Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Lily Aldrin is a fictional character in the CBS television series How I Met Your Mother. Lily is portrayed by American actress Alyson Hannigan, she is the wife of Marshall Eriksen and the best friend of Ted Mosby, Robin Scherbatsky and Barney Stinson. Lily is an amateur painter. In the eighth season, she gets a job as an art consultant. Lily is the only member of the original main cast of the series who has not appeared in every episode, due to Alyson Hannigan taking leave after giving birth to her first child. Series creator Craig Thomas explained that he based Marshall and Lily on himself and his wife Rebecca. Rebecca had been upset after learning this, but was consoled when Alyson Hannigan was put in the role. Hannigan was looking to do more comedy work after having worked on the American Pie series and was available for the show. Lily Aldrin, born March 22, 1978, grew up in Park Slope, New York, she is the daughter of Janice Aldrin, whom Lily describes as a feminist and who worked two jobs to support the family.
The creators stated in commentary that there is no evidence to the contrary that Lily's grandfather is astronaut Buzz Aldrin – and like Buzz Aldrin, her grandfather is said to have fought in the Korean War. Lily's father, Mickey, is an unsuccessful board game creator living in his parents' basement. Janice and Mickey divorced. Lily is estranged from her father – an absentee parent who she claims "broke my heart every day for 20 years" – until he promises to be there for her following the birth of her son. During her high school and college years, she was a part of the goth subculture, dying her hair and wearing stereotypical "goth" clothes, she dumped her high school boyfriend, Scooter, on prom night, admitting she only dated him because he looked like Kurt Cobain. He remains obsessed with her for years afterward, she met Marshall during her freshman year at Wesleyan University in 1996 and dated him throughout college. As of 2010, Lily is 32 years old, meaning she was born circa 1978. According to her résumé, she is fluent in Italian, certified in teaching English as a Second Language, proficient in Photoshop and Java.
Lily states her need for regular sex, saying that if she went without for too long she'd be "out there selling it for a nickel". She has a more than passing sexual interest in other women, suggesting. In particular, she has confessed several times, albeit in a joking fashion, that she finds Robin sexually attractive, has been the subject of some sexually "confusing dreams". Robin at one point says that she won't go near Lily after she's been drinking martinis, as she is prone to flirt quite with her and try to get the guys to dare them to make out. Well aware of Lily's sexual attraction to her, Robin tends to alternate between ignoring, being disturbed by them whenever they show themselves. Lily is adept at manipulating situations to get what she wants. Barney calls her a "diabolical puppet master" and "pure evil", while Ted calls her a "psychopath". Lily and Marshall get engaged in the fall of 2005. Towards the end of the first season, she reveals to Robin that she has been having second thoughts about getting married without having experienced much else of life before Marshall.
Those doubts intensify, she acts upon them, applying for a painting fellowship in San Francisco. She is accepted and, after arguing with Marshall on and off – with several pause breaks in between for drinks, dinner at Red Lobster, sex – Lily says that she cannot promise Marshall that she would return to him after the six-month fellowship, they break up, she goes to San Francisco. She returns to New York about six months and confesses that leaving had been a mistake, she begs Marshall to take her back, but Marshall can't get over his wounded pride, refuses. They get back together and resume their engagement, they get married at the end of the season. In the third season, it is revealed that Lily is a shopaholic, goes shopping whenever something bad happens, she keeps her multiple credit cards in a "box of shame". She and Marshall struggle with her credit card bills when they were about to buy an apartment, which leaves Marshall no choice but to abandon his dreams of being an environmental lawyer and take a job at a big corporate firm.
They get the house, only to find out that the neighborhood is situated near a water sewage treatment plant and that the floor of their apartment is crooked. Lily, along with Ted and Marshall indulge in "sandwiches" during college and at their 20th college reunion. Out of all of the characters, she is the only one Barney chooses to confide in when he realizes that he is in love with Robin. In the fifth season, Lily forces Barney to confess to being a couple, she does this by detaching the doorknob of Robin's room at the apartment and waits for them to have "the talk". Robin and Barney pass a few notes under the door with vague explanations, none of. To convince Lily to let them out, they lie about being boyfriend and girlfriend, but after they leave the apartment hand-in-hand, Lily tells Ted "they didn't realize they weren't lying."Lily and Marshall are both ecstatic to have another couple to hang out with. They invite Barney for an evening together, which goes awry. Barney and Robin realize they miss Lily and Marshall, they all profess the
American Pie 2
American Pie 2 is a 2001 American comedy film and the sequel to the 1999 film American Pie and the second film in the American Pie film series. It was written by Adam Herz and David H. Steinberg and directed by James B. Rogers; the film picks up the story of the five friends from the first film as they reunite during the summer after their first year of college. It was released in the United States on August 10, 2001, grossed over $145 million in the US and $142 million overseas on a budget of $30 million, making it highest grossing film in the franchise at just under $288 million worldwide, it was followed by American Wedding. The film tells the story of five friends Jim, Steve and Paul and their attempts to have the greatest summer party ever. Much of the film takes place at a summer beach house in Grand Haven, per Kevin's older brother's suggestion. After their freshman year at college, the four friends regroup for a party held by Stifler, their overtly sex-crazed class clown and good friend.
His party is shut down in part to the neighbors calling the police. Kevin is inspired by his brother to make his summer with his friends count by renting a beach home. He, Jim, Oz, Finch plan to take off to a beach house together, where they intend to spend the summer. Kevin realizes a problem and worked out that they can only afford the house if they have a fifth member to work along with them. Stifler takes charge of much of the organizing ending up leading the group in their misadventures. Oz is miserable, being away from his girlfriend Heather, in Spain. During the stay at the beach house, they proceed to start having phone sex to vent some of their loneliness, which ends up being interrupted by Stifler. Heather shows up early to the party, ending the short storyline that Oz is involved in. After arriving in Grand Harbor they settle in, they manage to find work painting a house in the area together, mistaking the owners for lesbians. Jim and Finch end up performing "like for like" sexual acts on each other in return for being able to watch the girls doing the same thing.
Oz and Kevin take turns watching up a ladder and listening on the walkie-talkie in the room. The conversation is accidentally heard by many other people in the neighborhood. At the end of the last party, Stifler manages to have a wild threesome with the owners of the house. After this, many concurrent stories run at the same time, some interacting with each other, others staying separate. Nadia is coming to visit Jim in August; when she arrives early, Jim asks for help from band geek Michelle, humiliating himself in front of the audience when he pretends to be Petey, a mentally challenged boy who plays the trombone. They pretend to be in a relationship. Jim and Michelle break the mock relationship off once he is ready to have sex with Nadia, but by Michelle has fallen in love with Jim, soon Jim realizes that he has found his soul-mate in Michelle. Nadia realizes this and tells him, "Go, get your band geek, I will find mine". Jim goes and plays the trombone once more whilst Michelle is playing the flute at a major recital in order to show her that she is the one he wants to be with.
Finch has become involved in the sexual art of Tantra, claims that through Tantra he can "make an orgasm last for days". He is waiting for Stifler's Mom, who he had sex with in the first film, hoping she will show up and be willing to do it again, he thinks she arrives when a vehicle turns up after Stifler is talking on the phone, but it turns out to be his little brother Matt. He spends the night talking with a few girls; the geeky Sherman gives up on getting anyone after he is turned down by the experienced and sharp-tongued Jessica, but the rejected Nadia, who wanted Jim because he was a geek, is turned on by his "Sherminator" gimmick, they end up in bed together. Kevin doesn't end up "getting off" with anyone, but he does seem to succeed in getting over Vicky after making advances on her throughout the film; the next morning, after the party, a Mercedes-Benz coupe with darkened windows turns up, Finch approaches and it turns out Stifler's Mom has come after all. He jumps at the chance and they drive off together, Stifler not realizing until after the car has driven off that it was Finch and his mother.
After being asked, she reveals her name is Jeanine, but instructs Finch to resume calling her "Stifler's mom" as per usual. Two versions of the movie have been released: the R-rated theatrical version and the unrated version. To ensure an R rating, the movie was cut slightly. Altogether 19 scenes were altered. Principal photography begun on February 14 and wrapped on April 27, 2001. During the opening weekend, the film grossed $45.1 million from 3,063 theaters in the United States, ranking #1 at the box office. The film has grossed $145,103,595 in the United States and $142,450,000 in foreign countries adding to total worldwide gross of $287,553,595. American Pie 2 has received mixed reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes the film has a 52% rating based on 127 reviews; the website's consensus states: "Being a sequel, American Pie 2 doesn't retain the freshness of the original, nor is it as funny." On Metacriti
Jaime King is an American actress and model. In her modeling career and early film roles, she used the names Jamie King and James King, a childhood nickname given to King by her parents, because her agency represented another Jaime—the older, then-more famous model Jaime Rishar. A successful model, King was discovered at age 14 in 1993 and appeared in Vogue and Harper's Bazaar, among other fashion magazines. From 1998, she moved into taking small film roles, her first major role was in Pearl Harbor and her first starring movie role was in Bulletproof Monk. She has since appeared in other films, such as Sin City and My Bloody Valentine 3D and, from 2011 to 2015, starred in the television series Hart of Dixie. In 2016, she had the lead role in The Mistletoe Promise, she voiced the role of Aurra Sing on Star Wars: The Clone Wars. King was born in the suburbs of Omaha, the daughter of Nancy King, a former beauty queen, Robert King, she has a younger sister Barry and a younger brother Robert. King was named after Lindsay Wagner's character, Jaime Sommers, on the 1970s television series The Bionic Woman.
King's parents separated in 1994. King had attended Nancy Bounds' Studios, a modeling school, in 1995 dropped out of Westside High School in order to pursue a modeling career in New York City, she enrolled in a home-study program run by the University of Nebraska. She was discovered at age fourteen, while attending Nancy Bounds' Studios. After being spotted at her graduation fashion show by model agent Michael Flutie, King was invited to New York City to begin modeling professionally, she joined Company Management, which represented Jaime Rishar, a more established model. To avoid confusion, King opted to use her childhood nickname, for the duration of her modeling career and at the beginning of her film career. In March 1994, she traveled to New York for test pictures and received enthusiastic responses, she did not return to New York until July 1994, after gaining a successful advertisement for Abercrombie & Fitch. Much of fall and spring 1994 were spent commuting between New York. King had a successful early career as a fashion model, by age fifteen she had been featured in the fashion magazines Vogue, Mademoiselle and Seventeen.
At sixteen, King had graced Harper's Bazaar. She was featured in the cover story of the New York Times Magazine published on February 4, 1996, had walked the runway for Chanel, Alexander McQueen and Christian Dior. In 1998, she began co-hosting MTV's fashion series, House of Style, with fellow model turned actress Rebecca Romijn. Despite her success, King noted that she "remember the times where I was so alone" and thought she was "never gonna be able to be a kid."In 2004, along with Halle Berry, Julianne Moore, Eva Mendes was chosen as a spokesmodel for a high-profile ad campaign for Revlon. The advertisements were featured in print, theatrical and Internet venues, banking on their spokeswomen's "collective star power" to sell the cosmetics products. In 2006, King was chosen by Rocawear CEO Jay-Z to become the new face of the line. In 1999, King began her acting career and made her debut in the Daniel Waters' comedy Happy Campers, as Pixel. Happy Campers was screened at the Sundance Film Festival in 2001, in 2003, King was nominated for Best Actress at the DVD Exclusive Awards.
Filmed in 1999, she appeared in Filter's music video for "Take a Picture". Following her debut acting roles, King appeared in the film Blow, portraying the adult Kristina Jung, daughter of cocaine smuggler George Jung. King made her first appearance in a large Hollywood production with her role as the seventeen-year-old nurse, Betty, in the World War II epic romance Pearl Harbor. Peter Travers of Rolling Stone magazine commented that King "has a lively minute or two" in the film, but her part was small and the "young cast is pinup packaging". King went on to be featured in the Incubus music video "Wish You Were Here"; the roles King took part in during 2001 garnered her the "New Stylemaker" title at the Young Hollywood Awards. In 2002, she appeared in the teen comedy Slackers as Angela Patton, Four Faces of God as Sam, the crime comedy Lone Star State of Mind as Baby. Slackers received negative responses from critics, including one who found that the characters "are not so strikingly original as to elevate the slack material", while Four Faces of God and Lone Star State of Mind did not have wide theatrical releases.
2003 saw King in the film Bulletproof Monk, alongside Chow Yun-fat and Seann William Scott, an adaptation of a comic book by Michael Avon Oeming. After five auditions, a screen test, a physical test, she landed the role of Jade, a character skilled in martial arts; this was King's first leading action film role. Bulletproof Monk received negative reviews from critics, who cited that the fight scenes were not as well choreographed or directed as those other genre films, that the alternating comedic and action scenes were jarring. Regardless, Bulletproof Monk was nominated for Choice Movie in a Drama/Action Adventure award at the Teen Choice Awards. In late 2003, King appeared in the music video for the Robbie Williams song, "Sexed Up", on the cover artwork for the single's release. In 2004, she appeared in the comedy White Chicks, playing Heather Vandergeld, with actress Brittany Daniel as her sister Megan Vandergeld, a parody on socialites Paris and Nicky Hilton. White Chicks was negatively reviewed by critics, receiving five nominations at
Theatre Royal Haymarket
The Theatre Royal Haymarket is a West End theatre on Haymarket in the City of Westminster which dates back to 1720, making it the third-oldest London playhouse still in use. Samuel Foote acquired the lease in 1747, in 1766 he gained a royal patent to play legitimate drama in the summer months; the original building was a little further north in the same street. It has been at its current location since 1821, it is a Grade I listed building, with a seating capacity of 888. The freehold of the theatre is owned by the Crown Estate; the Haymarket has been the site of a significant innovation in theatre. In 1873, it was the venue for the first scheduled matinée performance, establishing a custom soon followed in theatres everywhere, its managers have included Benjamin Nottingham Webster, John Baldwin Buckstone, Squire Bancroft, Cyril Maude, Herbert Beerbohm Tree, John Sleeper Clarke, brother-in-law of John Wilkes Booth, who quit America after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Famous actors who débuted at the theatre included John Liston.
The First Haymarket Theatre or Little Theatre was built in 1720 by John Potter, carpenter, on the site of The King's Head Inn in the Haymarket and a shop in Suffolk Street kept by Isaac Bliburgh, a gunsmith, known by the sign of the Cannon and Musket. It was the third public theatre opened in the West End; the theatre cost £1000 to build, with a further £500 expended on decorations and costumes. It opened on 29 December 1720, with a French play La Fille a la Morte, ou le Badeaut de Paris performed by a company known as'The French Comedians of His Grace the Duke of Montague'. Potter's speculation was known as The New French Theatre; the theatre's first major success was a 1729 production of a play by Samuel Johnson of Cheshire, Hurlothrumbo, or The Supernatural, which ran for 30 nights – not as long as John Gay's The Beggar's Opera, but still a long run for the time. In 1730, the theatre was taken over by an English company, its name changed to the'Little Theatre in the Haymarket'. Among the actors who appeared there before 1737 when the theatre was closed under the Licensing Act 1737 were Aaron Hill, Theophilus Cibber, Henry Fielding.
In the eight to ten years before the Act was passed, the Haymarket was an alternative to John Rich's Theatre Royal, Covent Garden and the opera-dominated Drury Lane Theatre. Fielding himself was responsible for the instigation of the Act, having produced a play called The Historical Register that parodied prime minister Robert Walpole, as the caricature, Quidam. In particular, it was an alternative to the pantomime and special-effects dominated stages, it presented opposition satire. Henry Fielding staged his plays at the Haymarket, so did Henry Carey. Hurlothrumbo was just one of his plays in that series of anti-Walpolean satires, followed by Tom Thumb. Another, in 1734, was The Dragon of Wantley, with music by John Frederick Lampe; this work punctured the vacuous operatic conventions and pointed a satirical barb at Walpole and his taxation policies. The piece was a huge success, with a record-setting run of 69 performances in its first season; the work debuted at the Haymarket Theatre, where its coded attack on Walpole would have been clear, but its long run occurred after it moved to Covent Garden, which had a much greater capacity for staging.
The burlesque itself is brief on the page, as it relied extensively on absurd theatrics and other non-textual entertainments. The Musical Entertainer from 1739 contains engravings showing. Carey continued with others. Additionally, refugees from Drury Lane's and Covent Garden's internal struggles would show up at the Haymarket, thus Charlotte Charke would act there in a parody of her father, Colley Cibber, one of the owners and managers of Drury Lane; the Theatrical Licensing Act, put an end to the anti-ministry satires, it all but shut down the theatre. From 1741 to 1747, Charles Macklin, Samuel Foote, others sometimes produced plays there either by use of a temporary licence or by subterfuge; the conjuror's publicity claimed that, while on stage, he would place his body inside an empty wine bottle, in full view of the audience. When the advertised act failed to appear on stage, the audience gutted the theatre. Although the identity of the hoax's perpetrator is unknown, several authors consider John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, to have been responsible.
In 1754, John Potter, rated for the theatre since its opening, was succeeded by John Whitehead. In 1758 Theophilus Cibber obtained from William Howard the Lord Chamberlain, a general licence under which Foote tried to establish the Haymarket as a regular theatre. With the aid of the Duke of York he procured a royal licence to exhibit plays during four months in each year from May to September during his lifetime, he bought the lease of the theatre from Potter's executors and, having added to the site by purchasing adjoining property, he enlarged and improved the building which he opened on 14 May 1767, as the Theatre Royal, the third patent theatre in London. Several successful seasons followed, with Foote producing numerous plays at the theatre, but Foote got himself into difficulties by his custom
How I Met Your Mother
How I Met Your Mother is an American sitcom that aired on CBS from September 19, 2005, to March 31, 2014. The series follows the main character, Ted Mosby, his group of friends in New York City's Manhattan; as a framing device, Ted, in the year 2030, recounts to his son and daughter the events that led him to meet their mother. The series was created by Craig Thomas and Carter Bays, who served as the show's executive producers and were frequent writers; the series was loosely inspired by their friendship. Among the 208 episodes, there were only four directors: Pamela Fryman, Rob Greenberg, Michael Shea and Neil Patrick Harris. Known for its unique structure and incorporation of dramatic elements, How I Met Your Mother has gained a cult following over the years; the show received positive reviews, while the seasons received more mixed reviews. The show was nominated for 30 Emmy Awards. In 2010, Alyson Hannigan won the People's Choice Award for Favorite TV Comedy Actress. In 2012, seven years after its premiere, the series won the People's Choice Award for Favorite Network TV Comedy, Neil Patrick Harris won the award for Favorite TV Comedy Actor.
The series concerns the adventures of Ted Mosby narrating the story of how he met the mother of his children. The story goes into a flashback and starts in 2005 with a 27-year-old Ted Mosby living in New York City and working as an architect; the lives of all characters are entwined in each others. The series explores many storylines, including a "will they or won't they" relationship between Robin and each of the two single male friends and Lily's relationship, the ups and downs of the characters' careers; the show's frame story depicts Ted verbally retelling the story to his son Luke and daughter Penny as they sit on the couch in the year 2030. This future-set frame is the show's "present day" and How I Met Your Mother exploits this framing device in numerous ways: to depict and re-depict events from multiple points of view. While the traditional love-story structure begins when the romantic leads first encounter each other, How I Met Your Mother does not introduce Ted's wife until the eighth-season finale, only announces her name during the series finale.
The show instead focuses on Ted's prior relationships and his dissatisfaction with those women, thus setting the stage for his eventual happiness with Tracy. In present 2030, six years after Tracy's death, Ted gets back with Robin, which viewers may have assumed at the series finale when Ted is standing outside Robin’s window. Ted’s children were the ones to realize first, that Ted was still in love with Robin, through the stories he told. How I Met Your Mother was inspired by Carter Bays and Craig Thomas' idea to "write about our friends and the stupid stuff we did in New York", where they worked as writers for Late Show with David Letterman, among others; the two drew from their friendship in creating the characters. Ted is based loosely on Bays, Marshall and Lily are based loosely on Thomas and his wife. Thomas' wife Rebecca was reluctant to have a character based on her but agreed if they could get Alyson Hannigan to play her. Hannigan was available. Josh Radnor and Jason Segel, who were cast as Ted and Marshall were not well known, though Segel had been a cast member on the short-lived Freaks and Geeks and a recurring guest star on Judd Apatow's follow-up show, Undeclared.
The role of Barney was envisioned as a "John Belushi-type character" before Neil Patrick Harris won the role after being invited to an audition by the show's casting director Megan Branman. Pamela Fryman invited Bob Saget to be the voiceover narrator, Future Ted, explaining to him that the show would be like The Wonder Years but "kind of into the future". Saget either went to the television studio and recorded the narration while watching the episode, or did so separately and rerecorded with the episode if necessary, he did not attend table readings but did so for the last episode. In various interviews Bays and Thomas have stated that "a pretty famous actress" turned down the role of Robin, whom they revealed in February 2014 to have been Jennifer Love Hewitt, they cast Cobie Smulders for the role who, at the time, was unknown. Bays and Thomas said, "Thank God we did for a million reasons... when Ted's seeing her for the first time, America's seeing her for the first time—the intriguingness of that propelled the show going forward and kept the show alive".
Although Ted is smitten by Robin in the pilot, it is established at the end of the episode that she is not the mother, which Thomas said was done so they would not copy or rehash the "will th
Buffy Anne Summers is the titular character from the Buffy the Vampire Slayer franchise. She first appeared in the 1992 film Buffy the Vampire Slayer before going on to appear in the television series and subsequent comic book of the same name; the character has appeared in the spin-off series Angel, as well as numerous non-canon expanded universe material, such as novels and video games. Buffy was portrayed by Kristy Swanson in the film, by Sarah Michelle Gellar in the television series. Giselle Loren has lent her voice to the character in both the Buffy video games and an unproduced animated series, while Kelly Albanese lent her voice to the character in the Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Eight motion comics. Buffy is the protagonist of the story, the series depicts her life and adventures as she grows up. In the film, she is a high school cheerleader; the television series shows Buffy carrying out her destiny in a small town built atop a portal to hell, surrounded by a group of friends and family who support her in her mission.
In the comic book continuation, she is a young woman who has accepted her duties and is now responsible for training others like her. Buffy was created by Joss Whedon to subvert the stereotypical female horror film victim—Whedon wanted to create a strong female cultural icon. In 2004, Buffy was ranked at number 13 in Bravo's list of The 100 Greatest TV Characters. In June 2010, Entertainment Weekly ranked her third in its list of the 100 Greatest Characters of the Last 20 Years. AOL named her the sixth Most Memorable Female TV Character, she was ranked at No. 5 in AfterEllen.com's Top 50 Favorite Female TV Characters. The character of Buffy first appears in the 1992 film Buffy the Vampire Slayer, played by Kristy Swanson; the film, written by Joss Whedon, depicts Buffy as a shallow high school cheerleader, informed by a man named Merrick that she has been chosen by fate to battle the undead. Buffy reluctantly undergoes training in her abilities by Merrick, as her responsibility as the Slayer causes her to become alienated from her valley girl peers, she finds friendship and romance with fellow outcast Pike.
Merrick comes to respect Buffy's rebellious nature, she defeats vampire king Lothos by relying on her own contemporary style as opposed to traditional Slayer conventions. Although this film is not in continuity with the television series, in 1999, author Christopher Golden adapted Joss Whedon's original script into a comic book entitled "The Origin", which Whedon confirmed to be "pretty much" canonical. On May 25, 2009, The Hollywood Reporter revealed Roy Lee and Doug Davison of Vertigo Entertainment would be working with Fran Rubel Kuzui and Kazi Kuzui on a relaunch of the Buffy series for the big screen; the series would not be a sequel or prequel to the existing movie or television franchise and Joss Whedon will have no involvement in the project. None of the cast or original characters from the television series will be featured. Television series executive producer Marti Noxon reflected that this story might have been produced by the studio in order to frighten Joss into taking reins of the project.
Studio interest in the project has continued, however. A script was rejected in 2011. Buffy returned in Joss Whedon's television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, this time played by Sarah Michelle Gellar for all of the show's 144 episodes. In season one, Buffy begins to accept the responsibilities and dangers of her calling as the Slayer after moving to the small California town of Sunnydale, she becomes best friends with Xander Harris and Willow Rosenberg, meets her new Watcher, Rupert Giles. Together, they form the Scooby Gang, work together to battle various supernatural occurrences which plague Sunnydale High. In the season finale, Buffy battles the vampiric villain known as the Master, is drowned in the process, she rises to defeat the vampire lord. In the show's second season, Buffy continues to come to terms with her destiny, finds forbidden love with benevolent vampire Angel, clashes with new villains Spike and Drusilla, she meets her Slayer replacement, called when Buffy was killed by the Master.
Kendra is killed by Drusilla, the next replacement is seen in season 3. In the episode "Surprise", Buffy loses her virginity to Angel, an event which triggers the loss of his soul and unleashes his sadistic alter-ego, Angelus. Angelus proceeds to subject the characters to mental and physical torture for the remainder of the season. In the final episode of season two, Buffy is forced to reveal her identity as the Slayer to her mother, send the newly good Angel to hell in order to save the world, she leaves Sunnydale for Los Angeles in the hopes of escaping her life as the Slayer. Season three sees Buffy reconnect to her calling, her friends, her family after her departure, as well as make difficult life decisions regarding her relationship with the resurrected Angel, she must deal with the introduction of rebellious new Slayer Faith, who becomes destructive and disloyal over the course of the season. In the season finale, Buffy stabs Faith in an attempt to save Angel's life, leads her classmates into a climactic battle against the demonic Mayor of Sunnydale.
Angel leaves Sunnydale in hopes that Buffy can have a more normal life without him. In the fourth seas