Berghaus Organ Co. of Bellwood, Illinois was hired for the job, funded by church members' sponsorship of individual pipes from the new ranks. Congregants who thus “bought” a pipe were entitled to take home one of the old pipes removed in the renovation. After six months of renovation, the pipe organ was rededicated on May 23, 2004; the ceremony featured four choirs singing hymns based on the Nicene Creed and highlighting the seasons of the liturgical year. Responding to what the pastor called “growing pains”, in 1955 the church added an annex to the north side of its 25-year-old structure to provide classroom space for its “Christian education activities.”

In the groundbreaking ceremony on September 26, 1954, Rev. Setzer used the same shovel he had used in 1929 to break ground for the main building; the annex was dedicated with Rev. Dr. A. R. Kretzmann of St. Luke Lutheran Church of Logan Square, presiding. On January 2, 1972, Redeemer celebrated the opening of “Titus Place,” across the street from the church, with a furnished kitchen, two classroom areas for meetings or Bible studies, a commons area for larger gatherings and receptions; the new building accommodated a main office for the church, a pastor's study, a boardroom and a gymnasium for athletics, fellowship activities, other gatherings. Land for the new building had been purchased from the Immaculate Conception Roman Catholic parish, ground was broken in January 1971. In 1977 a leaded stained-glass window was installed above the chancel.

Shellshock (song)

"Shellshock" is a single released by British group New Order on 17 March 1986. The song appeared on the soundtrack to the movie Pretty in Pink one month prior to its single release. Production is credited to New Order and John Robie, is loosely inspired by the 1983 Robie-produced R&B club hit, "One More Shot"—a studio project where Robie performed under the band name, C-Bank, featuring vocals by Jenny Burton; the single had differing B-sides. The US release had the previously released instrumental version of "Thieves Like Us", which had appeared on the "Murder" 12-inch single on Factory Benelux; the 12-inch boasts an extended remix of the song running nearly ten minutes, New Order's longest recording behind the original cut of "Elegia". For the release of the popular singles compilation Substance, the original Pretty in Pink soundtrack version was not used, as is believed, but an edited version of the 12-inch remix cut down to six-and-a-half minutes, omitting an entire verse of vocals, it is this version that appears most on CD.

The 9:41 single remix does not appear on any subsequent New Order compilations, however it surfaced on CD and digital download in 2011 on Volume 6 of the Blank & Jones Soeighties compilation series, titled "Extended Version". The cover artwork on the 12-inch single is by English photographer Geoff Power and is unique in that the word'Alex' at the top of the cover was not added by Peter Saville, the designer. All tracks are written by Peter Hook, Stephen Morris, John Robie, Bernard Sumner.

Stanley Branche

Stanley Branche was a civil rights leader from Pennsylvania who worked as executive secretary in the Chester, Pennsylvania branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and founded the Committee for Freedom Now. In the early 1960s, he and George Raymond partnered to challenge minority hiring practices of businesses and initiated the Chester School Protests against de facto segregation of schools which made Chester one of the key battlegrounds of the civil rights movement, he protested with the Cambridge Movement in Dorchester County and worked with Cecil B. Moore to desegregate Girard College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he worked with the Black Coalition in Philadelphia. He ran unsuccessfully for mayor of Chester in 1967 and twice for U. S. Congress in 1978 and 1986, he ran multiple businesses and in 1989, he was convicted of participating in an organized crime collection scheme. Branche served as a paratrooper with the 82nd Airborne Division and the 127th Regimental Combat Team in the Korean War.

He was decorated three times. After the war, he attended the Combs College of Music and the Pennsylvania Institute of Criminology with the intent to be a policeman. Branche participated in the Cambridge Movement in Maryland, he returned to Chester in 1962 and his wife Anna introduced him to George Raymond, president of the Chester branch of the NAACP. Branche was assigned to the campaign to desegregate the Great Leopard Skating Rink. Branche and Raymond partnered to challenge the minority hiring practices of large department stores, clothing shops, shoe stores and other specialty shops in downtown Chester. By the fall of 1963, Branche became frustrated with the gradualist approach of Raymond and the NAACP, he resigned and created a new activist organization named the Committee for Freedom Now along with the Swarthmore College chapter of Students for a Democratic Society and Chester parents to end de facto segregation of public schools and improve conditions at predominantly black schools in Chester.

In 1962, Branche and the CFFN focused on improving conditions at the predominantly black Franklin Elementary school in Chester. Although the school was built to house 500 students, it had become overcrowded with 1,200 students; the school's average class-size was 39, twice the number of nearby all-white schools. The school had never been updated. Only two bathrooms were available for the entire school. In November 1963, CFFN protesters blocked the entrance to Franklin Elementary school and the Chester Municipal Building resulting in the arrest of 240 protesters. Following public attention to the protests stoked by media coverage of the mass arrests, the mayor and school board negotiated with the CFFN and NAACP; the Chester Board of Education agreed to reduce class sizes at Franklin school, remove unsanitary toilet facilities, relocate classes held in the boiler room and coal bin and repair school grounds. Emboldened by the success of the Franklin Elementary school demonstrations, the CFFN recruited new members, sponsored voter registration drives and planned a citywide boycott of Chester schools.

Branche built close ties with students at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania Military College and Cheyney State College in order to ensure large turnouts at demonstrations and protests. Branche invited Dick Gregory and Malcolm X to Chester to participate in the "Freedom Now Conference" and other national civil rights leaders such as Gloria Richardson came to Chester in support of the demonstrations. In the spring of 1964, huge protests over multiple days ensued which resulted in mass arrests of protesters; the mayor of Chester, James Gorbey, issued "The Police Position to Preserve the Public Peace", a ten-point statement promising an immediate return to law and order. The city deputized firemen and trash collectors to help handle demonstrators; the State of Pennsylvania deployed 50 state troopers to assist the 77-member Chester police force. The demonstrations were marked by violence and charges of police brutality. Over six hundred people were arrested over a two-month period of civil rights rallies, pickets and sit-ins.

Branche acted as press spokesman, community liaison and chief negotiator. Governor William Scranton convinced Branche to obey a court-ordered moratorium on demonstrations. Scranton created the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission to conduct hearings on the de facto segregation of public schools. All protests were discontinued while the commission held hearings during the summer of 1964. In November 1964, the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission concluded that the Chester School Board had violated the law and ordered Chester School District to desegregate the city's six predominantly African-American schools; the city appealed the ruling. In June 1964, Chester city leaders formed the Greater Chester Movement, an umbrella organization intended to coordinate activities of groups working toward the improvement of Chester; when President Lyndon Johnson initiated his War on Poverty, the GCM became a conduit through which federal dollars were distributed in Chester. Branche had orignally set up a competing organization named the Committee on Economic Opportunity however it was incorporated into the GCM with Branche serving on the steering committee.

In 1968, Branche formed the Black Coalition Movement, a multiracial group formed in the wake of the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.. He worked with Cecil B. Moore to desegregate Girard College in Pennsylvania. Branche and seven others were arrested. Branche was arrested 225 times during civil rights protests, he left the c