José María Amador
José María Amador was a Californio soldier and gold miner. After he found gold at the "Little Amador" mine, Amador City grew around the nearby "Keystone" mine, locations which today are in Amador County, he was born at the Presidio of San Francisco, one of the youngest of eleven children of Pedro Amador and Ramona Noriega. He probably named his ranch after his mother and his maternal grandfather, Ramón Noriega, he was a younger brother of Sinforosa Amador. He spent his early years as a soldier and explorer, serving in the Spanish army of Nueva España, 1810–1827 from 1827 to 1835 was mayordomo, or administrator, at the Mission San José, he was granted 4,400 acres of Mission land in 1835. Amador had 22 children, he built several adobes at his rancho headquarters near Alamilla Springs in today's Dublin, including a two-story adobe, used by James Dougherty in the 1860s, thereafter named Dougherty, Alameda County, California. He sold the land till none was left at his death. In 1877, he was living at Whiskey Hill, Santa Cruz County when Thomas Savage recorded Amador's “Memorias sobre la Historia de California,” which survives as a manuscript in the Bancroft Library.
With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican–American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored. As required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho San Ramon was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, 16,517 acres of the grant was patented to Jose Maria Amador in 1865. Amador sold his rancho. James Witt Dougherty bought 10,000 acres in 1852. Amador mined along a nameless creek in 1848 and 1849, his presence gave his surname to the creek, two villages on its banks, in 1854, a new county. There was no settlement where Amador City is now until the summer of 1851, after gold outcroppings had been prospected on both sides of "Amadore's Creek", upstream several hundred yards from downtown; the "Original" or "Little" Amador mine and the Spring Hill were Amador County's first gold mines. With the discovery of such quartz gold, the settlement, upstream where the stage road crossed "Amadore's creek" or Amador Crossing moved to "South Amadore" or Amador City where French Gulch drains into the creek.
The city's most famous and productive mine, the Keystone was organized in 1853 out of two or more claims and before it closed for good in 1942 it produced in intermittent operation about $24 million in gold at much lower gold prices. Amador City's county seat, Jackson. Created June 14, 1854; the county and city are named for Jose Maria Amador, the soldier and miner, born in San Francisco in 1794, the son of Sergeant Pedro Amador, a Spanish soldier who settled in California in 1771. In 1848, Jose Maria Amador, with several Indians, established a successful gold mining camp near the present town of Amador. In Spanish, the word amador means "one who loves"
Amador County, California
Amador County, is a county in the U. S. state of California, in the Sierra Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,091; the county seat is Jackson. Amador County lies within the Gold Country. There is a substantial viticultural industry in the county. Amador County was created by the California Legislature on May 11, 1854, from parts of Calaveras and El Dorado counties, it was organized on July 3, 1854. In 1864, part of the county's territory was given to Alpine County; the county is named for José María Amador, a soldier and miner, born in San Francisco in 1794, the son of Sergeant Pedro Amador and younger brother to Sinforosa Amador. In 1848, Jose Maria Amador, with several Native Americans, established a successful gold mining camp near the present town of Amador City. In Spanish, the word amador means "one who loves"; some of the Mother Lode's most successful gold mines were located in Amador County, including the Kennedy and Keystone. "The Luck of Roaring Camp" is a short story by American author Bret Harte.
It was first published in the August 1868 issue of the Overland Monthly and helped push Harte to international prominence. Harte lived in this area during his "Gold Rush" period, based the story in a mining camp on the Mokelumne River. In the 1993 movie Homeward Bound: The Incredible Journey, a map of Amador County is shown, as well as many other California counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 606 square miles, of which 595 square miles is land and 11.4 square miles is water. It is the fifth-smallest county in California by land second-smallest by total area. Water bodies in the county include Lake Amador, Lake Camanche, Pardee Reservoir, Bear River Reservoir, Silver Lake, Sutter Creek, Cosumnes River, Mokelumne River, Tabeaud Lake. Amador County is located 45 miles southeast of Sacramento in the part of California known as the Mother Lode, or Gold Country in the Sierra Nevada. Amador County ranges in elevation from 250 feet in the western portion of the county to over 9,000 feet in the eastern portion of the county, the tallest point being Thunder Mountain.
The county is bordered on the north by the Cosumnes River and El Dorado County and on the south by the Mokelumne River and Calaveras County, on the west by Sacramento and San Joaquin Counties, the east by Alpine County. Though not as well known as the Napa Valley AVA or Sonoma Valley AVA viticultural regions of California, the Shenandoah Valley was once the principal viticultural region of California. With the discovery of gold, the area became a mecca for those trying to make their fortune. In the process numerous wineries sprouted up, many of whose vineyards are still in use by wineries today; the decline of the California Gold Rush coupled with the onset of Prohibition devastated the wine-making region of Amador County. Today this area is now home to over 40 different wineries. Amador County is renowned for its Zinfandel. Amador County has a high percentage of old Zinfandel vines; some of the Zinfandel vineyards in this county are more than 125 years old, including the original Grandpère vineyard, planted with Zinfandel before 1869 and believed to be the oldest Zinfandel vineyard in America.
This 10-acre vineyard is home to some of the oldest Zinfandel vines on Earth, with proof of their existence dating to 1869 when it was listed as a descriptor on a deed from the U. S. Geological Survey. A grant deed in Amador County records further proves their existence in 1869; these old vines produce intense flavors allowing winemakers to make outstanding Zinfandels. El Dorado County - north Alpine County - east Calaveras County - south San Joaquin County - southwest Sacramento County - west Eldorado National Forest Mokelumne Wilderness There are numerous gold mines in Amador County including the Argonaut Mine, the Kennedy Mine, the Central Eureka, the Lincoln; the Kennedy Mine in Jackson was the deepest gold mine of its time. The federal government closed all of the Mother Lode's mines in 1942 because they were considered non-essential to the war effort; the Sutter Gold Mining Company has attempted to re-open the Lincoln Mine just north of Sutter Creek. If the mine reaches the operation phase, it will be the first corporately funded, large scale gold mine in the area in over 70 years.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Amador County had a population of 38,091. The racial makeup of Amador County was 33,149 White, 962 African American, 678 Native American, 419 Asian, 77 Pacific Islander, 1,450 from other races, 1,356 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4,756 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 35,100 people, 12,759 households, 9,071 families residing in the county. The population density was 59 people per square mile. There were 15,035 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 85.8% White, 3.9% Black or African American, 1.8% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.0% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. 8.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 14.9% were of German, 12.6% English, 11.7% Irish, 8.8% Italian and 7.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 93.1% spoke English and 5.1% Spanish as their first language. There were 12,759 households out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.9% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female household
A stamp mill is a type of mill machine that crushes material by pounding rather than grinding, either for further processing or for extraction of metallic ores. Breaking material down is a type of unit operation. A stamp mill consists of a set of heavy steel stamps, loosely held vertically in a frame, in which the stamps can slide up and down, they are lifted by cams on a horizontal rotating shaft. As the cam moves from under the stamp, the stamp falls onto the ore below, crushing the rock, the lifting process is repeated at the next pass of the cam; each one frame and stamp set is sometimes called a "battery" or, confusingly, a "stamp" and mills are sometimes categorised by how many stamps they have, i.e. a "10 stamp mill" has 10 sets. They are arranged linearly, but when a mill is enlarged, a new line of them may be constructed rather than extending the line. Abandoned mill sites will have linear rows of foundation sets as their most prominent visible feature as the overall apparatus can exceed 20 feet in height, requiring large foundations.
Stamps are arranged in sets of five. Some ore processing applications used large quantities of water so some stamp mills are located near natural or artificial bodies of water. For example, the Redridge Steel Dam was built to supply stamp mills with process water; the main components for water-powered stamp mills – water wheels and hammers – were known in the Hellenistic era Eastern Mediterranean region. Ancient cams are in evidence in early water-powered automata from the third century BC. A passage in the Natural History of the Roman scholar Pliny indicates that water-driven pestles had become widespread in Italy by the first century AD: "The greater part of Italy uses an unshod pestle and wheels which water turns as it flows past, a trip-hammer "; these trip-hammers were used for the hulling of grain. Grain-pounders with pestles, as well as ordinary watermills, are attested as late as the middle of the fifth century in a monastery founded by Romanus of Condat in the remote Jura region, indicating that the knowledge of trip hammers continued into the early Middle Ages.
Apart from agricultural processing, archaeological evidence strongly suggests the existence of trip hammers in Roman metal working. In Ickham in Kent, a large metal hammer-head with mechanical deformations was excavated in an area where several Roman water-mills and metal waste dumps have been traced; the widest application of stamp mills, seems to have occurred in Roman mining, where ore from deep veins was first crushed into small pieces for further processing. Here, the regularity and spacing of large indentations on stone anvils indicate the use of cam-operated ore stamps, much like the devices of medieval mining; such mechanically deformed anvils have been found at numerous Roman silver and gold mining sites in Western Europe, including at Dolaucothi, on the Iberian peninsula, where the datable examples are from the 1st and 2nd century AD. At Dolaucothi, these stamp mills were hydraulic-driven and also at other Roman mining sites, where the large scale use of the hushing and ground sluicing technique meant that large amounts of water were directly available for powering the machines.
Stamp mills were used by miners in Samarkand as early as 973. They were used in medieval Persia to crush mineral ores. By the 11th century, stamp mills were in widespread use throughout the medieval Islamic world, from Islamic Spain and North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east. Water-powered and mechanised trip hammers reappeared in medieval Europe by the 12th century, their use was described in medieval written sources of Styria, written in 1135 and another in 1175 AD. Both texts mentioned the use of vertical stamp mills for ore-crushing. Medieval French sources of the years 1116 and 1249 both record the use of mechanised trip hammers used in the forging of wrought iron. Medieval European trip hammers by the 15th century were most in the shape of the vertical pestle stamp-mill; the well-known Renaissance artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci sketched trip hammers for use in forges and file-cutting machinery, those of the vertical pestle stamp-mill type. The oldest depicted European illustration of a martinet forge-hammer is the Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus of Olaus Magnus, dated to 1565 AD.
In this woodcut image, there is the scene of three martinets and a waterwheel working wood and leather bellows of an osmund bloomery furnace. The recumbent trip hammer was first depicted in European artwork in an illustration by Sandrart and Zonca. Water-powered stamp mills are illustrated in book 8 of Georg Agricola's De Re Metallica, published in 1556; the mills Agricola shows were wooden construction, excepting the use of iron shoes on the end of each stamp. The camshaft was set directly on the axle of the waterwheel, stamps were arranged in gangs of three, with each wheel driving one or two gangs; the first stamp mill in the U. S. was built in 1829 at the Capps mine near Charlotte, North Carolina. They were common in gold and copper mining regions of the US in the latter 19th and early 20th centuries, in operations where the ore was crushed as a prelude to extracting the metals, they were superseded in the second half of the 19th century in many applications by more efficient methods. However their simplicity meant that they were used in remote areas for ore processing well into the 20th century (19th century advertisements for some mills highlighted that they could be broken down, packed in by mule in pieces, assembled on site with only simpl
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Frank Bigelow is an American politician serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Republican representing the 5th district, encompassing Gold Country and the central Sierra Nevada. Prior to being elected to the state assembly, he was a Madera County supervisor. Official website Campaign website
Thomas Miller McClintock II is an American politician, the U. S. Representative for California's 4th congressional district, serving since 2009. A member of the Republican Party, he served as an assemblyman and state senator. McClintock unsuccessfully ran for Governor of California in the California recall election and for Lieutenant Governor of California in the 2006 election. McClintock was born in White Plains, New York and graduated in 1978 from UCLA. Aged 23, he was elected Chairman of the Ventura County Republican Party, served until 1981, he was chief of staff to State Senator Ed Davis from 1980 to 1982. From 1992 to 1994, he served as the director of the Center for the California Taxpayer, he was director of the Claremont Institute's Golden State Center for Policy Studies from 1995–96. McClintock ran for California's 36th State Assembly district, based in Thousand Oaks, in 1982 at the age of 26 after redistricting, he defeated Democrat Harriet Kosmo Henson 56–44%. In 1984, he won re-election to a second term, defeating Tom Jolicoeur 72–28%.
In 1986, he won re-election to a third term, defeating Frank Nekimken 73–25%. In 1988, he won re-election to a fourth term, defeating George Webb II 70–29%. In 1990, he won re-election to a fifth term, defeating Ginny Connell 59–36%. After running for Congress in 1992 and for controller in 1994, he decided to run for the Assembly again in 1996, he ran for California's 38th State Assembly district and defeated Democrat Jon Lauritzen 56–40% to win his sixth assembly term. In 1998, McClintock won re-election to a seventh term unopposed, he authored California's lethal injection use for California's death penalty law. He opposed tax increases and supported spending cuts, he was a strong proponent of abolishing the car tax. In 2000, he decided to retire from the California Assembly to run for California's 19th State Senate district, he ranked first in the May 7th open primary with 52% of the vote. In November, he defeated Democrat Daniel Gonzalez 58–42%. In 2004, he won re-election to a second term, defeating Paul Joseph Graber 61–39%.
In 2008, McClintock voted against Proposition 2, which prohibits confining calves and hens in small cages in which they cannot extend their limbs. "Farm animals are food, not friends", he said in response to backlash to his no vote. He cited concern about increased grocery bills. McClintock has a long history of opposing various tax increases. In 2000 he was instrumental in proposing a two-thirds reduction in the vehicle license fee, or car tax. In 2003, he opposed then-Governor Gray Davis's attempt to rescind a rollback of a vehicle license fee. McClintock has opposed deficit reduction efforts that would have increased taxes, he supported performance-based budgeting. He ran for California State Controller, he won the Republican primary, defeating John Morris, 61–39%. In the general election, he faced Kathleen Connell, former Special Assistant to Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley and Director of L. A. Housing Authority. Despite the fact that Connell outspent McClintock by a 3-to-1 margin, McClintock only lost by two percentage points, 48–46%, with three other candidates receiving the other 6% of the vote.
McClintock ran for State Controller again in 2002, facing Democratic nominee Steve Westly, an eBay executive. Westly outspent him 5-to-1. McClintock's campaigns focused on increasing accountability for the state budget; the ads featured the character Angus McClintock, a fictional cousin and fellow Scottish American extolling Tom McClintock's virtues of thriftiness and accountability with low-budget fifteen-second ads. He lost by a margin of just 0.2%, or 16,811 votes behind Westley, who won with a plurality of 45.3% of the vote. McClintock obtained 45.1% of the vote, while three other candidates obtained a combined 9.5% of the vote. In 2003, he ran for the recall election against incumbent Democrat Gray Davis. Republican and film actor Arnold Schwarzenegger won the election with 49% of the vote. Democratic Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante finished second with 31% of the vote, about 17 points behind Schwarzenegger. McClintock finished in third place with 14% of the vote, about 35 points behind Schwarzenegger.
Together, Republicans Schwarzenegger and McClintock were supported by 5,363,778 Californians, or 62.1% of the vote. 132 other candidates obtained the remaining 6.4% of the vote. McClintock performed the best in Stanislaus County, he cracked 20% or higher in several other counties: Mariposa, Tehama, Madera, Shasta, San Joaquin, Ventura. He ran for lieutenant governor in the 2006 elections, he defeated Tony Farmer in the Republican primary, 94–6%. In the general election, he lost to Democratic State Insurance Commissioner John Garamendi 49–45%. 1992After redistricting, State Assemblyman McClintock decided to retire in order to challenge Democratic U. S. Congressman Anthony C. Beilenson in California's 24th congressional district, he won the nine-candidate Republican primary with a plurality of 34% of the vote, beating second-place finisher Sang Korman by eleven percentage points. Beilenson defeated McClintock 56–39%. 2008 On March 4, 2008, McClintock announced his candidacy for the U. S. House of Representatives in California's 4th congressional district, hundreds of miles away from the district McClintock represented in the state Senate.
The district's nine-term incumbent, fellow Republican John Doolittle, decided to retire. McClintock was unable to vote for himself in either the general election. Although he lived in Elk Grove, near Sacramento, for most of the year, his legal residence was in