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Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings or animals, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. In an extreme case, altruism may become a synonym of selflessness, the opposite of selfishness; the word "altruism" was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as altruisme, for an antonym of egoism. He derived it from the Italian altrui, which in turn was derived from Latin alteri, meaning "other people" or "somebody else". Altruism in biological observations in field populations of the day organisms is an individual performing an action, at a cost to themselves, but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without the expectation of reciprocity or compensation for that action.

Steinberg suggests a definition for altruism in the clinical setting, "intentional and voluntary actions that aim to enhance the welfare of another person in the absence of any quid pro quo external rewards". In one sense, the opposite of altruism is spite. Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of loyalty, in that whilst the latter is predicated upon social relationships, altruism does not consider relationships. Much debate exists as to; the theory of psychological egoism suggests that no act of sharing, helping or sacrificing can be described as altruistic, as the actor may receive an intrinsic reward in the form of personal gratification. The validity of this argument depends on whether intrinsic rewards qualify as "benefits"; the term altruism may refer to an ethical doctrine that claims that individuals are morally obliged to benefit others. Used in this sense, it is contrasted with egoism, which claims individuals are morally obligated to serve themselves first. Effective altruism is the use of evidence and reason to determine the most effective ways to benefit others.

The concept has a long history in ethical thought. The term was coined in the 19th century by the founding sociologist and philosopher of science, Auguste Comte, has become a major topic for psychologists, evolutionary biologists, ethologists. Whilst ideas about altruism from one field can affect the other fields, the different methods and focuses of these fields always lead to different perspectives on altruism. In simple terms, altruism is acting to help them. Marcel Mauss's book The Gift contains a passage called "Note on alms"; this note describes the evolution of the notion of alms from the notion of sacrifice. In it, he writes: Alms are the fruits of a moral notion of the gift and of fortune on the one hand, of a notion of sacrifice, on the other. Generosity is an obligation, because Nemesis avenges the poor and the gods for the superabundance of happiness and wealth of certain people who should rid themselves of it; this is the ancient morality of the gift. The gods and the spirits accept that the share of wealth and happiness, offered to them and had been hitherto destroyed in useless sacrifices should serve the poor and children.

In the science of ethology, more in the study of social evolution, altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. In evolutionary psychology this may be applied to a wide range of human behaviors such as charity, emergency aid, help to coalition partners, courtship gifts, production of public goods, environmentalism. Theories of altruistic behavior were accelerated by the need to produce theories compatible with evolutionary origins. Two related strands of research on altruism have emerged from traditional evolutionary analyses and from evolutionary game theory a mathematical model and analysis of behavioural strategies; some of the proposed mechanisms are: Kin selection. That animals and humans are more altruistic towards close kin than to distant kin and non-kin has been confirmed in numerous studies across many different cultures. Subtle cues indicating kinship may unconsciously increase altruistic behavior.

One kinship cue is facial resemblance. One study found that altering photographs so that they more resembled the faces of study participants increased the trust the participants expressed regarding depicted persons. Another cue is having the same family name if rare, this has been found to increase helpful behavior. Another study found more cooperative behavior the greater the number of perceived kin in a group. Using kinship terms in political speeches increased audience agreement with the speaker in one study; this effect was strong for firstborns, who are close to their families. Vested interests. People are to suffer if their friends and similar social ingroups suffer or disappear. Helping such group members may therefore benefit the altruist. Making ingroup membership more noticeable increases cooperativeness. Extreme self-sacrifice towards the ingroup may be adaptive if a hostile outgroup threatens to kill the entire ingroup. Reciprocal altruism. See Reciprocity. Direct reciprocity. Research shows that it can be beneficial to help others if there

Ottilie Patterson

Anna Ottilie Patterson was a Northern Irish blues singer best known for her performances and recordings with the Chris Barber Jazz Band in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Ottilie Patterson was born in Comber, County Down, Northern Ireland on 31 January 1932, she was the youngest child of four. Her father, Joseph Patterson, was from Northern Ireland, her mother, Jūlija Jēgers, was from Latvia, they had met in southern Russia. Ottilie's name is an Anglicised form of the Latvian name "Ottilja". Both sides of the family were musical, Ottilie trained as a classical pianist from the age of eleven, but never received any formal training as a singer. In 1949 Ottilie went to study art at Belfast College of Technology where a fellow student introduced her to the music of Bessie Smith, Jelly Roll Morton and Meade Lux Lewis. In 1951 she began singing with Jimmy Compton's Jazz Band, in August 1952 she formed the Muskrat Ramblers with Al Watt and Derek Martin. In the summer of 1954, while holidaying in London, Ottilie met Beryl Bryden, who introduced her to the Chris Barber Jazz Band.

She joined the Barber band full-time on 28 December 1954, her first public appearance was at the Royal Festival Hall on 9 January 1955. Between 1955 and 1962 Ottilie toured extensively with the Chris Barber Jazz Band and issued many recordings: those featuring her on every track include the EPs Blues, That Patterson Girl, That Patterson Girl Volume 2, the LP Chris Barber's Blues Book, she and Barber were married in 1959. They divorced in 1983. From 1963 she began to suffer throat problems and ceased to appear and record with Chris Barber retiring from the band in 1973. During this period she recorded some non-jazz/blues material such as settings of Shakespeare and in 1969 issued a solo LP 3000 years with Ottilie, now much sought by collectors. In early 1983 she and Chris Barber gave a series of concerts around London, which were recorded for the LP Madame Blues and Doctor Jazz; this is her most issued recording. Ottilie is buried in Movilla Abbey Cemetery, Northern Ireland in the Patterson family grave.

Her gravestone, marked Ottilia Anna Barber, is by the wall adjacent to the car park. In February 2012 a plaque marking her birthplace in a terraced house in Comber was unveiled, the same evening a sell-out musical Tribute was performed at the La Mon Hotel in Comber; that Patterson Girl That Patterson Girl Volume 2 Blues Ottilie's Irish Night Ottilie 3000 Years with Ottilie Spring Song Madame Blues and Doctor Jazz Ottilie Swings the Irish With Chris Barber Chris Barber Plays Echoes of Harlem Chris Barber in Concert Chris Barber Plays Volume Four Chris Barber in Concert Volume Two Chris Barber in Concert Volume Three Chris Barber Band Box Volume One Barber in Berlin Chris Barber's Blues Book Volume One Chris Barber at the London Palladium Best Yet! Chris Barber Band Box – Volume Three Chris Barber Jazz Band Chris Barber's Jazz Band in Prague Folk Barber Style Good Mornin' Blues Chris Barber V Praze The Chris Barber Jubilee Album 1 The Chris Barber Jubilee Album 2 The Chris Barber Jubilee Album 3 Ottilie Patterson with Chris Barber's Jazzband 1955–1958 Madame Blues & Doctor Jazz 40 Years Jubilee The Chris Barber Concerts Chris Barber's Blues Book Volume One/Good Mornin' Blues Echoes of Harlem/Sonny and Chris Back in the Old Days Ottilie Patterson with Chris Barber Chris Barber at the BBC Chris Barber's Jazz Band With Special Guest Sister Rosetta Tharpe Irish Favourites The Best of Chris Barber's Jazz Band In Barber's Chair Bandbox No. 1 The Nixa Jazz Today Albums International Concerts: Berlin, London Best Yet!

The Complete Decca Sessions 1954/55 Chris Barber 1955 Folk Barber Style That Patterson Girl Chris Barber 1956 "St Louis Blues"/"The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise" "I Hate a Man Like You"/"Reckless Blues" "Weeping Willow Blues"/"Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out" "Kay-Cee Rider"/"I Love My Baby" "Jailhouse Blues"/"Beale Street Blues" "Trombone Cholly"/"Lawdy, Lawdy Blues" "There'll Be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight"/"Lonesome" "The Mountains of Mourne"/"Real Old Mountain Dew" "Blueberry Hill"/"I'm Crazy'Bout My Baby" "Mama, He Treats Your Daughter Mean"/"Swipsy Cakewalk" "Down by the Riverside"/"When the Saints Go Marching In" "I Hate Myself"/"Come On Baby" "Jealous Heart"/"Won't Be Long" "Baby Please Don't Go"/"I Feel So Good" "Hello Dolly"/"I Shall Not Be Moved" "Tell Me Where Is Fancy Bred"/"Oh Me What Eyes Hath Love Put in My Head" "Spring Song"/"Sound of the Door As It Closes" "Bitterness of Death"/"Spring Song" "Careless Love"/"Georgia Grind" The principal source for this discography is Biel


HMS G12 was a British G-class submarine built for the Royal Navy during World War I. The G-class submarines were designed by the Admiralty in response to a rumour that the Germans were building double-hulled submarines for overseas duties; the submarines had a length of 187 feet 1 inch overall, a beam of 22 feet 8 inches and a mean draft of 13 feet 4 inches. They displaced 703 long tons on the surface and 837 long tons submerged; the G-class submarines had a crew of other ranks. They had a partial double hull. For surface running, the boats were powered by two 800-brake-horsepower Vickers two-stroke diesel engines, each driving one propeller shaft; when submerged each propeller was driven by a 420-horsepower electric motor. They could reach 14.25 knots on 9 knots underwater. On the surface, the G class had a range of 2,400 nautical miles at 16 knots; the boats were intended to be armed with one 21-inch torpedo tube in the bow and two 18-inch torpedo tubes on the beam. This was revised, while they were under construction, the 21-inch tube was moved to the stern and two additional 18-inch tubes were added in the bow.

They carried two 21-inch and eight 18-inch torpedoes. The G-class submarines were armed with a single 3-inch deck gun. Like the rest of her class, G12's role was to patrol an area of the North Sea in search of German U-boats, she survived the war and was sold for scrap in 1920. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Gardiner, Robert & Gray, eds.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5. McCartney, Innes. British Submarines of World War I. New Vanguard. 145. Oxford, UK: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84603-334-6

2013 Aegon Championships

The 2013 Aegon Championships was a men's tennis tournament played on outdoor grass courts. It was the 111th edition of those championships and was part of the ATP World Tour 250 series of the 2013 ATP World Tour, it took place at the Queen's Club in London, United Kingdom, in the club's 127th year between 10 and 16 June. Rankings are as of May 27, 2013; the following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Edward Corrie Alexandr Dolgopolov Dan Evans Kyle Edmund James WardThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Jamie Baker Ilija Bozoljac Samuel Groth Feliciano LópezThe following players received entry as lucky losers: Rohan Bopanna Frederik Nielsen Before the tournament Kevin Anderson Brian Baker Simone Bolelli Rogério Dutra da Silva Mardy Fish Robin Haase Lukáš Lacko Lu Yen-hsun Gilles Müller Dmitry TursunovDuring the tournament Michaël Llodra Rankings are as of May 27, 2013. The following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Lleyton Hewitt / Bernard Tomic Jamie Murray / John PeersThe following pairs received entry as alternates: Thiemo de Bakker / Igor Sijsling Guillermo García-López / John-Patrick Smith Paul-Henri Mathieu / Marinko Matosevic Before the tournament Kevin Anderson Michaël Llodra Bernard Tomic During the tournament Nicolas Mahut Andy Murray defeated Marin Čilić, 5–7, 7–5, 6–3 Bob Bryan / Mike Bryan defeated Alexander Peya / Bruno Soares, 4–6, 7–5, Following the finals on the last day, Andy Murray took part in a charity event called "Rally against Cancer" alongside former British no. 1 Tim Henman, in which they faced off against Murray's coach, former world no. 1 and 8-time Grand Slam champion Ivan Lendl, world number 6 Tomas Berdych.

The event was organised in order to raise money for the Royal Marsden Cancer Charity, after British Davis Cup player Ross Hutchins was diagnosed with Hodgkins Lymphoma at the end of 2012. Following the one set affair, in which the Brits emerged victorious and Henman teamed up with a number of British celebrities, including comedians Jimmy Carr, Michael McIntyre and Jonathan Ross, actor Eddie Redmayne, businessman Sir Richard Branson and mayor of London Boris Johnson; the initial target for the event was £100,000, however this was exceeded by over £50,000 during the event. Furthermore, Murray donated his entire prize money pot of around £73,000 towards the charity. Official website

Salim Sayegh

Salim Sayegh is a Lebanese academic and politician who served as minister of social affairs from 2009 to 2011. Sayegh was born into a Maronite family, he graduated from Lebanese American University in 1983. He received a master's degree in international relations and diplomacy in 1989, he holds a PhD in law from the University of Paris in 1992. Sayegh worked as professor at the University of South Paris from 1993 to 2009 and served as the director of university's conflict resolution center during the same period, he is a member of the Kataeb party and was elected as second vice president in February 2008 when Amine Gemayel became the president of the party. He has been a member of the party's political bureau and head of the foreign affairs committee in the party since 2008,Sayegh was appointed minister of social affairs in the cabinet led by Prime Minister Saad Hariri on 9 November 2009. Sayegh resigned from his party post following his appointment as minister, he was among the members of the committee, charged with drafting the government program.

Sayegh's tenure lasted until June 2011, he was replaced by Wael Abou Faour as minister. In addition, he is a member of World Bank board for social politics in the MENA region


'FanX Salt Lake Comic Convention is a semi-annual multi-genre pop culture expo held in Salt Lake City, United States. It is produced by Dan Farr and Bryan Brandenburg under Dan Farr Productions and is Utah's most attended convention according to the Governor's Office of Economic Development; the first convention took place at the Salt Palace Convention Center in Salt Lake City. The second event, Salt Lake Comic Con FanXperience, was inaugurated in April 2014; the first Salt Lake Comic Con was held September 5–7, 2013 and included special guests including Adam West, William Shatner, Stan Lee with attendance over 70,000. People attended with ticket sales that exceeded 50,000. Salt Lake Comic Con FanXperience, the first of two Salt Lake comic conventions in 2014, took place on April 17–19, 2014. FanXperience was attended by over 100,000 people. On July 25, 2014 San Diego Comic-Con International sent Dan Farr Productions a cease and desist letter over the use of the word "Comic Con." Convention organizers responded with a press release citing their legal position and unwillingness to comply to the cease and desist letter.

In December 2017, a San Diego jury found San Diego Comic-Con does hold a trademark on the term "Comic Con," but found Salt Lake organizers Dan Farr and Bryan Brandenburg did not willfully or intentionally violate it. They awarded SDCC $20,000 in damages, less than the $12 million the non-profit wanted. Subsequently and Brandenburg re-branded the convention under the name FanX. On January 16, 2018, Farr and Brandenburg filed a motion for a new trial. In March 2016, Dan Farr Productions partnered with POP Life to expand FanXperience to Asia. In 2019, Bryan Brandenburg devoted himself full-time to Zenerchi, a biotech company you founded in Salt Lake City. Fandom Science fiction convention Comic Art Convention Official website