Georgia House of Representatives
The Georgia House of Representatives is the lower house of the Georgia General Assembly of the U. S. state of Georgia. There are 180 elected members; the Georgia House of Representatives was created in 1777 during the American Revolution, making it older than the U. S. Congress. During its existence, its meeting place has moved multiple times, from Savannah to Augusta, to Louisville, to Milledgeville and to Atlanta in 1868. In 1867, the military governor of Georgia called for an assembly in Atlanta to discuss a constitutional convention. Atlanta officials moved to make the city Georgia's new state capital, donating the location of Atlanta's first city hall; the constitutional convention agreed and the people voted to ratify the decision on April 20, 1868. The Georgia General Assembly first presided in Atlanta on July 4, 1868. On October 26, 1884, construction began on a new state capitol and was first occupied on June 15, 1889; the state constitution gives the state legislature the power to make state laws, restrict land to protect and preserve the environment and natural resources, form a state militia under the command of the Governor of Georgia, expend public money, condemn property, zone property, participate in tourism, control and regulate outdoor advertising.
The state legislature cannot grant incorporation to private persons but may establish laws governing the incorporation process. It is prohibited from authorizing contracts or agreements that may have the effect of or the intent of lessening competition or encouraging a monopoly. Members of the Georgia House of Representatives maintain two privileges during their time in office. First, no member can be arrested during session or during committee meetings except in cases of treason, felony, or "breach of the peace". Second, members are not liable for anything they might say in committee meetings. According to the state constitution of 1983, this body is to comprise no fewer than 180 members elected for two-year terms. Current state law provides for 180 members. Elections are held the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years, it is the third-largest lower house of the 50 United States. As of 2011, attorneys account for about 16.1% of the membership of the Georgia House of Representatives, a low figure.
The House of Representatives elects its own Speaker as well as a Speaker Pro Tempore. The current speaker of the Georgia House of Representatives is David Ralston; the current Speaker Pro Tempore is Jan Jones. The Speaker Pro Tempore becomes Speaker in case of the death, resignation, or permanent disability of the Speaker; the Speaker Pro Tempore serves. In addition there is a clerk of the House, charged with overseeing the flow of legislation through the body; the current clerk is William L. Reilly. Agriculture and Consumer Affairs Judiciary Appropriations Judiciary – Non-Civil Banks and Banking Legislative and Congressional Reapportionment MARTOC Defense and Veterans Affairs Motor Vehicles Economic Development and Tourism Natural Resources and Environment Education Public Safety and Homeland Security Ethics Energy and Telecommunications Game and Parks Regulated Industries Governmental Affairs Retirement Health and Human Services Rules Higher Education Science and Technology Human Relations and Aging Special Rules Industry and Labor State Properties Information and Audits State Planning and Community Affairs Insurance Transportation Interstate Cooperation Ways and Means Intergovernmental Coordination Budget & Fiscal Affairs Oversight Code Revision Juvenile Justice Small Business Development 155th Georgia General Assembly 154th Georgia General Assembly 153rd Georgia General Assembly 152nd Georgia General Assembly 151st Georgia General Assembly 150th Georgia General Assembly 149th Georgia General Assembly 148th Georgia General Assembly 147th Georgia General Assembly 146th Georgia General Assembly 140th Georgia General Assembly 139th Georgia General Assembly 138th Georgia General Assembly 137th Georgia General Assembly 136th Georgia General Assembly 135th Georgia General Assembly 134th Georgia General Assembly Georgia Senate Official website
Central Michigan University
Central Michigan University is a public research university located in Mount Pleasant in the U. S. state of Michigan. Established in 1892, Central Michigan University is one of the largest universities in the state of Michigan and one of the nation's 100 largest public universities, it has more than 20,000 students on its Mount Pleasant campus and 7,000 students enrolled online at more than 60 locations worldwide. CMU offers 200 academic programs at the undergraduate, master's, doctoral levels, including nationally recognized programs in entrepreneurship, music, teacher education and physician assistant; the School of Engineering and Technology has ABET accredited programs in Mechanical and Computer Engineering. The university's neuroscience program was named program of the year in 2013 by the Society for Neuroscience and CMU has established a College of Medicine, which opened in fall 2013. CMU competes in the NCAA Division I Mid-American Conference in ten women's sports. Central Michigan University is governed by a Board of Trustees, whose eight members are appointed by the Governor of Michigan and confirmed by the Michigan Senate for terms of eight years.
This arrangement is provided for by the Michigan Constitution of 1963 for nearly all public universities, the three exceptions being the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Wayne State University. The Board of Trustees appoints and reviews the President of Central Michigan University interim Michael Gealt; the president administers the policies set by the board and serves ex officio on the board as a non-voting member. The Board of Trustees controls university finances, including tuition and budgets, as well as university policies, ranging from missions and goals to faculty and tenure to athletics and academics to admissions and programs, it names facilities and groups and accepts gifts from large donors, among several other duties and powers it possesses. Members of the Board of Trustees serve without compensation, but are reimbursed by the university for expenses related to their official capacity, such as travel. CMU has eight academic divisions: The College of Business Administration The College of the Arts and Media The College of Education and Human Services The Herbert H. and Grace A.
Dow College of Health Professions The College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences The College of Medicine The College of Science and Engineering The College of Graduate StudiesAcademic work on campus is supported by the renovated Charles V. Park Library which holds one million books and can seat up to 2,655 patrons at a time; the school operates the Brooks Astronomical Observatory. The Central Michigan University College of Graduate Studies provides over 70 graduate degree programs at the Master's, Specialist, or Doctoral levels. Harold Abel Endowed Lecture Series in the Study of Dictatorship and Genocide. Focuses on the impact of historical events such as the Holocaust and mass murders in Africa, Southeast Asia, Central America. Named in honor of former CMU President Harold Abel; the Fleming Lecture Series. Focuses on bringing world-class mathematicians to campus. Speakers include Fields Medal winners Terence Tao, Sir Timothy Gowers, Cédric Villani and Abel Prize winners S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan and Louis Nirenberg.
Named in honor of mathematics professor Richard Fleming. Philip A. Hart and William G. Milliken Endowed Speaker Series for Integrity in Politics. Focuses on political integrity and challenges students to approach politics in a way that embraces America's diversity of ideas and perspectives, working to supplant negativity and partisanship with creativity and innovation in shaping future public policy. Named in honor of U. S. Senator Philip Hart and Michigan Governor William Milliken. William B. Nolde Lecture Series. Focuses on intellectual discussions for future leaders both in the military and across the campus and community. Named in honor of Army Colonel William Nolde, the last official combat casualty of the Vietnam War; the school's athletics programs are affiliated with NCAA Division I. CMU was a member of the Interstate Intercollegiate Athletic Conference from 1950–1970. All Central Michigan teams compete in the Mid-American Conference; the football program is known for producing all-stars such as Joe Staley.
Before converting over to a Division I league, the football team won its second NCAA Division II national championship in 1974 by defeating the University of Delaware 54 to 14. Notable Division 1 years include 1994, 2006, 2007, & 2009 when they won the MAC Football Championship Game. In 2009 they finished the season ranked #23 in the final AP Poll and #24 in the final Coaches Poll marking the first time that a CMU football team had ended the season ranked in the Top 25 at the NCAA Division I-FBS level. Since 2014, the football program has made a college bowl game, continues to see its players set MAC records yearly. Defeating both the University of Michigan and Michigan State University in dual meets, CMU's wrestling team won its 10th straight MAC championship and seventh straight conference tournament title in 2008; the Chippewas tied for seventh at the NCAA Championships. Four individuals earned All-America honors. Central Michigan University's women's basketball program has excelled to new levels.
In 2018, the team made saw its path formed into a sweet sixteen position of the NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament. The team beat Louisiana State University & Ohio State accordingly, only to lose to Oregon respe
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Frederick Douglass was an American social reformer, orator and statesman. After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his oratory and incisive antislavery writings. In his time, he was described by abolitionists as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens. Northerners at the time found it hard to believe. Douglass wrote several autobiographies, he described his experiences as a slave in his 1845 autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, which became a bestseller, was influential in promoting the cause of abolition, as was his second book, My Bondage and My Freedom. After the Civil War, Douglass remained an active campaigner against slavery and wrote his last autobiography and Times of Frederick Douglass. First published in 1881 and revised in 1892, three years before his death, it covered events during and after the Civil War.
Douglass actively supported women's suffrage, held several public offices. Without his approval, Douglass became the first African American nominated for Vice President of the United States as the running mate and Vice Presidential nominee of Victoria Woodhull, on the Equal Rights Party ticket. Douglass was a firm believer in the equality of all peoples, whether black, Native American, or recent immigrant, he was a believer in dialogue and in making alliances across racial and ideological divides, in the liberal values of the U. S. Constitution; when radical abolitionists, under the motto "No Union with Slaveholders", criticized Douglass' willingness to engage in dialogue with slave owners, he famously replied: "I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong." Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Talbot County, Maryland. The plantation was between Cordova; the exact date of his birth is unknown, he chose to celebrate his birthday on February 14.
In his first autobiography, Douglass stated: "I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it."Douglass was of mixed race, which included Native American and African on his mother's side, as well as European. His father was "almost white," as shown by historian David W. Blight in his 2018 biography of Douglass, he said his mother. After escaping to the North years he took the surname Douglass, having dropped his two middle names, he wrote of his earliest times with his mother: The opinion was... whispered that my master was my father. My mother and I were separated when I was but an infant... It common custom, in the part of Maryland from which I ran away, to part children from their mothers at a early age.... I do not recollect seeing my mother by the light of day.... She would lie down with me, get me to sleep, but long before I waked she was gone. After this early separation from his mother, young Frederick lived with his maternal grandmother, Betty Bailey.
At the age of six, he was separated from his grandmother and moved to the Wye House plantation, where Aaron Anthony worked as overseer. Douglass's mother died. After Anthony died, Douglass was given to Lucretia Auld, wife of Thomas Auld, who sent him to serve Thomas' brother Hugh Auld in Baltimore, he felt himself lucky to be in the city, where he said slaves were freemen, compared to those on plantations. When Douglass was about twelve, Hugh Auld's wife Sophia started teaching him the alphabet. Douglass described her as a kind and tender-hearted woman, who treated him "as she supposed one human being ought to treat another". Hugh Auld disapproved of the tutoring, feeling that literacy would encourage slaves to desire freedom. Under her husband's influence, Sophia came to believe that education and slavery were incompatible and one day snatched a newspaper away from Douglass. In his autobiography, Douglass related how he learned to read from white children in the neighborhood, by observing the writings of the men with whom he worked.
Douglass continued, secretly, to teach himself how to write. He often said, "knowledge is the pathway from slavery to freedom." As Douglass began to read newspapers, political materials, books of every description, this new realm of thought led him to question and condemn the institution of slavery. In years, Douglass credited The Columbian Orator, an anthology that he discovered at about age twelve, with clarifying and defining his views on freedom and human rights; the book, first published in 1797, is a classroom reader, containing essays and dialogues, to assist students in learning reading and grammar. When Douglass was hired out to William Freeland, he taught other slaves on the plantation to read the New Testament at a weekly Sunday school; as word spread, the interest among slaves in learning to read was so great that in any week, more than 40 slaves would attend lessons. For about six months, their study went unnoticed. While Freeland remained complacent about their activities, other plantation owners became incensed about their slaves being educated.
One Sunday they burst i
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
The Birmingham campaign, or Birmingham movement, was a movement organized in early 1963 by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to bring attention to the integration efforts of African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama. Led by Martin Luther King Jr. James Bevel, Fred Shuttlesworth and others, the campaign of nonviolent direct action culminated in publicized confrontations between young black students and white civic authorities, led the municipal government to change the city's discrimination laws. In the early 1960s, Birmingham was one of the most racially divided cities in the United States, both as enforced by law and culturally. Black citizens faced legal and economic disparities, violent retribution when they attempted to draw attention to their problems. Martin Luther King Jr. called it the most segregated city in the country. Protests in Birmingham began with a boycott led by Shuttlesworth meant to pressure business leaders to open employment to people of all races, end segregation in public facilities, restaurants and stores.
When local business and governmental leaders resisted the boycott, SCLC agreed to assist. Organizer Wyatt Tee Walker joined Birmingham activist Shuttlesworth and began what they called Project C, a series of sit-ins and marches intended to provoke mass arrests; when the campaign ran low on adult volunteers, James Bevel, SCLC's Director of Direct Action, thought of the idea of having students become the main demonstrators in the Birmingham campaign. He trained and directed high school and elementary school students in nonviolence, asked them to participate in the demonstrations by taking a peaceful walk fifty at a time from the 16th Street Baptist Church to City Hall in order to talk to the mayor about segregation; this resulted in over a thousand arrests, and, as the jails and holding areas filled with arrested students, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene "Bull" Connor, used high-pressure water hoses and police attack dogs on the children and adult bystanders. Not all of the bystanders were peaceful, despite the avowed intentions of SCLC to hold a nonviolent walk, but the students held to the nonviolent premise.
King and the SCLC drew both criticism and praise for allowing children to participate and put themselves in harm's way. The Birmingham campaign was a model of nonviolent direct action protest and, through the media, drew the world's attention to racial segregation in the South, it burnished King's reputation, ousted Connor from his job, forced desegregation in Birmingham, directly paved the way for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which prohibited racial discrimination in hiring practices and public services throughout the United States. Birmingham, Alabama was, in 1963, "probably the most segregated city in the United States," according to King. Although the city's population of 350,000 was 60% white and 40% black, Birmingham had no black police officers, sales clerks in department stores, bus drivers, bank tellers, or store cashiers. Black secretaries could not work for white professionals. Jobs available to black workers were limited to manual labor in Birmingham's steel mills, work in household service and yard maintenance, or work in black neighborhoods.
When layoffs were necessary, black employees were the first to go. The unemployment rate for black people was two and a half times higher than for white people; the average income for black employees in the city was less than half that of white employees. Lower pay scales for black workers at the local steel mills were common. Racial segregation of public and commercial facilities throughout Jefferson County was required, covered all aspects of life, was rigidly enforced. Only 10 percent of the city's black population was registered to vote in 1960. In addition, Birmingham's economy was stagnating as the city was shifting from blue collar to white collar jobs. According to Time magazine in 1958, the only thing white workers had to gain from desegregation was more competition from black workers. Fifty unsolved racially motivated bombings between 1945 and 1962 had earned the city the nickname "Bombingham". A neighborhood shared by white and black families experienced so many attacks that it was called "Dynamite Hill".
Black churches in which civil rights were discussed became specific targets for attack. Birmingham's black population began to organize to effect change. After Alabama banned the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1956, Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth formed the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights the same year to challenge the city's segregation policies through lawsuits and protests; when the courts overturned the segregation of the city's parks, the city responded by closing them. Shuttlesworth's home was bombed, as was Bethel Baptist Church, where he was pastor. After Shuttlesworth was arrested and jailed for violating the city's segregation rules in 1962, he sent a petition to Mayor Art Hanes' office asking that public facilities be desegregated. Hanes responded with a letter informing Shuttlesworth that his petition had been thrown in the garbage. Looking for outside help, Shuttlesworth invited Martin Luther King Jr. and the SCLC to Birmingham, saying, "If you come to Birmingham, you will not only gain prestige, but shake the country.
If you win in Birmingham, as Birmingham goes, so goes the nation." King and the SCLC had been involved in a campaign to desegregate the city of Albany, but did not see the results they had anticipated. Described by historian Henry Hampton as a "morass", the Albany movement stalled. King's reputation had been hurt by the Albany campaign, he was eager to improve it. Determined not to
Georgia's 5th congressional district
Georgia's 5th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. The district is represented by Democrat John Lewis, though the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia; the first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. Based in central Fulton and parts of DeKalb and Clayton counties, the majority black district includes three-fourths of Atlanta, the state capital and largest city, it includes some of the surrounding suburbs, including East Point, Druid Hills, Forest Park. Fulton DeKalb Clayton Clayton County DeKalb County Fulton County As of May 2015, there are three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 5th congressional district who are living at this time. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 5th district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 5th district at GovTrack.us