Amir Peretz is an Israeli politician who serves as a member of the Knesset for the Labor Party. He served as Minister of Defence, leader of the Labor Party and Minister of Environmental Protection. Peretz is the former chairman of the Histadrut trade union federation and defeated Shimon Peres in the primary elections for the Labor leadership on 9 November 2005, he led the Labor Party to a second place showing in the 2006 elections and became Defense Minister on 4 May 2006. He was defeated by Ehud Barak for the Labor leadership on 12 June 2007 and resigned from the cabinet, he joined the Hatnuah party in December 2012, before rejoining the Labor Party in September 2015. Peretz was born as Armand Peretz in Morocco, on 9 March 1952 during French colonial rule, his father David was head of the Jewish community in Boujad. He worked at a petrol station; the family emigrated to Israel when Morocco won independence in 1956. They were settled in the development town of Sderot, where Peretz lived until the age of 18.
He went to high school in a nearby kibbutz. He served in the Israel Defense Forces as the brigade ordnance officer of the 202nd paratroopers brigade and reached the rank of captain. On 22 April 1974, Peretz was badly wounded as a result of an accident at the Mitla Pass, he spent a year in the hospital recuperating. After leaving the hospital, he bought a farm in the village of Nir Akiva. Still in a wheelchair, he began growing flowers for export. During this period he met his wife Ahlama and they married, they have four children. In 1983, answering a call made by friends, Peretz ran for the office of mayor of Sderot, as candidate of the Israel Labor Party. At only 31 years of age he won a victory that ended a long period of dominance of the town's politics by the right-wing Likud party and the National Religious Party, it was the first in a series of local councils. As mayor, he emphasized education and worked to improve fractious relations with the kibbutzim in the area. In 1988 he was elected a member of the Knesset.
In 1994, after failing in a previous bid for Histadrut leadership, Peretz joined forces with Haim Ramon to contest control of the powerful trade union federation. They ran on an independent list against the favoured candidate of Labor leader Yitzhak Rabin, they won, Peretz became Ramon's deputy at the Histadrut, isolating him within the Labor Party. He became chairman of the Histadrut in December 1995, when Ramon reentered the cabinet following Rabin's assassination. During his early years at the helm of the Histadrut, Peretz was regarded as a militant firebrand, with an easy hand on the trigger of general strikes. Sometimes the pretext for declaring a general strike would be an inopportune statement by the finance minister, as had been the case with Ya'akov Ne'eman in 1996. However, in his years as head of Histadrut, Peretz was seen as becoming much more moderate, as he moved toward a potential run for national office. During the tenure of Benjamin Netanyahu as finance minister, Peretz was cooperative with the government in a series of structural and financial reforms that moved Israel towards a more market-oriented economy.
He has remarked that "the most effective strike is the one that didn't occur". In 1999 Peretz resigned from the Labor Party to form One Nation; the party won two seats in the Knesset in the 1999 elections, three in 2003. As Labor's fortunes changed with the Likud Party in government, Israel's social programmes being dismantled by the market-oriented reforms of finance minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Peretz became popular with Israel's working-class. By the start of 2004 he was being talked of as a "white knight who will rescue Labor from oblivion". After protracted negotiations with then-Labor Party leader Shimon Peres and other party leaders, One Nation merged with Labor in the summer of 2004. After the merger, Peretz ran for the leadership of the Labor Party on a platform of ending the coalition with Likud, led by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, reasserting Labor's traditional socialist economic policies. Peretz narrowly defeated Peres, the incumbent leader, in the election on 9 November 2005. During his campaign Peretz declared that "within two years of taking office I will have eradicated child poverty in Israel".
Notwithstanding, he has reiterated his commitment to a market economy. For his movement in latter years towards "third way" positions, as well as for his earthy and warm personality, Peretz has been compared to Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. In matters concerning relations with the Palestinians and the Arab world, Peretz was seen as holding dovish positions, he was one of the early leaders of the Peace Now movement. He was in the 1980s, a member of a group of eight Labor party Knesset members, dubbed "the Eight" and led by Yossi Beilin, who tried to set a liberal agenda for the party in matters concerning the peace process with the Palestinians, connecting the unresolved conflict with the Palestinians with the failure to solve Israel's most pressing social ills. Peretz saw an intrinsic connection between a solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the resolving of Israel's internal social tensions, he argued that the resources allotted to the settlements in the West Bank had diverted funds that could have helped to solve social problems throughout Israel.
He described the conflict as having mutated Israeli politics, so that the traditional left-right distinctions did not hold. Instead of supporting a social-democratic left that would advance their cause, the lower classes of Middle Eastern Jewish origins, were diverted to
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, in many navies is the highest rank. It is abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"; the rank is thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin admirabilis or admiratus, although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version – amiral without the additional d – tends to add evidence for the Arab origin. In the Commonwealth and the U. S. a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet. In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9 as a four-star rank; the word admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic amīr, or amīr al-, "commander of", as in amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea"; the term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily, ruled by Arabs, at least by the early 11th century.
The Norman Roger II of Sicily, employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as Amir of Amirs, i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as ammiratus ammiratorum. The Sicilians and Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, from their Aragon opponents; the French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling admyrall in the 14th century and to admiral by the 16th century; the word "admiral" has today come to be exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies, equivalent to the army rank of general. However, this wasn't always the case.
The rank of admiral has been subdivided into various grades, several of which are extinct while others remain in use in most present day navies. The Royal Navy used colours to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; the generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer. Some navies have used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian "general at sea"; the rank insignia for an admiral involves four stars or similar devices and/or 3 stripes over a broad stripe, but as one can see below, there are many cases where the insignia do not involve four stars or similar devices. Admiral is a German Navy OF-9 four-star flag officer rank, equivalent to the German Army and German Air Force rank of General. Post-WWII rank is Bakurocho taru kaishō or Admiral serve as Chief of Staff, Joint Staff（幕僚長たる海将） with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense, compared to Gensui during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945. Admiral of Castile was a post with a important history in Spain.
Comparative military ranks Laksamana, native title for naval leaders in Indonesia and Malaysia Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO Navies Admiralty Nebraska admiral "Admiral". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Admiral". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Chief of the General Staff (Israel)
The Chief of the General Staff known as the Commander-in-Chief of the Israel Defense Forces, is the supreme commander and head of the Israel Defense Forces. At any given time, the Chief of the General Staff is the only active officer holding the IDF's highest rank, rav aluf, translated into English as lieutenant general, a three-star rank; the lone exception to this rule occurred during the Yom Kippur War, when former Chief of the General Staff Haim Bar-Lev, a cabinet member at the outbreak of and during the war, was brought out of retirement and installed as chief of Southern Command. For a brief period, he and Chief of the General Staff David Elazar were both in active service with the rank of rav aluf; the Israel Defense Forces is an integrated force, its ranks are the same in all services. It has a compacted rank structure. Rav aluf means'arch-general', which would be equal to a field marshal or five star general in other armies and equivalent to OF-10; the position of ramatkal is defined in the Basic Law: The Military, clause three: The supreme command rank in the military is that of the Chief of the General Staff The Chief of the General Staff is to be placed under the authority of the government and subordinate to the Defense Minister The Chief of the General Staff is to be appointed by the government, according to the recommendation of the Defense MinisterThe Chief of the General Staff is formally appointed once every three years, with the government extending the term to four years, in some occasions five.
As of 15 January 2019, the Chief of the General Staff is Aviv Kochavi. Given the importance of the IDF in Israeli society, the Chief of the General Staff is an important public figure in Israel. On appointment of a new Chief of the General Staff, mass-circulation papers such as Yediot Aharonot and Israel Hayom customarily provide their readers with large-scale portrait photos of the new Chief, Israeli citizens hang such photos in homes and shops. Former Chiefs of the General Staff parlay the prominence of their position into political life, sometimes the business world. Two Chiefs of the General Staff have become Prime Minister of Israel and nine others have served in the Knesset. Of these, only Tzur did not get appointed to the Cabinet. Five former Chiefs of the General Staff held the position of Defense Minister considered to be the most powerful ministerial post in the country and the immediate civilian superior of the Chief of the General Staff. Of these, Mofaz is the only one to serve as Defense Minister over his immediate successor as Chief of the General Staff.
Moshe Dayan served as Foreign Minister. Soon after his discharge, Dan Halutz became the CEO of a prestigious car importer. Ehud Barak took a hiatus from politics twice after defeats for re-election and pursued successful international business ventures
Israeli Labor Party
The Israeli Labor Party known as HaAvoda, is a social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel. The Israeli Labor Party was established in 1968 by a merger of Ahdut HaAvoda and Rafi; until 1977, all Israeli Prime Ministers were affiliated with the Labor movement. The current party leader and candidate for prime minister is Avi Gabbay; the Labor Party is associated with supporting the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, pragmatic foreign affairs policies and social democratic economic policies. The party is a member of the Progressive Alliance and an observer member of the Party of European Socialists; the party was a member of the Socialist International until suspending its membership in 2018 over the Socialist International's decision to join the Boycott and Sanctions campaign. The foundations for the formation of the Israeli Labor Party were laid shortly before the 1965 Knesset elections when Mapai, the largest left-wing party in the country and the dominant partner in every government since independence, formed an alliance with Ahdut HaAvoda.
Mapai's Arab satellite lists followed the merger. The alliance was an attempt by Mapai to shore up the party's share of the vote following a break-away of eight MKs led by former Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to form a new party, Rafi, in protest against Mapai's failure to approve a change to the country's proportional representation voting system; the alliance, called the Labor Alignment won 45 seats in the elections, was able to form the government in coalition with the National Religious Party, the Independent Liberals, Poalei Agudat Yisrael and Development and Cooperation and Brotherhood. After the Six-Day War broke out and Gahal joined the coalition. On 21 January 1968, Ahdut HaAvoda and Rafi merged into one body, creating the Israeli Labor Party. On 28 January 1969, the party allied itself with Mapam, the alliance becoming known as the Alignment; as the largest faction within the Alignment, Labor came to dominate it. Mapam rejoined shortly afterwards. During the 1970s, the welfare state was expanded under successive Labor governments, with increases in pension benefits and the creation of new social security schemes such as disability insurance and unemployment insurance in 1970, children’s insurance in 1975, vacation pay for adopting parents in 1976, a Family Allowance for Veterans in 1970, a benefit for Prisoners of Zion in 1973, a mobility benefit and a Volunteers' Rights benefit in 1975.
During 1975–76, a modest program of housing rehabilitation was launched in a dozen or so older neighbourhoods, while the Sick Leave Compensation Law of 1976 provided for compensation in cases when employees were absent from work because of illness. In the 1977 elections, Labor ended up in opposition for the first time. In the 1984 elections, Labor joined a national unity government with Likud, with the post of Prime Minister rotating between the two parties. Mapam broke away again during the eleventh Knesset, angry at Shimon Peres's decision to form a national unity government with Likud. Although the Independent Liberals merged into the Alignment in the 1980s, they had no Knesset representation at the time. On 7 October 1991, the Alignment ceased to exist, with all factions formally merged into the Labor Party. At this time, the Likud Government faced numerous problems, such as economic problems, the challenge of assimilating a large influx of immigrants from the former Soviet Union, serious tensions with the American government led by President George H.
W. Bush and internal division. Led by Yitzhak Rabin, Labor won the 1992 elections and formed the government together with Meretz and Shas. In domestic policy, the Labor-led government introduced various measures to improve levels of social protection. Better provisions were introduced for single parents and people with disabilities, while income support entitlements were liberalised; the 1994 Law to Reduce Poverty and Income Inequality increased income maintenance grants to needy families benefitting those sections of society most vulnerable to poverty. In 1995, a national health insurance policy was implemented, making access to health care a right for all Israelis. Various measures were introduced to bring greater progressivity into the system of collection of national insurance contributions. A maternity grant for adopting mothers was introduced, together with old-age insurance for housewives, a minimum unemployment allowance, a partial injury allowance. In addition, investments were made in numerous development projects while affirmative action programmes were launched to hire Palestinian citizens in the public sector, the Ministry of Interior increased the budgets for Arab local councils, the Ministry of Education increased the budget for Arab education.
The subsequent role of Labor became to a large extent tied to the Oslo Accords, based on the principle "land for peace". The Oslo Accords led to a vote of confidence, which the Government won with a margin of 61–50. Several MKs from the Government parties declined to support the Government, but on the other hand, the Arab parties came to its rescue. Due to the lack of a constitution in Israel, the Government was able to implement the accords with a thin margin. Rabin's decision to advance peace talks with the Palestinians to the point of signing the Oslo Accords led to his assassination by Yigal Amir in 1995. Peres decided to call early elections in 1996 to give him a mandate for advancing the peace p
Israel Defense Forces ranks
The Israeli Defense Forces has a unique rank structure. Because the IDF is an integrated force, ranks are the same in all services The ranks are derived from those used in the pre-state paramilitary Haganah, which operated during the Mandate period in order to protect the Yishuv; this is reflected in the compacted rank structure: for instance, the Chief of Staff is only equivalent to a lieutenant general in other militaries. Officers: Volunteers who have completed the officer's course. Officers serve for 44 months for men. Positions in specialized units require their officers to serve for more than this. Promotions are based on time served, it takes about a year to be promoted from 2nd lieutenant to 1st lieutenant and three years to be promoted from 1st lieutenant to captain. Army officers have bronze-metal insignia, air force officers have silver metal insignia, navy officers have gold-metal insignia or gold braid bars. Officers without a university education can be promoted to a maximum of Rav Seren, although the IDF sponsors the studies for their majors.
Academic officers: Special rank given to soldiers who are delaying completing officers' training so they can complete a professional education. A kama is equivalent to a 2nd lieutenant, a ka'ab is equivalent to a 1st lieutenant, but are treated as if they were breveted to the next higher rank. Officers of these ranks are considered professional manpower and take posts of command. Upon completing officers' training, an academic officer is awarded the corresponding next "real" rank due to their experience in grade, their insignia bars are embossed with scrolls rather than laurel branches. Non-commissioned officers: The professional non-commissioned and warrant ranks, drawn from volunteers who signed on for military service after completing conscription, they are assigned to head-up the headquarters staff of a unit. Samal is a Hebrew abbreviation for segen mi-khutz la-minyan, which translates as “supernumerary deputy”. Rav samal translates as "chief sergeant". Nagad is a variant of the biblical word nagid, which means "ruler" or "leader".
Rav nagad is a senior staff NCO rank equivalent to the American ranks of "Chief Warrant Officer" and "Master Warrant Officer". Enlisted: The conscript and field NCO ranks. All Jewish or Druze conscripts must start their compulsory service at 18. Enlisted male conscripts serve for female conscripts serve for 24 months. In the IDF enlisted ranks are earned by means of time in service, rather than by a particular post or assignment. After 4 to 12 months the conscript is promoted to rav turai, after 18 to 20 months promoted to samal, after 24 to 32 months is promoted to samal rishon.. Field NCOs who command sub-units are called mashak; this is an abbreviation that translates into English as "non-commissioned officer". It is a term of respect like the French Army's chef. Recruits: Upon enlistment to military service in Israel, all soldiers begin a basic training course and undergo several weeks or months of'integration' from citizens to soldiers; this course is called tironut and the soldier being trained on this course is called a tiron.
This is erroneously interpreted as a rank, similar to the US Army's private. Both officers and enlisted personnel have an obligation to serve in the Reserves after completing their active military service. Male personnel serve until 41 -- 51 years old; the rank of memale makom katzín, initials:Mamak or "substitute officer", was created in the 1960s. The rank was considered below a 2nd lieutenant, it indicated a cadet in the Israeli army who had finished the basic preparation for an officer rank, but for some reason abandoned their studies, failed to complete the professional officer preparation, or completed it with a minimal passing grade but was still found worthy of command. They occupied the lowest officer posts; those who finished the officer preparation with a minimal passing grade and were substituting in a command position were eligible for promotion to normal officer rank after a set period. It was discontinued in 1994; the rank of Samal Bakhír, initials:Samab was used from 1948 to 1952.
It was the equivalent of a US Army First Sergeant. It was replaced by the rank of Rav Samal Yekhidati, similar to a British or Commonwealth Army Warrant Officer II; the rank of rav turái rishón, initials:Ratash, or "chief private first class", was used from 1972 to 1982. There was an expansion of staff NCO ranks during this period and the higher rank
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general; the disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant. In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term. General de Brigada is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army.
See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is the equivalent of a naval flag officer; the major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead; the rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, it is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Major-generals are addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers. Major-generals are entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor; the Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, generalmajor in Swedish and Danish. The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces; the major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources and discipline, his role is analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff; the five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, the Major General of the Air Force.
In the French Army, Major General is a position and the major general is of the rank of corps general. The French army had some sergent-majors généraux called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle; these sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp, the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade in 1793; the rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ. In Georgia, the rank major-general has one star as for security forces; the army, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia. The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.
With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U. S. with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, the rank of Brigadegeneral added below them. The rank of Generaloberst was no longer used; the Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor, abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral. In the Magyar Honvédség, the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy. In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are sartip dovom, sarlashkar and arteshbod.
The Israeli Navy is the naval warfare service arm of the Israel Defense Forces, operating in the Mediterranean Sea theater as well as the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea theater. The current commander in chief of the Israeli Navy is Aluf Eli Sharvit; the Israeli Navy is believed to be responsible for maintaining Israel's offshore nuclear second strike capability. The origins of the Israeli Navy lay in the founding of the Betar Naval Academy, a Jewish naval training school established in Civitavecchia, Italy, in 1934 by the Revisionist Zionist movement under the direction of Ze'ev Jabotinsky, with the agreement of Benito Mussolini; the Academy trained cadets from all over Europe and South Africa and produced some of the future commanders of the Israeli Navy. In September 1937, the training ship Sarah I visited Haifa and Tel Aviv as part of a Mediterranean tour. In 1938, encouraged by the Jewish Agency, Dr. Shlomo Bardin founded the Marine High School in Bosmat, the Technion's Junior Technical College.
1943 witnessed the founding of the Palyam, the naval branch of the Palmach, whose training was undertaken at the maritime school. The Jewish merchant marine was raised, operating SS Tel-Aviv and cargo ships such as Atid. In 1942, eleven hundred Haganah volunteers joined the Royal Navy in technical roles. A few reached combat service. Two of them served with the Fleet Air Arm, one of whom was Edmond Wilhelm Brillant and the other Zvi Avidror. With the end of the Second World War, Palyam members took part in clandestine immigration activities, bringing Europe's Jews to Palestine, as well as commando actions against Royal Navy deportation ships. Royal Navy volunteers, rejoined the Haganah. During the last months of British Mandate in Palestine, the former Royal Navy volunteers started work on the captured clandestine immigration ships in Haifa harbor, salvaged a few and pressed them into service; these were to become the Navy's first ships and saw service in the 1948 Israeli War of Independence. At the outset of the 1948 war and with the founding of the IDF, the Israeli Navy consisted of four former Aliyah Bet ships impounded in Haifa harbor.
These ships were refurbished by a newly formed naval repair facility with the assistance of two private shipbuilding and repair companies. In October 1948, a submarine chaser was purchased from the United States. With the founding of the IDF in early 1948, the Israeli Navy was therefore formed from a core of the following personnel: Royal Navy volunteers with the technical skills and discipline acquired from the Royal Navy, though with no active sea service and experience on Royal Navy ships. Palyam members who had led the clandestine and immigration effort, but had no sea background in navigation or leading a ship into a battle; the captains of clandestine and immigration ships were Italian, while Palyam personnel were commanding the ship under instructions from the Haganah. Ike Aharonowitch, captain of Exodus and a Jew, was the exception rather than the rule. Merchant Marine captains and chief engineers, possessing navigation skills but lacking combat skills. Jewish volunteers from the United States Navy and Royal Navy, such as Commander Paul Shulman of the U.
S. Navy, Commanders Solomon and Allen Burk of the Royal Navy. These, were discriminated against and their experience wasted by a navy command, based on the Palmach and its various branches; this resulted in odd situations where unskilled officers from the Palyam were in command of far more experienced naval officers. During the war, the warships served on coastal patrol duties and bombarded Arab targets on land, including Egyptian coastal installations in and around the Gaza area all the way to Port Said; the Israeli Navy engaged the Egyptian Navy at sea during Operation Yoav, the Egyptian Navy's flagship, Emir Farouk, was sunk in an operation by Israeli naval commandos. To make matters worse, Palyam personnel resisted efforts to instill order and rank in the newly formed service. Mess rooms were shared by both officers and enlisted men. Ships possessed a captain with nautical skills, but a commanding officer regarded as political; this would cause a great deal of debate between veterans of the Palyam, Royal Navy volunteers from the Haganah and U.
S. Navy Machal volunteers about what form the Navy should take. Commander Allen Burk is reputed to have said, out of despair, "You cannot make naval officers from cowboys". Royal Navy Captain Ashe Lincoln, Jewish, advised Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to purchase corvettes, destroyers, torpedo boats, patrol boats to build up the Israeli Navy power. For that sake he urged Ben-Gurion to consult with professional navy advisers; this resulted in instructions to contact U. S. Navy advisors Commander Paul Shulman from the U. S. Navy; the Israeli Navy suffered from a lack of professional command during its early days. Gershon Zak, head of the IDF "Sea Service", was a teacher and bureaucrat without any relevant experience. Having never been recruited into the IDF, Zak had no official rank; the early days of the Israeli Navy were therefore characterized by political infighting, as many groups and individuals jockeyed for power. Palyam politics blocked the nomination of Paul Shulman as Navy-Commander in Chief and he resigned in 1949.
The first Navy-Commander in Chief awarded. The conclusion of the 1948 war afforded the navy the time