Waynesburg University is a private university founded in ca. 1850 and located in Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. The university offers undergraduate and graduate programs in more than 70 academic concentrations, enrolls over 2,500 students, including 1,800 undergraduates. In honor of General Anthony Wayne, the university was founded in 1849 as Waynesburg College by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church - now affiliated with the Presbyterian Church - and was established with a charter by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1850. Waynesburg University is located on a contemporary campus on the hills of southwestern Pennsylvania, has three adult learning centers located in the Greater Pittsburgh Region including Southpointe and Monroeville. Miller Hall and Hanna Hall are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Waynesburg University offers Bachelor's and Master's degrees in up to 70 majors and minors including: Business, Accounting, Chemistry, Mathematics, Computer Science, History, Biblical & Ministry Studies, Forensics, Criminal Justice, Fine Arts, International Studies, Nursing, Foreign Languages, etc.
The university is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Facilities at Waynesburg University include: faculties administration offices a chapel a performing arts center a gym with a basketball and a volleyball court and a wrestling ring a library a museum a laboratory a student center a dining hall residence halls a fitness center tennis courts a baseball field a football stadium a TV station a radio station a newspaper agency The university emphasizes Christian and community values. Students have the option to participate in: Weekly chapel services Bible studies Contemporary, student-led weekly worship services Speakers who engage students to integrate faith and service Fellowship of Christian Athletes Faith and Services Mission TripsThe exploration of faith is encouraged on Waynesburg's campus, but at the discretion of the student. Waynesburg welcomes students on any part of their journey into its Christian community. Students may choose to be involved in various campus ministries: for example, becoming a Christian Ministry Assistant.
CMAs are student leaders who serve the community by creating Bible studies and building student relationships and groups across campus that enhance the mission of Waynesburg University. Waynesburg University is built around four spacious parks owned by the town of Waynesburg; the westernmost park contains a bridge meandering through the trees. Fountain Park is directly in front of Hanna and Miller Hall, while Statue Park is between Buhl Hall, Stewart Hall, Pollock Hall, Martin Hall. Statue park features a statue dedicated to the lives lost in the Civil War; the combined area of the parks is 15 acres. The university is home to seven women's and three men's halls. Martin and Thayer Hall are home to most of the men on campus, they both are double occupancy halls on the Eastern side of campus. Martin Hall is closer to downtown Waynesburg while Thayer Hall is located next to Buhl Hall and the Eberly Library. Willison is the third men's hall and student apartment complex, it is a double occupancy hall but students have the option to triple.
Willison is the newest building on campus. It is adjacent to the armory. Denny Hall is attached to the Benedum dining hall on the West side of campus, like Thayer it has built in desks and cabinets in the wall, it is one of three underclassmen women's halls. Across the parking lot overlooking the chapel is Burns hall and on the other side of the chapel is the single story Ray Hall; the four upperclass women halls are West, South and Pollock. West and East sit above the Stover campus center and the Eberly Library in a small plaza. Pollock is located right between Buhl Hall, one of the classroom buildings, Thayer Hall. Of all the halls only South, East and Willison have air conditioning, they are all the same floor layout with two sleeping areas, a bathroom with a shower, a living area with a provided futon. South and East have bay windows; the fitness center is two stories. The first floor houses weight locker rooms; the second floor features cardio workouts. Both floors have flat screen TVs and the cardio machines are equipped with built in radio tuners.
The university offers graduate programs in business, education, criminal investigation and nursing. The programs are designed to serve the working professional in the Pittsburgh region and beyond via off-campus centers located in Cranberry and Southpointe; the Graduate School of Professional Studies offers degrees in athletic training, nursing, education and criminal investigation in the three Pittsburgh locations as well as in Waynesburg and online. The Master of Business Administration program is the third largest in the Pittsburgh region. Waynesburg University offers a Doctoral Program of Nursing Practice and a Ph. D. in Counselor Education and Supervision. Waynesburg University’s Stover Center for Constitutional Studies and Moral Leadership, named after Dr. W. Robert Stover, is an interdisciplinary scholarly center dedicated to bringing insights from the U. S. Constitution’s Founding Era and from Christianity to bear in the contemporary public square, with the ultimate goal of creatively transforming the ethical state of the polis.
The Center brings Stover Constitutional Fellows
A trabecula is a small microscopic, tissue element in the form of a small beam, strut or rod that supports or anchors a framework of parts within a body or organ. A trabecula has a mechanical function, is composed of dense collagenous tissue, they can be composed of other materials such as bone. In the heart, muscles form trabeculae septomarginal trabecula. Cancellous bone is formed from groupings of trabeculated bone tissue. In cross sections, trabeculae of a cancellous bone can look like septa, but in three dimensions they are topologically distinct, with trabeculae being rod or pillar-shaped and septa being sheet-like; when crossing fluid-filled spaces, trabeculae may have the function of resisting tension or providing a cell filter. Multiple perforations in a septum may reduce it to a collection of trabeculae, as happens to the walls of some of the pulmonary alveoli in emphysema. Trabecular bone called cancellous bone, is porous bone composed of trabeculated bone tissue, it can be found at the ends of long bones like the femur, where the bone is not solid but is full of holes connected by thin rods and plates of bone tissue.
Red bone marrow, where all the blood cells are made, fills. Though trabecular bone contains a lot of holes, its spatial complexity contributes the maximal strength with minimum mass, it is noted that the form and structure of trabecular bone are organized to optimally resist loads imposed by functional activities, like jumping and squatting. And according to the famous Wolff's Law, proposed in 1892, the external shape and internal architecture of bone are determined by the external stresses acting on it; the internal structure of the trabecular bone firstly undergoes adaptive changes along stress direction and the external shape of cortical bone undergoes secondary changes. Bone structure becomes thicker and denser to resist the external loading; because of increasing amount of total joint replacement and its impact on bone remodeling, understanding the stress-related and adaptive process of trabecular bone has become a central concern for bone physiologists. In order to understand the role of trabecular bone in age-related bone structure and design for bone-implant system, it is significant to study the mechanical properties of trabecular bone as a function of variables, such as anatomic site and age.
To do so, mechanical factors including modulus, uniaxial strength, fatigue properties are necessary to be studied. The porosity percent of trabecular bone is in the range 75–95% and the density ranges from 0.2 to 0.8g/cm3. It is noted that the porosity can reduce the strength of the bone, but reduce its weight; the porosity and the manner that porosity is structured effect the strength of material. Thus, the micro structure of trabecular bone is oriented and"grain" of porosity is aligned in a direction at which mechanical stiffness and strength are greatest; because of the microstructual directionality, the mechanical properties of trabecular bone is an-isotropic. The range of young's modulus for trabecular bone is 800-14000 MPa and the strength of failure is 1-100 MPa; as mentioned above, the mechanical properties of trabecular bone are sensitive to apparent density. The relationship between modulus of trabecular bone and its apparent density was demonstrated by Carter and Hayes in 1976; the resulting equation states: E = a + b ⋅ ρ c where E represents the modulus of trabecular bone in any loading direction, ρ represents the apparent density, a, b, c are constants depending on the architecture of tissue.
Additionally, from scanning electron microscopy, it was found that the variation in trabecular architecture with different anatomic sites lead to different modulus. To understand structure-anisotropy and material property relations, one must correlate the measured mechanical properties of anisotropic trabecular specimens with the stereologic descriptions of their architecture; the compressive strength of trabecular bone is very important because it is believed that the inside failure of trabecular bone arise from compressive stress. On the stress-strain curves for both trabecular bone and cortical bone with different apparent density, there are three stage in stress-strain curve; the first one is linear region where individual trabecula bend and compress as the bulk tissue is compressed. The second stage is after yielding, trabecular bonds start to fracture and the third stage is the stiffening stage. Lower density trabecular areas have more deformed stage before stiffening than higher density specimens.
In summary, trabecular bone is compliant and heterogeneous. The heterogeneous character makes it difficult to summarize the general mechanical properties for trabecular bone. High porosity makes trabecular bone compliant and large variations in architecture leads to high heterogeneity; the modulus and strength vary inversely with porosity and depend on the porosity structure. Additionally, the effects of aging and small cracks of trabecular bones on their mechanical properties will be analyzed more in final drafts. Studies have shown that once a human reaches adulthood, bone density decreases with age, to
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar radiation to view the internal form of an object. To create the image, a beam of X-rays or other form of electromagnetic radiation is produced by an X-ray generator and is projected toward the object. A certain amount of the X-rays or other radiation is absorbed by the object, dependent on the object's density and structural composition; the X-rays that pass through the object are captured behind the object by a detector. The generation of flat two dimensional images by this technique is called projectional radiography. In computed tomography an X-ray source and its associated detectors rotate around the subject which itself moves through the conical X-ray beam produced. Any given point within the subject is crossed from many directions by many different beams at different times. Information regarding attenuation of these beams is collated and subjected to computation to generate two dimensional images in three planes which can be further processed to produce a three dimensional image.
Applications of radiography include industrial radiography. Similar techniques are used in airport security. Since the body is made up of various substances with differing densities, X-rays can be used to reveal the internal structure of the body on film by highlighting these differences using attenuation, or the absorption of X-ray photons by the denser substances; the discipline involving the study of anatomy through the use of radiographic films is known as radiographic anatomy. Medical radiography acquisition is carried out by radiographers, while image analysis is done by radiologists. Medical radiography includes a range of modalities producing many different types of image, each of which has a different clinical application; the creation of images by exposing an object to X-rays or other high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation and capturing the resulting remnant beam as a latent image is known as "projection radiography." The "shadow" may be converted to light using a fluorescent screen, captured on photographic film, it may be captured by a phosphor screen to be "read" by a laser, or it may directly activate a matrix of solid-state detectors.
Bone and some organs lend themselves to projection radiography. It is a low-cost investigation with a high diagnostic yield; the difference between soft and hard body parts stems from the fact that carbon has a low X-ray cross section compared to calcium. Computed tomography or CT scan uses ionizing radiation in conjunction with a computer to create images of both soft and hard tissues; these images look. Though CT uses a higher amount of ionizing x-radiation than diagnostic x-rays, with advances in technology, levels of CT radiation dose and scan times have reduced. CT exams are short, most lasting only as long as a breath-hold, Contrast agents are often used, depending on the tissues needing to be seen. Radiographers perform these examinations, sometimes in conjunction with a radiologist. DEXA, or bone densitometry, is used for osteoporosis tests, it is not projection radiography, as the X-rays are emitted in 2 narrow beams that are scanned across the patient, 90 degrees from each other. The hip, lower back, or heel are imaged, the bone density is determined and given a number.
It is not used for bone imaging, as the image quality is not good enough to make an accurate diagnostic image for fractures, etc. It can be used to measure total body fat, though this is not common; the radiation dose received from DEXA scans is low, much lower than projection radiography examinations. Fluoroscopy is a term invented by Thomas Edison during his early X-ray studies; the name refers to the fluorescence. The technique provides moving projection radiographs. Fluoroscopy is performed to view movement, or to guide a medical intervention, such as angioplasty, pacemaker insertion, or joint repair/replacement; the latter can be carried out in the operating theatre, using a portable fluoroscopy machine called a C-arm. It can make digital images for the surgeon. Biplanar Fluoroscopy works the same as single plane fluoroscopy except displaying two planes at the same time; the ability to work in two planes is important for orthopedic and spinal surgery and can reduce operating times by eliminating re-positioning.
Angiography is the use of fluoroscopy to view the cardiovascular system. An iodine-based contrast is watched as it travels around. Since liquid blood and the vessels are not dense, a contrast with high density is used to view the vessels under X-ray. Angiography is used to find aneurysms, blockages, new vessel growth, placement of catheters and stents. Balloon angioplasty is done with angiography. Contrast radiography uses a radiocontrast agent, a type of contrast medium, to make the structures of interest stand out visually from their background. Contrast agents are requir
Sharpey's fibres are a matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of strong predominantly type I collagen fibres connecting periosteum to bone. They are part of the outer fibrous layer of periosteum, entering into the outer circumferential and interstitial lamellae of bone tissue. Sharpey's fibres are used to attach muscle to the periosteum of bone by merging with the fibrous periosteum and underlying bone as well. A good example is the attachment of the rotator cuff muscles to the blade of the scapula. In the teeth, Sharpey's fibres are the terminal ends of principal fibres that insert into the cementum and into the periosteum of the alveolar bone. A study on rats suggests that the three-dimensional structure of Sharpey's fibres intensifies the continuity between the periodontal ligament fibre and the alveolar bone, acts as a buffer medium against stress. Sharpey's fibres in the primary acellular cementum are mineralized fully. In the skull the main function of Sharpey's fibres is to bind the cranial bones in a firm but moveable manner.
In the spine, similar fibres join the intervertebral disc to the adjacent vertebrae. Each fibre is accompanied by one or more nerve fibres. Scottish anatomist William Sharpey described them in 1846
The alveolar process is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets on the jaw bones that hold teeth. In humans, the tooth-bearing bones are the mandible; the curved part of each alveolar process on the jaw is called the alveolar arch. On the maxilla, the alveolar process is a ridge on the inferior surface, on the mandible it is a ridge on the superior surface, it makes up the thickest part of the maxillae. The alveolar process contains a region of compact bone adjacent to the periodontal ligament, called the lamina dura when viewed on radiographs, it is this part, attached to the cementum of the roots by the periodontal ligament. It is uniformly radiopaque. Integrity of the lamina dura is important; the alveolar process has a supporting bone, both of which have the same components: fibers, intercellular substances, blood vessels, lymphatics. The alveolar process is the lining of alveolus. Although the alveolar process is composed of compact bone, it may be called the cribriform plate because it contains numerous holes where Volkmann canals pass from the alveolar bone into the PDL.
The alveolar bone proper is called bundle bone because Sharpey fibers, a part of the fibers of the PDL, are inserted here. Similar to those of the cemental surface, Sharpey fibers in alveolar bone proper are each inserted at 90 degrees, or at a right angle, but are fewer in number, although thicker in diameter than those present in cementum; as in cellular cementum, Sharpey fibers in bone are mineralized only at their periphery. The alveolar crest is the most cervical rim of the alveolar bone proper. In a healthy situation, the alveolar crest is apical to the cementoenamel junction by 1.5 to 2 mm. The alveolar crests of neighboring teeth are uniform in height along the jaw in healthy situation; the supporting alveolar bone consists of both cortical trabecular bone. The cortical bone, or cortical plates, consists of plates of compact bone on the facial and lingual surfaces of the alveolar bone; these cortical plates are about 1.5 to 3 mm thick over posterior teeth, but the thickness is variable around anterior teeth.
The trabecular bone consists of cancellous bone, located between the alveolar bone proper and the plates of cortical bone. The alveolar bone between two neighboring teeth is the interdental septum. Inorganic matrix Alveolar bone is 67% inorganic material by weight; the inorganic material is composed of the mineral’s calcium and phosphate. The mineral content is in the form of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals. Organic matrix; the organic material consists of non-collagenous material. The cellular component of bone consists of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts are cuboidal and elongated in shape, they synthesise. These cells have a high level of alkaline phosphatase on the outer surface of their plasma membrane; the functions of osteoblasts are bone formation by synthesising the organic matrix of bone, cell to cell communication and maintenance of bone matrix. Osteocytes are modified osteoblasts which become entrapped in lacunae during the secretion of bone matrix; the osteocytes have processes called canaliculi.
These canaliculi bring oxygen and nutrients to the osteocytes through blood and remove metabolic waste products. Osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells, they are found in Howship’s lacunae. Bone is lost through the process of resorption which involves osteoclasts breaking down the hard tissue of bone. A key indication of resorption is; this is known as Howship’s lacuna. The resorption phase lasts as long as the lifespan of the osteoclast, around 8 to 10 days. After this resorption phase, the osteoclast can continue resorbing surfaces in another cycle or carry out apoptosis. A repair phase follows the resorption phase. In patients with periodontal disease, inflammation lasts longer and during the repair phase, resorption may override any bone formation; this results in a net loss of alveolar bone. Alveolar bone loss is associated with periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is the inflammation of the gums. Studies in osteoimmunology have proposed 2 models for alveolar bone loss. One model states that inflammation is triggered by a periodontal pathogen and which activates the acquired immune system to inhibit bone coupling by limiting new bone formation after resorption.
Another model states that cytokinesis that may inhibit the differentiation of osteoblasts from their precursors therefore limiting bone formation. This results in a net loss of alveolar bone; the developmental disturbance of anodontia, in which tooth germs are congenitally absent, may affect the development of the alveolar processes. This occurrence can prevent the alveolar processes of either the maxillae or the mandible from developing. Proper development is impossible because the alveolar unit of each dental arch must form in response to the tooth germs in the area. After extraction of a tooth, the clot in the alveolus fills in with immature bone, remodeled into mature secondary bone. However, with the partial or total loss of teeth, the alveolar process undergoes resorption; the underlying basal bone of the body of the maxilla or mandible remains less affected, because it does not need the presence of teeth to remain viable. The loss of alveolar bone, coupled with a
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest and lowest bone in the human face. It holds the lower teeth in place; the mandible sits beneath the maxilla. It is the only movable bone of the skull; the bone is formed in the fetus from a fusion of the left and right mandibular prominences, the point where these sides join, the mandibular symphysis, is still visible as a faint ridge in the midline. Like other symphyses in the body, this is a midline articulation where the bones are joined by fibrocartilage, but this articulation fuses together in early childhood; the word "mandible" derives from the Latin word mandibula, "jawbone", from mandere "to chew" and -bula. The mandible consists of: The body, found at the front A ramus on the left and the right, the rami rise up from the body of the mandible and meet with the body at the angle of the mandible or the gonial angle; the body of the mandible is curved, the front part gives structure to the chin. It has two borders. From the outside, the mandible is marked in the midline by a faint ridge, indicating the mandibular symphysis, the line of junction of the two pieces of which the bone is composed at an early period of life.
This ridge divides below and encloses a triangular eminence, the mental protuberance, the base of, depressed in the center but raised on either side to form the mental tubercle. On either side of the symphysis, just below the incisor teeth, is a depression, the incisive fossa, which gives origin to the mentalis and a small portion of the orbicularis oris. Below the second premolar tooth, on either side, midway between the upper and lower borders of the body, is the mental foramen, for the passage of the mental vessels and nerve. Running backward and upward from each mental tubercle is a faint ridge, the oblique line, continuous with the anterior border of the ramus. From the inside, the mandible appears concave. Near the lower part of the symphysis is a pair of laterally placed spines, termed the mental spines, which give origin to the genioglossus. Below these is a second pair of spines, or more a median ridge or impression, for the origin of the geniohyoid. In some cases, the mental spines are fused to form a single eminence, in others they are absent and their position is indicated by an irregularity of the surface.
Above the mental spines, a median foramen and furrow are sometimes seen. Below the mental spines, on either side of the middle line, is an oval depression for the attachment of the anterior belly of the digastric. Extending upward and backward on either side from the lower part of the symphysis is the mylohyoid line, which gives origin to the mylohyoid muscle. Above the anterior part of this line is a smooth triangular area against which the sublingual gland rests, below the hinder part, an oval fossa for the submandibular gland. Borders The superior or alveolar border, wider behind than in front, is hollowed into cavities, for the reception of the teeth. To the outer lip of the superior border, on either side, the buccinator is attached as far forward as the first molar tooth; the inferior border is rounded, longer than the superior, thicker in front than behind. The ramus of the human mandible has four sides, two surfaces, four borders, two processes. On the outside, the ramus marked by oblique ridges at its lower part.
On the inside at the center there is an oblique mandibular foramen, for the entrance of the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve. The margin of this opening is irregular. Behind this groove is a rough surface, for the insertion of the medial pterygoid muscle; the mandibular canal runs obliquely downward and forward in the ramus, horizontally forward in the body, where it is placed under the alveoli and communicates with them by small openings. On arriving at the incisor teeth, it turns back to communicate with the mental foramen, giving off two small canals which run to the cavities containing the incisor teeth. In the posterior two-thirds of the bone the canal is situated nearer the internal surface of the mandible, it contains the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve, from which branches are distributed to the teeth. Borders The lower border of the ramus is thick and continuous with the inferior border of the body of the bone. At its junction with the posterior border is the angle of the mandible, which may be either inverted or everted and is marked by rough, oblique ridges on each side, for the attachment of the masseter laterally, the medial pterygoid muscle medially.
The anterior border is thin above, thicker below, continuous with the oblique l