Transhumance is a type of pastoralism or nomadism, a seasonal movement of livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures. In montane regions, it implies movement between higher pastures in summer and lower valleys in winter. Herders have a permanent home in valleys. Only the herds travel, with a certain number of people necessary to tend them, while the main population stays at the base. In contrast, horizontal transhumance is more susceptible to being disrupted by climatic, economic, or political change. Traditional or fixed transhumance has occurred throughout the inhabited world Europe and western Asia, it is important to pastoralist societies, as the dairy products of transhumance flocks and herds may form much of the diet of such populations. In many languages there are words for the higher summer pastures, these words have been used as place names: e.g. Hafod in Wales and Shieling in Scotland; the word transhumance comes from French and derives from the Latin words trans'across' and humus'ground'.
Transhumance developed on every inhabited continent. Although there are substantial cultural and technological variations, the underlying practices for taking advantage of remote seasonal pastures are similar. Transhumance is a "form of pastoralism or nomadism". Khazanov categorizes nomadic forms of pastoralism into five groups as follows: "pure pastoral nomadism", "semi-nomadic pastoralism", "semi-sedentary pastoralism", "distant-pastures husbandry" and "seasonal transhumance". Eickelman does not make a distinction between transhumant pastoralism and seminomadism, however distinguishes between nomadic pastoralism and seminomadism. Transhumance was practised in Europe in prehistoric times. Isotope studies of the bones of livestock show. In the Balkans, the Vlachs, Aromanian and Yörük peoples traditionally spent summer months in the mountains and returned to lower plains in the winter; when the area was part of the Austro-Hungary and Ottoman empires, borders between Greece, Albania and the former Yugoslavia were unobstructed.
In summer, some groups went as far north as the Balkan Mountains, they would spend the winter on warmer plains in the vicinity of the Aegean Sea. The Morlach or Karavlachs were a population of Vlach shepherds who lived in the Dinaric Alps migrating in search of better pastures for their sheep flocks, but as national states appeared in the area of the former Ottoman Empire, new state borders were developed that divided the summer and winter habitats of many of the pastoral groups. These prevented easy movement across borders at times of war, which have been frequent. In most parts of Wales, farm workers and sometimes the farmer would spend the summer months at a hillside summer house, or hafod, where the livestock would graze. During the late autumn the farm family and workers would drive the flocks down to the valleys, stay at the main residence or hendref; this system of transhumance has not been practised for a century. Both "Hafod" and "Hendref" survive in Wales as place names and house names.
Today and sheep that summer on many hill farms are still transported to lowland winter pastures, but by truck rather than being driven overland. In many hilly and mountainous areas of Scotland, agricultural workers spent summer months in bothies or shielings. Major drovers' roads in the eastern part of Scotland include the Cairnamounth, Elsick Mounth and Causey Mounth; this practice has died out, but was practised within living memory in the Hebridean Islands and in the Scottish Highlands. Today much transhumance is carried out by truck, with upland flocks being transported under agistment to lower-lying pasture during winter. Evidence exists of transhumance being practised in England since at least mediaeval times, from Cornwall in the south-west, through to the north of England. However, it is to have been undertaken on a much smaller scale than elsewhere in Europe. In Ireland transhumance is known as "booleying". Transhumance pastures were known as Booley, Bouley and Boola; these names survive in many place names such as Buaile h'Anraoi in Kilcommon parish, North Mayo, where the landscape still shows the layout of the rundale system of agriculture.
The livestock cattle, was moved from a permanent lowland village to summer pastures in the mountains. The appearance of "Summerhill" in many place names bears witness to the practice; this transfer provided fresh pasture for the livestock. Mentioned in the Brehon Laws, booleying dates back to the Early Medieval period or earlier; the practice was widespread in the west of Ireland up until the time of the Second World War. Seasonal migration of workers to Scotland and England for the winter months superseded this ancient system, together with more permanent emigration to the USA. In Southern Italy, in the regions of Molise and Abruzzo, the practice of driving herds to upland pastures in summer dates from time immemorial and has enjoyed a long documented history until the 1950s and 1960s with the advent of alternative road transport. Drover's roads or tratturi, up to 100 m wide and more than 100 km long, permitted the passage and grazing of herds, principally sheep, attracted regulation by law and the establishment of a mounted police force as far ba
Terra rossa (soil)
Terra rossa is a well-drained, clayey to silty clayey soil with neutral pH conditions and is typical of the Mediterranean region. The reddish color of terra rossa is the result of the preferential formation of hematite over goethite; this soil type occurs as a discontinuous layer that ranges from a few centimeters to several meters in thickness that covers limestone and dolomite bedrock in karst regions. The high internal drainage and neutral pH conditions of terra rossa are a result of the karstic nature of the underlying limestone and dolomite. Terra rossa is found associated with Mediterranean climates and karst elsewhere in the world. Compared to most clayey soils, terra rossa has good drainage characteristics; this makes it a popular soil type for wine production. Among other wine regions, it is found in La Mancha in Coonawarra in Australia; the origin of terra rossa, its parent material, its relationship to underlying limestones and dolomites has been debated over recent decades by geologists and soil scientists.
One group of scientists argue that terra rossa developed from dissolution of the underlying carbonate rocks and the concentration insoluble sediment and chert within it as the parent material of terra rossa. Another group of scientists argue that terra rossa cannot have been formed from the insoluble residue of underlying limestone and dolomite. Instead they propose that terra rossa is polygenetic in origin and that, depending on their geographic location, their parent material, altered by pedogenesis, contains exotic sediments from volcanic ash. A final group of scientists argue. In pedology, red Mediterranean soil known as terra rossa is a soil classification, formally superseded by the formal classifications of systems such as the FAO soil classification, but, still in common use; the terra rossa classification was still, as of 1997, a part of the national soil classifications of countries such as Israel and Italy. The UNESCO/FAO World map equivalents are the chromic luvisols, the USDA soil taxonomy equivalent is the rhodustalfs.
The classification denotes red-coloured soils which develop in or on the karstic landscape of the limestones of the Miocene and earlier periods, as well as calcretes in regions where the modern Mediterranean climate is predominant. The most accelerated development of red Mediterranean soils occurred from the Miocene to the Late Pleistocene, due to the large amount of climate fluctuation in those periods. Randall J. Schaetzl. "terra rossa soils of the Mediterranean". Soils: Genesis and Geomorphology. Cambridge University Press. P. 201. ISBN 0-521-81201-1. Ask Mikey about geology and rock types Indian Karst Geology
Apulia is a region in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, its population is about four million, it is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, Basilicata to the southwest. Across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, its capital city is Bari. Apulia's coastline is longer than that of any other mainland Italian region. In the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic like a'sperone', while in the south, the Salento peninsula forms the'tacco' of Italy's boot; the highest peak in the region is Mount Cornacchia within the Daunian Mountains, in the north along the Apennines. It is home to the Alta Murgia National Park and Gargano National Park. Outside of national parks in the North and West, most of Apulia and Salento is geographically flat with only moderate hills.
The climate is mediterranean with hot and sunny summers and mild, rainy winters. Snowfall on the coast is rare but has occurred as as January 2019. Apulia is among the hottest and driest regions of Italy in summer with temperatures sometimes reaching up to and above 40 °C in Lecce and Foggia; the coastal areas on the Adriatic and in the southern Salento region are exposed to winds of varying strengths and directions affecting local temperatures and conditions, sometimes within the same day. The Northerly Bora wind from the Adriatic can lower temperatures and moderate summer heat while the Southerly Sirocco wind from North Africa can raise temperatures and drop red dust from the Sahara. On some days in spring and autumn, it can be warm enough to swim in Gallipoli and Porto Cesareo on the Ionian coast while at the same time, cool winds warrant jackets and sweaters in Monopoli and Otranto on the Adriatic coast. Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy, it was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks.
A number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the "Crown of Apulia". After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, remained so until the unification of Italy in the 1860s; this kingdom was independent under the House of Anjou from 1282 to 1442 was part of Aragon until 1458, after which it was again independent under a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara until 1501. As a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714; when Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves. The coast of Apulia was occupied at times at other times by the Venetians. In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was "so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin".
The region's contribution to Italy's gross value added was around 4.6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average and represents about 68.1% of the EU average. The share of gross value added by the agricultural and services sectors was above the national average in 2000; the region has industries specialising in particular areas, including food processing and vehicles in Foggia. Between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy; such growth, over several decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Apulia's thriving economy is articulated into numerous sectors boasting several leading companies: Aerospace; the unemployment rate was higher than the national average. There is an estimated 50 to 60 million olive trees in Puglia and the region accounts for 40% of Italy's olive oil production. There are four specific Protected Designation of Origin covering the whole region.
Olive varieties include: Baresane, Brandofino, Carolea, Cellina di Nardò, Cerignola, Cima di Bitonto, Cima di Mola, Coratina grown in Corning, CA. A 2018 Gold Medal New York International Olive Oil Competition winner, Garganica, La Minuta, Moresca, Nocellara Etnea, Nocellara Messinese, Ogliarola Barese, Ogliara Messinese, Peranzana, produced as "Certified Ultra-Premium Extra Virgin Olive Oil", Santagatese, Tonda Iblea, Verdello. There has been an issue of marketed "extra pure" olive oil being imported from Spain, the Balkans and Tunisia; this includes the use of rectified lampante, being allowed due to a controversial 1995 law. The olive oil industry in Puglia is under threat from the pathogen Xy
Pulicchio di Gravina
Pulicchio di Gravina is the second-largest doline in the Murge plateau after Pulo di Altamura. It falls into the territory of Gravina in Puglia being located about 10 kilometers north of the above city. It's close to the border of Altamura's territory, it shares the local toponym pulo with other large dolines of the region, i.e. Pulo di Altamura, Pulo di Molfetta and Pulicchio di Toritto; the doline is close to other two karst landforms, i.e. Gurio Lamanna and Tre Paduli; the doline is shaped like an egg and it is regular, with the slope constant on all its sides. The biggest length is equal to 530 meters; the doline is somewhat wider in the northern part than in the southern part. Its perimeter is 1,600 meters, while the maximum depth is 87 meters; the lowest point has height 477.5 meters from the sea level. Therefore, the doline turns out to be a little deeper than Pulo di Altamura; the etymology of toponym pulo is unknown. It is used only in the Murge plateau to denote a doline, while it is unused in other regions of Apulia.
The term is used for the nearby dolines Pulo di Altamura, Pulo di Molfetta, Pulicchio di Toritto, it is attested as early as in the 17th century, since Domenico Santoro in 1688, referring to Pulo di Altamura, wrote "luogo detto dalli Cittadini lo Pulo". Te first thorough scientific study on Pulicchio di Gravina dates back to Carmelo Colamonico. A few other scientists and geologists had only cited a natural cavity near Altamura. For instance, F. Virgilio mentions the doline calling it "pulicchio" and incorrectly traces its origin to an unspecified "underground water erosion". According to Virgilio, the absence of rock masses at the bottom of the doline proves that subsidence occurred due to "underground water erosion". Carmelo Colamonico refutes F. Virgilio's theory pointing out that the absence of rock masses at the bottom of the doline proves, that the origin is due to "superficial erosion". In the same way as Pulo di Altamura and Gurio Lamanna, the origin of Pulicchio di Gravina can be explained through karst processes, i.e. the physical and chemical action of rainwater, that the fractured limestone rock of the Murge plateau underwent over the millennia.
Unlike other karst dolines of the region, Pulicchio di Gravina is the endpoint of a small drainage basin and therefore the amount of rainwater collected inside the doline is little. Carmelo Colamonico points out that not the rainwater falling on the area close to the doline manages to reach it; the scarce rainwater is absorbed quickly. Some farmers of that region stated that "there is never water at the bottom of Pulicchio di Gravina". Furthermore, no noteworthy sinkholes have been discovered inside the doline. Carmelo Colamonico argues that Pulicchio di Gravina originated due to superficial erosion. Just the superficial erosion would not explain both its large size and the proximity to other two dolines, i.e. Gurio Lamanna and Tre Paduli, it cannot be excluded the drainage basin of Pulicchio di Gravina may have been larger than today's and it may have been reduced due to the formation of the other two nearby dolines. The absence of lamas near Pulicchio di Gravina doesn't seem to confirm this hypothesis.
The lama may have been eroded due to the formation of the nearby dolines Gurio Lamanna and Tre Paduli. Another hypothesis is that it might be a "collapse doline", i.e. a doline generated due to the collapse of the ceiling of a pre-existing cave. If it is assumed that the origin of the doline was caused by the collapse of a cave, the initial size of it would have been so small that in any case it is necessary to introduce karst action in order to explain the origin of the doline; as shown on the photo published by Carmelo Colamonico, Pulicchio di Gravina didn't have any trees inside. In the 1950s, a forest has been established. Gravina in Puglia Gurio Lamanna Altamura Pulo di Altamura Karst Lama Virgilio, F.. "Geomorfogenia della provincia di Bari". Terra di Bari. Trani: Vecchi. 3. Colamonico, Carmelo. "Il pulicchio di Gravina". Rivista geografica italiana. Udine. Retrieved 14 February 2018. Gortani, Michele. "Appunti per una classificazione delle doline". Mondo Sotterraneo. Udine. Berloco, Tommaso. Storie inedite della città di Altamura.
Altamura: ATA - Associazione Turistica Altamurana Pro Loco
The Castellana Caves are a karst cave system located in the municipality of Castellana Grotte, in the Metropolitan City of Bari, southern Italy. The caves, discovered in 1938 by the speleologist Franco Anelli, are situated 1 kilometer south of Castellana and are served by the on the FSE line Bari-Putignano-Martina-Taranto; the entrance is represented by an enormous vertical tunnel 60 meters long. The main cave is named "La Grave", others are named Black Cavern, White Cave and Precipice Cavern; the Caves of Castellana open in south-eastern Murge, a limestone plateau dating back to the upper Cretaceous and rising 330 metres above sea level. The area of Castellana is characterized by limestone, a sedimentary rock composed of calcium carbonate, known as Limestone of Altamura; the cave system is 3348 metres in length and the point of maximum depth reaches 122 metres. The temperature within the caves is about 18 °C; the caves are open all year round except for the New Year's day. The visit develops along two itineraries: the first is 1 km long and lasts about 50 minutes while the second is 3 km long and lasts about two hours.
The tour timetable changes depending on the season. In addition, during the summer there are guided night tours; the Grave is the first and the biggest cave of this wonderful speleological complex and it is the only one communicating with the outside. It measures 50 m in width and 60 m in depth. Going beyond the Grave stalactites, stalagmites and precious crystals continues to embellish everywhere the caves; the name of the environment are the result through the imagination of the early explorers: the She-Wolf, the Monuments, the Owl, the Little Virgin Mary, the Altar, the Precipice, the Desert Corridor, the Reverse Column, the Red Corridor, the Dome up to the last and the most dazzling one, the White Cave. Castellana’s speleological complex is unique among other cave systems thanks to its three peculiarities: the Grave, the White Cave and the concretions; the Grave of Castellana is a huge natural pantheon thanks to its natural skylight surrounded by a circle of holm-oaks through which a ribbon of clear sky is visible.
From the ceiling a big sunbeams filters down into the darkness and it moves differently according to the time of the day and the season. Within the Grave, the sunlight creates magical effects, firstly draws a huge white screen on the descending walls, secondly it gives life to a far stalagmite group, called the Cyclopes because they look like sea giants rising out from the chaos of a stormy sea, it reaches the irregular and dark bottom of the chasm. The southern walls, the big broken curtains and the green moss-grown columns stay always in the darkness. Beyond these columns there is the majestic architectural structures that the nature build up in the darkness by the passing of time; the Grave is the first huge cave of the cave karst system and the only one communicating with the outside. Its history dates back to ninety-one hundred millions of years ago in the upper Cretaceous. At that time Apulia was submerged by an old sea where lived large colonies of molluscs and sea vegetables. For millions of years generations of these life forms-plants and marine molluscs succeeded each other and died, so their empty shells and their carcasses were piled up on the seabed, forming a giant deposit of mud and sand, that with a continuous growth was compressed forming limestone layers for a total thickness of several kilometres.
Starting since 66 millions of years ago, the gradual raising of the land brought the region to its current aspect. However, the new emerged land was too rigid and for this reason it was cut in a multitude of fractures; the eluvial water of large rainfall infiltrated into the subsurface soil and rock and created massive groundwater aquifer. The physical and chemical effect of water running underground, dissolved the limestone and enlarged the fractures. Over geological eras cracks expanded to till become galleries and cavern which became bigger and bigger. In certain cases a large number of cracks intersected and so there were several frequent collapses, while the thickness of the rock, that separated the cave from the outside, was so reduced that the vault fell down; this happened in the Grave of Castellana and thus the first sunbeam could come in the darkness of the cave. At the end of the underground itinerary and about 1500 metres far from the Grave there is a small portal dig in an imposing alabaster wall.
This is the most beautiful caves of Castellana, the White Cave. All the wonders of the previous halls disappear compared with the majesty of this corner of heaven. Going on almost in reverent silence in this underground temple, the astonished visitor is surrounded by the whiteness of alabaster, this is because the cave has been indicated as the most shining cave in the world. A small but spectacular basin, once full of drip water, is now adorned with crystals, which embellish its bottom and walls; every corner of the cave is adorned with white and translucent stalagmites. In front of the visitor takes place the final scene: two high and huge columns seem to support the vault of the last hall, embellished everywhere by white stalactites and coral concretions; this is the end and the most enchanting moment of the underground tour that remind the visitor of the power and of the gracefulness of the nature. The most fascinating feature of the Caves of Castellana are the concretions; this term is used to indicate the mineral deposits that covered the naked walls of a cave by crystallisation of the calcite car
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era, the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon; the Cretaceous Period is abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide. The Cretaceous was a period with a warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas; these oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared; the Cretaceous ended with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, a large mass extinction in which many groups, including non-avian dinosaurs and large marine reptiles died out. The end of the Cretaceous is defined by the abrupt Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, a geologic signature associated with the mass extinction which lies between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.
The Cretaceous as a separate period was first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d'Omalius d'Halloy in 1822, using strata in the Paris Basin and named for the extensive beds of chalk, found in the upper Cretaceous of Western Europe. The name Cretaceous was derived from Latin creta; the Cretaceous is divided into Early and Late Cretaceous epochs, or Lower and Upper Cretaceous series. In older literature the Cretaceous is sometimes divided into three series: Neocomian and Senonian. A subdivision in eleven stages, all originating from European stratigraphy, is now used worldwide. In many parts of the world, alternative local subdivisions are still in use; as with other older geologic periods, the rock beds of the Cretaceous are well identified but the exact age of the system's base is uncertain by a few million years. No great extinction or burst of diversity separates the Cretaceous from the Jurassic. However, the top of the system is defined, being placed at an iridium-rich layer found worldwide, believed to be associated with the Chicxulub impact crater, with its boundaries circumscribing parts of the Yucatán Peninsula and into the Gulf of Mexico.
This layer has been dated at 66.043 Ma. A 140 Ma age for the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary instead of the accepted 145 Ma was proposed in 2014 based on a stratigraphic study of Vaca Muerta Formation in Neuquén Basin, Argentina. Víctor Ramos, one of the authors of the study proposing the 140 Ma boundary age sees the study as a "first step" toward formally changing the age in the International Union of Geological Sciences. From youngest to oldest, the subdivisions of the Cretaceous period are: Late Cretaceous Maastrichtian – Campanian – Santonian – Coniacian – Turonian – Cenomanian – Early Cretaceous Albian – Aptian – Barremian – Hauterivian – Valanginian – Berriasian – The high sea level and warm climate of the Cretaceous meant large areas of the continents were covered by warm, shallow seas, providing habitat for many marine organisms; the Cretaceous was named for the extensive chalk deposits of this age in Europe, but in many parts of the world, the deposits from the Cretaceous are of marine limestone, a rock type, formed under warm, shallow marine circumstances.
Due to the high sea level, there was extensive space for such sedimentation. Because of the young age and great thickness of the system, Cretaceous rocks are evident in many areas worldwide. Chalk is a rock type characteristic for the Cretaceous, it consists of coccoliths, microscopically small calcite skeletons of coccolithophores, a type of algae that prospered in the Cretaceous seas. In northwestern Europe, chalk deposits from the Upper Cretaceous are characteristic for the Chalk Group, which forms the white cliffs of Dover on the south coast of England and similar cliffs on the French Normandian coast; the group is found in England, northern France, the low countries, northern Germany, Denmark and in the subsurface of the southern part of the North Sea. Chalk is not consolidated and the Chalk Group still consists of loose sediments in many places; the group has other limestones and arenites. Among the fossils it contains are sea urchins, belemnites and sea reptiles such as Mosasaurus. In southern Europe, the Cretaceous is a marine system consisting of competent limestone beds or incompetent marls.
Because the Alpine mountain chains did not yet exist in the Cretaceous, these deposits formed on the southern edge of the European continental shelf, at the margin of the Tethys Ocean. Stagnation of deep sea currents in middle Cretaceous times caused anoxic conditions in the sea water leaving the deposited organic matter undecomposed. Half the worlds petroleum reserves were laid down at this time in the anoxic conditions of what would become the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Mexico. In many places around the world, dark anoxic shales were formed during this interval; these shales are an important source rock for oil and gas, for example in the subsurface of the North Sea. During th
Gurio Lamanna is a doline shaped like a coat of arms located in the Murge plateau and falling into Gravina in Puglia's territory, on the border with Altamura. It's "one of the largest karst landforms of the Murge plateau" and it is located close to other two dolines, namely Pulicchio di Gravina and Tre Paduli. Depending on the type of geomorphologic classification employed and the author who suggested it, the karst landform can be defined either a doline or a "karst basin", it is traditionally called "karst basin", following the suggestion of Carmelo Colamonico, who first studied the doline and saw in its large size and shallow depth a good reason to distinguish it from a normal doline. The definition of "karst basin", used by Carmelo Colamonico, has been introduced by Renato Biasutti. Carmelo Colamonico stated that Gurio Lamanna is "one of the best examples of karst basin in the Murge plateau"; the doline has an external perimeter of over 3 kilometers, an average length of 900 meters ca. and a maximum depth of 38 meters.
It covers an area of 68,000 square meters. Its walls have a low steepness compared to the nearby doline Pulicchio di Gravina; the bottom of the doline is flat "like a table". From this point of view, it may be likened to another large "karst basin", the expanse of Pescariello, far wider and karst; the doline includes a sinkhole, into which part of the rainwater collected in its drainage basin flows out. The whole flat area contains a deep layer of fertile soil, L'intera area piatta contiene un notevole strato di terreno fertile, consequence of the millenary erosion and, cultivated together with the nearby doline Tre Paduli; because of this, the area is different from the stony and difficult to grow Murge region. During the storms, the water in the doline reaches a high level; this water flows out via the sinkhole via the porous limestone external walls. The water is absorbed in a short time a few hours. Water stagnates longer in the central area, the lowest. In this central area, at the time of Carmelo Colamonico, there was a tree and a pit for rainwater, while today there is an open tank used for rainwater.
Close to the doline are the ruins of a small XX century primary school both for adults. The doline was unknown among scientists and scholars until the first study published by Carmelo Colamonico in 1917, it had been cited only by F. Virgilio, who called it just "Gurio". Carmelo Colamonico was the first person, he noticed that on the maps of the Italian geographic institute Istituto Geografico Militare of that time the area, comprising a cluster of buildings nearby, was just named Masseria Crocetta, but its real name instead was Masseria Gurio Lamanna. Carmelo Colamonico identified the real nome of the area and first used the term "Gurio Lamanna" to refer to the doline; as a proof of the correctness of Carmelo Colamonico's intuition, the word gurio is used in the Murge region to denote a large and flat sinkhole collecting a large amount of rainwater. The origin of the karst basin Gurio Lamanna can be explained with karst processes; the water coming from the relative drainage basin has but eroded the area, leading to the formation of the wide flat area full of fertile soil, visible today.
Carmelo Colamonico hypothesized that there may have been a ditch in direction NW-SE caused by tectonic phenomena. He noticed that today's dimensions would have never been reached if there hadn't been the double action of rainwater coming from such a large drainage basin. Rainwater comes from two lamas, one located NW and the other NE. Both of them contribute to the erosion phenomenon, although the NW lama contributed more than the NE lama; the erosion occurred in the northern direction in the region between the two lamas. Gravina in Puglia Pulo di Altamura Pulicchio di Gravina Altamura Karst Doline Lama Colamonico, Carmelo. "Il bacino carsico di Gurio Lamanna nelle Murge alte". Mondo sotterraneo. Udine: Tipografia Domenico Del Bianco. XIII. Retrieved 14 February 2018. Virgilio, F.. "Geomorfogenia della provincia di Bari". Terra di Bari. Trani: Vecchi. 3. Biasutti, Renato. "Sulla nomenclatura relativa ai fenomeni carsici". Rivista Geografica Italiana. Florence. 3