A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient resonator; the strike may be made by an internal "clapper" or "uvula", an external hammer, or—in small bells—by a small loose sphere enclosed within the body of the bell. Bells are cast from bell metal for its resonant properties, but can be made from other hard materials; some small bells such as ornamental bells or cow bells can be made from cast or pressed metal, glass or ceramic, but large bells such as church and tower bells are cast from bell metal. Bells intended to be heard over a wide area can range from a single bell hung in a turret or bell-gable, to a musical ensemble such as an English ring of bells, a carillon or a Russian zvon which are tuned to a common scale and installed in a bell tower. Many public or institutional buildings house bells, most as clock bells to sound the hours and quarters.
Bells have been associated with religious rites, are still used to call communities together for religious services. Bells were made to commemorate important events or people and have been associated with the concepts of peace and freedom; the study of bells is called campanology. Bell is a word common to the Low German dialects, cognate with Middle Low German belle and Dutch bel but not appearing among the other Germanic languages except the Icelandic bjalla, a loanword from Old English, it is popularly but not related to the former sense of to bell which gave rise to bellow. The earliest archaeological evidence of bells dates from the 3rd millennium BC, is traced to the Yangshao culture of Neolithic China. Clapper-bells made of pottery have been found in several archaeological sites; the pottery bells developed into metal bells. In West Asia, the first bells appear in 1000 BC; the earliest metal bells, with one found in the Taosi site and four in the Erlitou site, are dated to about 2000 BC. Early bells not only have an important role in generating metal sound, but arguably played a prominent cultural role.
With the emergence of other kinds of bells during the Shang Dynasty, they were relegated to subservient functions. The book of Exodus in the Bible notes that small gold bells were worn as ornaments on the hem of the robe of the high priest in Jerusalem. Among the ancient Greeks, hand bells were used in camps and garrisons and by patrols that went around to visit sentinals. Among the Romans, the hour of bathing was announced by a bell, they used them in the home, as an ornament and emblem, bells were placed around the necks of cattle and sheep so they could be found if they strayed. See Klang Bell of the British Museum collection. In the western world, the common form of bell is a church bell or town bell, hung within a tower or bell cote; such bells are either mounted on a beam so they can swing to and fro. Bells that are hung dead are sounded by hitting the sound bow with a hammer or by pulling an internal clapper against the bell. Where a bell is swung it can either be swung over a small arc by a rope and lever or by using a rope on a wheel to swing the bell higher.
As the bell swings higher the sound is projected outwards rather than downwards. Larger bells may be swung using electric motors. In some places, such as Salzburg Cathedral the clappers are held against the sound bow whilst the bells are raised released sequentially to give a clean start to the ringing. At the end they are successively caught again by the mechanism to silence the bells. Bells hung for full circle ringing are swung through just over a complete circle from mouth uppermost. A stay engages a mechanism to allow the bell to rest just past its balance point; the rope is attached to one side of a wheel so that a different amount of rope is wound on and off as it swings to and fro. The bells are controlled by ringers in a chamber below, who rotate the bell to through a full circle and back, control the speed of oscillation when the bell is mouth upwards at the balance-point, when little effort is required. Swinging bells are sounded by an internal clapper; the clapper may have a longer period of swing than the bell.
In this case the bell will catch up with the clapper and if rung to or near full circle will carry the clapper up on the bell's trailing side. Alternatively, the clapper may have a shorter period and catch up with the bell's leading side, travel up with the bell coming to rest on the downhill side; this latter method is used in English style full circle ringing. The clappers have leather pads strapped around them to quieten the bells when practice ringing to avoid annoying the neighbourhood. At funerals, half-muffles are used to give a full open sound on one round, a muffled sound on the alternate round – a distinctive, mournful effect; this was done at the Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997. A carillon, a musical instrument consisting of at least 23 cast bronze cup-shaped bells, is tuned so that the bells can be played serially to produce a melody, or sounded together to play a chord. A traditional carillon is played by striking a baton keyboard with the fists, by pressing the keys of a pedal keyboard with the feet.
The keys mechanically activate levers and wires that connect to meta
A tender or coal-car is a special rail vehicle hauled by a steam locomotive containing its fuel and water. Steam locomotives consume large quantities of water compared to the quantity of fuel, so their tenders are necessary to keep them running over long distances. A locomotive that pulls a tender is called a tender locomotive. Locomotives that do not have tenders and carry all their fuel and water on board the locomotive instead are called tank locomotives. A brake tender is a tender, heavy and used to provide greater braking efficiency; the largest steam locomotives are semi-permanently coupled by a drawbar to a tender that carries the water and fuel. The fuel source used depends on. In the UK and parts of Europe, a plentiful supply of coal made this the obvious choice from the earliest days of the steam engine; until around 1850 in the United States, the vast majority of locomotives burned wood until most of the eastern forests were cleared. Subsequently, coal burning became more widespread, wood burners were restricted to rural and logging districts.
According to Steamlocomotive.com, By the mid-1800s, most steam locomotive tenders consisted of a fuel bunker surrounded by a "U" shaped water jacket. The overall shape of the tender was rectangular; the bunker which held the coal was sloped downwards toward the locomotive providing easier access to the coal. The ratio of water to fuel capacities of tenders was based on two water-stops to each fuel stop because water was more available than fuel. One pound of coal could turn six pounds of water to steam. Therefore, tender capacity ratios were close to 14 tons of coal per 10,000 gallons of water; the water supply in a tender was replenished at water stops and locomotive depots from a dedicated water tower connected to water cranes or gantries. Refilling the tender is the job of the fireman, responsible for maintaining the locomotive's fire, steam pressure, supply of fuel and water. Water carried in the tender must be forced into the boiler, to replace that, consumed during operation. Early engines used pumps driven by the motion of the pistons.
Steam injectors replaced the pump while some engines used turbopumps. In the UK, the USA and France, water troughs were provided on some main lines to allow locomotives to replenish their water supply while moving. A'water scoop' fitted under the rear water tank in the case of a large tank engine; the fuel and water capacities of a tender are proportional to the rate at which they are consumed, though there were exceptions. The Pennsylvania Railroad and the New York Central Railroad used track pans on many of their routes, allowing locomotives to pick up water at speed; the result was. In the UK water troughs were used by three of the Big Four railways; the exception was the Southern Railway – because the majority of the Southern's operations were based around short-distance commuter and rural services with frequent station stops where water could be taken on from water columns. The Southern's decision to electrify its routes into London with a third rail system made the installation of water troughs impractical.
Only on the former London and South Western Railway routes west of Salisbury, where long-distance express trains operated, was the lack of troughs a problem. Rather than install troughs the L&SWR equipped its express locomotives with special high-capacity tenders with a water capacity of 4,000 gallons running on a pair of twin-axle bogies; these were known to railwaymen as'Water Cart' tenders. Some locomotives were designed to recycle exhaust steam by condensing it into feed water; the principal benefit of this is conservation of water, but the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine is increased, since much of the heat otherwise lost in the exhaust is used to preheat water injected into the boiler. In some cases condensing was employed to improve visibility by eliminating clouds of exhaust. A primitive approach to condensation injected the spent steam into the tender tank, relying on the mass of water for cooling. More sophisticated tenders, such as those used in the South African Railways Class 25 locomotives designed for service in the Karoo, replaced most of the water tank with a huge radiator, in which the steam was cooled and condensed.
Exhaust steam, after passing through an oil separator, was conveyed to the tender, where it powered a low-pressure turbine used to drive the radiator fans. The steam passed into the radiator; the condensate was injected into the boiler with another turbine-driven pump. This was a quite complex bit of machinery requiring another turbine in the smokebox to provide the exhaust draft obtained by blowing the exhaust steam up the stack; the SAR examples were converted to conventional locomotives by replacing the radiator with a long water tank. A factor that limits locomotive performance is the rate. Much of the fireman's time is spent throwing wood or shoveling coal into the firebox of the locomotive to maintain constant steam pressure. In the early 20th century some locomotives became so large that the fireman could not shovel coal fast enough. In the United States, various steam-powered mechanical stokers became standard equipment and were adopte
Rear-wheel drive is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the rear wheels only. Up until the late 20th century, rear-wheel drive was the most common configuration for cars. Most rear-wheel drive vehicles feature; the most common layout for a rear-wheel drive car is a with the engine and transmission at the front of the car, mounted longitudinally. Other layouts of rear-wheel drive car include rear-mid engine and rear-engine; some manufacturers, such as Alfa Romeo, Lancia and Chevrolet, place the engine at the front of the car and the transmission at the rear of the car, in order to provide a more balanced weight distribution. This configuration is referred to as a transaxle since the transmission and axle are one unit. Many of the cars built in the 19th centrury were rear-wheel drive with the engine mounted at the rear of the car; the first rear-wheel drive car with the engine mounted at the front was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the "Système Panhard" in the early years.
The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the engine output shaft, spreading weight under the vehicle. In comparison, a vehicle with the engine over the driven wheels eliminates the need for the drive shaft, but has the disadvantage of concentrating all the weight in one location. In order to reduce the relative weight of the drive shaft, the transmission was split into two parts: the gearbox and the final drive; the gearbox was produced with its highest gear being 1:1, which offers some mechanical advantages. The final drive, in the rear axle, would reduce this to the most appropriate speed for the wheels; as power is the product of torque and angular velocity, spinning the shaft faster for any given power reduces the torque and allows a lighter shaft construction. In an era when gasoline was cheap and cars were heavy, the mechanical advantages of the FR drivetrain layout made up for any disadvantage in weight terms.
It remained universal among car designs until the 1970s. After the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises, a majority of American FR vehicles were phased out for the FF layout – this trend would spawn the SUV-van conversion market. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, most American companies set as a priority the eventual removal of rear-wheel drive from their mainstream and luxury lineup. Chrysler went 100% FF by 1990 and GM's American production went FF by 1997 except the Corvette and Camaro. Ford's Mustang has stayed rear-wheel drive, as it must maintain a sporty presence, as were Ford's full-size cars based on the Ford Panther platform until they were discontinued in 2011 in favour of the Ford Taurus, which has a transverse front-wheel-drive layout. In Australia, FR cars remained popular throughout this period, with the Holden Commodore and Ford Falcon having strong sales, though Ford has threatened to replace the Falcon with a front-wheel-drive car. In Europe, front-wheel drive was popularized by small cars like the Mini, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Golf and adopted for all mainstream cars.
Upscale marques like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Jaguar remained independent of this trend, retained a lineup or made up of FR cars. Japanese mainstream marques such as Toyota were exclusively FR until the late 1970s and early 1980s. Toyota's first FF vehicle was the Toyota Tercel, with the Corolla and Celica becoming FF while the Camry was designed as an FF from the beginning; the Supra, Cressida and Century remained FR. Luxury division Lexus has a FR lineup. Subaru's BRZ is an FR car; that a driveshaft is needed to transfer power to the rear wheels means a large centre tunnel between the rear seats. Most cars are FF, including all front-engined economy cars, though FR cars are making a return as an alternative to large sport-utility vehicles. In North America, GM returned to production of FR-based luxury vehicles with the 2003 Cadillac CTS; as of 2012, all but the SRX and XTS are FR-based vehicles. Chevrolet reintroduced the FR-based Camaro in 2009, the Caprice PPV in 2011. Pontiac had a short run with the FR-based G8 and Pontiac Solstice.
A Chevrolet replacement for the G8 called the Chevrolet SS was released in 2013 and uses the FR layout. Chrysler and Dodge reintroduced Charger on a FR platform, they maintain FR layout on the now unibody Grand Cherokee and Durango. Hyundai and Kia have been working with new FR-based vehicles in the US, the Genesis Coupe and Sedan, the Equus and the new Kia Quoris. Ford on the other hand seems to be moving away from FR-based vehicles with the discontinuation of the Panther Platform in 2011. Excluding trucks, vans and SUVs, the Mustang and Falcon are the only FR vehicles remaining in their lineup. All-wheel drive Drive wheel
A steam car is a car propelled by a steam engine. A steam engine is an external combustion engine in which the fuel is combusted outside of the engine, unlike an internal combustion engine in which fuel is combusted inside the engine. ECEs have a lower thermal efficiency, but carbon monoxide production is more regulated; the first steam-powered vehicle was built in 1672 by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish Jesuit in China. The vehicle was a toy for the Chinese Emperor. While not intended to carry passengers, therefore not a "car", Verbiest's device is to be the first engine-powered vehicle; the first experimental steam-powered cars were built in the late 18th and 19th centuries, not until after Richard Trevithick had developed the use of high-pressure steam around 1800, that mobile steam engines became a practical proposition. By the 1850s it was viable to produce them commercially: steam road vehicles were used for many applications. Development was hampered by adverse legislation from the 1830s and the rapid development of internal combustion engine technology in the 1900s, leading to their commercial demise.
Few steam-powered vehicles remained in use after the Second World War. Many of these vehicles were acquired by enthusiasts for preservation; the search for renewable energy sources has led to an occasional resurgence of interest in using steam power for road vehicles. A steam engine is an external combustion engine, as opposed to an internal combustion engine. While gasoline-powered ICE cars have an operational thermal efficiency of 15% to 30%, early automotive steam units were capable of only about half this efficiency. A significant benefit of the ECE is that the fuel burner can be configured for low emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburned carbon in the exhaust, thus avoiding pollution; the greatest technical challenges to the steam car have focused on its boiler. This represents much of the total mass of the vehicle, making the car heavy, requires careful attention from the driver, although the cars of 1900 had considerable automation to manage this; the single largest restriction is the need to supply feedwater to the boiler.
This must either be carried and replenished, or the car must be fitted with a condenser, a further weight and inconvenience. Steam-powered and electric cars outsold gasoline-powered cars in the US prior to the invention of the electric starter, since internal combustion cars relied on a hand crank to start the engine, difficult and dangerous to use, as improper cranking could cause a backfire capable of breaking the arm of the operator. Electric cars were popular to some extent, but had a short range, could not be charged on the road if the batteries ran low. Once working pressure was attained, early steam cars could be driven off with high acceleration. To overcome this, development has been directed toward flash boilers, which heat a much smaller quantity of water to get the vehicle started, in the case of Doble cars, spark ignition diesel burners; the steam car does have advantages over internal combustion-powered cars, although most of these are now less important than in the early 20th century.
The engine is lighter than an internal combustion engine. It is better-suited to the speed and torque characteristics of the axle, thus avoiding the need for the heavy and complex transmission required for an internal combustion engine; the steam car is quieter without a silencer. A French inventor, Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, built the first working self-propelled land-based mechanical vehicle. There is an unsubstantiated story that a pair of Yorkshiremen, engineer Robert Fourness and his cousin, physician James Ashworth had a steam carriage running in 1788, after being granted a British Patent, No.1674 of December 1788. An illustration of it appeared in Hergé's book Tintin raconte l'Histoire de l'Automobile; the first substantiated steam carriage for personal use was that of Josef Božek in 1815. He was followed by Thomas Blanchard of Massachusetts in 1825. Over thirty years passed before there was a flurry of steam cars from 1857 onwards with Dugeon and Spenser from the United States, Thomes Rickett, Austin and Ayres from England, Innocenzo Manzetti from Italy, Elijah Leonard of London, Canada being the earliest.
Others followed with Amédée Bollée and Louis Lejeune of France in 1878, Rene Thury of Switzerland in 1879. The 1880s saw the rise of the first larger scale manufacturers in France, the first being Bollée followed by De Dion-Bouton, Whitney of East Boston, Ransom E. Olds and Peugeot; this early period saw the first repossession of an automobile in 1867 and the first getaway car the same year - both by Francis Curtis of Newburyport, Massachusetts. The 1890s were dominated by the formation of numerous car manufacturing companies; the internal combustion engine was in its infancy. Electric powered cars were becoming available but suffered from their inability to travel longer distances; the majority of steam powered car manufacturers from this period were from the United States. The more notable of these were Clark from 1895 to 1909, Locomobile from 1899 to 1903 when it switched to gasoline engines, Stanley from 1897 to 1924; as well as England and France, other countries made attempts to manufacture steam cars
Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River. Traditionally the capital of the province of Maine, it is now the capital of the Sarthe department and the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of Le Mans. Le Mans is a part of the Pays de la Loire region, its inhabitants are called Mancelles. Since 1923, the city has hosted the internationally famous 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance sports car race. First mentioned by Claudius Ptolemy, the Roman city Vindinium was the capital of the Aulerci, a sub tribe of the Aedui. Le Mans is known as Civitas Cenomanorum, or Cenomanus, their city, seized by the Romans in 47 BC, was within the ancient Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis. A 3rd-century amphitheatre is still visible; the thermae were demolished during the crisis of the third century when workers were mobilized to build the city's defensive walls. The ancient wall around Le Mans is one of the most complete circuits of Gallo-Roman city walls to survive; as the use of the French language replaced late Vulgar Latin in the area, with dissimilation, became known as Celmans.
Cel- was taken to be a form of the French word for "this" and "that", was replaced by le, which means "the". Gregory of Tours mentions a Frankish sub-king Rigomer, killed by King Clovis I in his campaign to unite the Frankish territories; as the principal city of Maine, Le Mans was the stage for struggles in the eleventh century between the counts of Anjou and the dukes of Normandy. When the Normans had control of Maine, William the Conqueror invaded England and established an occupation. In 1069 the citizens of Maine revolted and expelled the Normans, resulting in Hugh V being proclaimed count of Maine. Geoffrey V of Anjou married Matilda of England in the cathedral, their son Henry II Plantagenet, king of England, was born here. In 1154, during the reign of his uncle King Stephen, Henry landed in England with an army, intent on challenging Stephen for the throne; some of the members of that feudal force were known by the surname'del Mans' In medieval records pertaining to the history of Gloucester is a reference to one such man, Walter del Mans, beside his name'Cenomanus' was added by the medieval scribe, so that there is no doubt as to Walter's origin.
In the English censuses down to the twentieth century the surname Mans was confined to the counties of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire and their borderlands, reflecting the original settlement patterns in the Welsh Marches of the original followers of Henry's from Le Mans in 1154. A John Mans/Manns was escheator of Hereford 1399-1400. One family from Mans held the manor of Worcestershire. Intercourse between England and Le Mans continued throughout the Angevin period. Soon after Le Mans was liberated by the U. S. 79th and 90th Infantry Divisions on 8 August 1944, engineers of the Ninth Air Force IX Engineering Command began construction of a combat Advanced Landing Ground outside of the town. The airfield was declared operational on 3 September and designated as "A-35", it was used by several American fighter and transport units until late November of that year in additional offensives across France. Le Mans has a well-preserved old town and the Cathédrale St-Julien, dedicated to St Julian of Le Mans, honoured as the city's first bishop.
Remnants of a Roman wall are visible in the old town and Roman baths are located by the river. These walls are highlighted every summer evening in a light show. Arboretum de la Grand Prée Part of the former Cistercian abbey de l'Epau, founded by Queen Berengaria and maintained in extensive grounds by the Département de la Sarthe. Jardin des Plantes du Mans Musée de la reine Bérengère, a museum of Le Mans history located in a gothic manor house. Musée de Tessé, the fine arts museum of the city, displaying painting and archaeological collections as well as decorative arts. Le Mans has an oceanic climate influenced by the mild Atlantic air travelling inland. Summers are warm and hot, whereas winters are mild and cloudy. Precipitation is uniform and moderate year round. At the 1999 French census, there were 293,159 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Le Mans, with 146,105 of these living in the city proper; the Gare du Mans is the main railway station of Le Mans. It takes 1 hour to reach Paris from Le Mans by TGV high speed train.
There are TGV connections to Lille, Nantes and Brest. Gare du Mans is a hub for regional trains. Le Mans inaugurated a new light rail system on 17 November 2007; the first French Grand Prix took place on a 64-mile circuit based at Le Mans in 1906. Since the 1920s, the city has been best known for its connection with motorsports. There are two official and separate racing tracks at Le Mans; the smaller is the Bugatti Circuit, a short permanent circuit, used for racing throughout the year and has hosted the French motorcycle Grand Prix. The longer and more famous Circuit de la Sarthe is composed of public roads; these are closed to the public. Since 1923, this route
Independent suspension is any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically independently of the others. This is contrasted with a beam axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked – movement on one side does not affects the wheel on the other side. "Independent" refers to the path of movement of the wheels or suspension. It is common for the left and right sides of the suspension to be connected with anti-roll bars or other such mechanisms; the anti-roll bar ties the left and right suspension spring rates together but does not tie their motion together. Most modern vehicles have independent front suspension. Many vehicles have an independent rear suspension. IRS, as the name implies, has the rear wheels independently sprung. A independent suspension has an independent suspension on all wheels; some early independent systems used swing axles, but modern systems use Chapman or MacPherson struts, trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones. Independent suspension offers better ride quality and handling characteristics, due to lower unsprung weight and the ability of each wheel to address the road undisturbed by activities of the other wheel on the vehicle.
Independent suspension requires additional engineering effort and expense in development versus a beam or live axle arrangement. A complex IRS solution can result in higher manufacturing costs; the key reason for lower unsprung weight relative to a live axle design is that, for driven wheels, the differential unit does not form part of the unsprung elements of the suspension system. Instead, it is either bolted directly to the vehicle's chassis or more to a subframe; the relative movement between the wheels and the differential is achieved through the use of swinging driveshafts connected via universal joints, analogous to the constant-velocity joints used in front-wheel-drive vehicles. Suspension is the only component; the suspension in a vehicle helps absorb harshness in the road. There are many systems and designs that do this, such as independent suspension.. This system provides many advantages over other suspension systems. For example, in solid axle suspension systems, when one wheel hits a bump, it affects both wheels.
This will compromise traction, smoothness of the ride, could cause a dangerous wheel shimmy when moving at high speeds. With independent suspension systems, the bump affects only the contacted wheel; this offers many advantages such as greater ride comfort, better traction, safer, more stable vehicles on and off the road. In automobiles, a double wishbone suspension is an independent suspension design using two wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel; each wishbone or arm has two mounting points to one joint at the knuckle. The shock absorber and coil spring mount to the wishbones to control vertical movement. Double wishbone designs allow the engineer to control the motion of the wheel throughout suspension travel, controlling such parameters as camber angle, caster angle, toe pattern, roll center height, scrub radius and more. A multi-link suspension is a type of vehicle suspension design used in independent suspensions, using three or more lateral arms, one or more longitudinal arms. A wider definition considers any independent suspensions having three control links or more multi-link suspensions.
These arms do not have to be of equal length, may be angled away from their "obvious" direction. It was first introduced in the late 1960s on the Mercedes-Benz C111 prototype and put into production on their W201 and W124 series; this is the most common used front suspension system in cars today. It is a simple and effective design that uses a strut-type spring and shock absorber that work as a team that will pivot on a single ball joint; this system was popularized in British Fords in the 1950s adopted by BMW and Porsche. This space-efficient system became widespread with the growing popularity of front-wheel drive. One problem with this system is that once the spring or the top plate becomes worn, the driver of a car with this system may hear a loud "clonk" noise at full lock, as the strut's spring jumps back into place; this noise is confused with CV-joint knock. Several independent suspension designs have featured transverse leaf springs. Most applications used multi-leaf steel springs, although more recent designs have used fiber reinforced plastic springs.
In addition to spring type, a distinction can be drawn between systems where the spring acts as a locating link and those where the spring only acts as a spring member. The AC Cobra is an example of a transverse, multi-leaf steel spring suspension that uses the leaf spring as the upper suspension arm. Alternatively, the 1963 Corvette's rear suspension is an example where the transverse leaf spring is used only as a ride spring. In both examples, the leaf spring is centrally mounted, preventing displacement of the wheel on one side from affecting the wheel on the other side. In 1981, General Motors pioneered the use of a FRP plastic transverse leaf spring on the third-generation Corvette; as in the examples above, the spring used a single, central mount which isolated the left and right movements. The FRP spring reduced weight and eliminated the inner leaf friction as compared to the multi-leaf metal spring, standard on the car. Rather than centrally mounting the transverse leaf spring and thus isolating the left a