The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
An allotment garden, often called simply an allotment, or a community garden is a plot of land made available for individual, non-commercial gardening or growing food plants. Such plots are formed by subdividing a piece of land into a few or up to several hundred land parcels that are assigned to individuals or families. Such parcels are cultivated individually, contrary to other community garden types where the area is tended collectively by a group of people. In countries that do not use the allotment, a community garden can refer to individual small garden plots as well as to a single. The term victory garden is still sometimes used, especially when a community garden dates back to World War II or I. The individual size of a parcel typically suits the needs of a family, and often the plots include a shed for tools and shelter, the gardeners have to pay a small membership fee to the association, and have to abide by the corresponding constitution and by-laws. However, the membership entitles them to certain democratic rights, for children, gardens offer places to play and to learn about nature, while for the unemployed, they offer a feeling of doing something useful as well as low-cost food.
For the elderly and disabled, gardens offer an opportunity to people, to share in activity with like-minded people. In Vancouver, Calgary, Ottawa, these are called Community Gardens, Allotment gardening used to be widely popular in the former Czechoslovakia under the communist regime. It gave people from suburban prefab apartment blocks - called paneláky in Czech - a chance to escape from city chaos, holiday houses and gardens served as the only permitted form of investment of savings for common middle-class citizens. Since allotment gardens have spread to most Danish towns, in 1904 there were about 20,000 allotment gardens in Denmark. 6,000 of them were in Copenhagen, during the interwar years the number of allotment gardens grew rapidly. In 2001 the number of allotment gardens was estimated to be about 62,120, in 1908 twenty allotment associations in Copenhagen formed the Allotment Garden Union which in 1914 was expanded to cover all of Denmark. The Allotment Garden Federation was founded to negotiate more favourable deals with the state, today the federation represents roughly 400 allotment associations in 75 municipalities.
The Danish tradition for allotment gardens spread to the other Scandinavian countries, first Sweden, today most allotment gardens are on land owned by the municipality which rents the land to an allotment association. The association in turn gives each member a plot of land, to preserve allotment gardens as something that is available for all kinds of people the membership charge is set significantly below what a market price would be. Since allotments are often placed on attractive plots of land, this has led to waiting lists for membership in many allotment associations. Although the main purpose of the allotment is gardening, most allotment gardens have a built in them
Bella Center is Scandinavias second largest exhibition and conference center, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. Located in Ørestad between the city centre and Copenhagen Airport, it offers an area of 121,800 square metres and has a capacity of 20,000 people. Bella Center takes its name from Bellahøj in northern Copenhagen where the centre was first situated. Its first building was constructed in 1965 to the design of architect Erik Møller, at this stage, Bella Centers new premises were located in an undeveloped area outside the city on the former Amager Commons. With the development of Ørestad, as decided in 1992 with construction start from around the turn of the millennium, when the M1 line of the Copenhagen Metro opened in 2004, it was with a station named for the Bella Center located next to it. Various halls that can be used as congress and exhibition halls Shopping centre with a grocers shop, designed by Danish 3XN Architects, the hotel consists of two inclined towers, standing 76.5 m tall with an inclination in opposite directions of 15°.
The four-star Bella Hotel provides 814 rooms,32 conference rooms,3 restaurants, a sky bar, the foundation stone to Bella Hotel was laid September 17,2008, and the first phase was completed in spring 2011. Bella Center hosts a variety of trade fairs, conventions. Every year, it generally hosts 25-30 large exhibitions as well as around 1,300 meetings of varying sizes, Bella Center station on the M1 line of the Copenhagen Metro is located next to Bella Center. The regional Oresundtrains from Copenhagen and Malmö stop at Ørestad station nearby the Bella Center, from here it is possible to change to the Metro M1 line to go one stop to reach the Bella Center metro station. The Oresundtrains stop at Copenhagen Airport,5 min. from Ørestad station
DR Koncerthuset by Jean Nouvel is a part of the new DR Byen, that houses the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, DR. The concert hall and the DR Town are located in the part of Ørestad - an ambitious development area in Copenhagen. The concert complex consists of four halls with the auditorium seating 1,800 people. It is the home of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra, with a total surface of 25000 m², the concert hall complex designed by Jean Nouvel includes a concert hall of 1800 people and three recording studios with variable acoustics. The scenography of the hall and three recording studios was designed with dUCKS scéno. The acoustic studies were realized by Nagata Acoustics, the construction, begun in February,2003, was finished in January,2009. The Queen of Denmark inaugurated the venue on January 17,2009, pritzker Prize winner Jean Nouvel is the architect of the project. The structure can be likened to a covered by big blue screens, supposed to resemble water. Nouvel says on the project, Building in emerging neighborhoods is a risk that has proved fatal in recent years.
We can respond positively to an uncertainty by using its most positive attribute, mystery is never far from seduction. In other words we need to bring value to the context, for this we must establish a presence, an identity. I propose to materialize the context by creating an urban building respecting the planned layout of the site. It will be a volume, a mysterious parallelepiped that changes under the light of day, at night the volume will come alive with images and lights expressing the life going on inside. The interior is a world in itself and diversified, an interior street lined with shops follows the path of the urban canal, a restaurant and bar spill into it. The restaurant is dominated by a square, a large empty volume beneath the wooden “scales” cladding the concert hall above. It is a world of contrasts and surprises, a labyrinth, on one side, the world of musicians, with courtyards and exterior terraces, and vegetation. On the other, Piranesian public spaces link together the different performance halls, the restaurant, the abstract is invaded by the figurative, the permanent is complemented by the ephemeral.
The facades are diaphanous filters permitting views of the city, the canal, at night these facades become screens for projecting images
Sundby is a neighbourhood on Amager in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is often referred to as Sundbyerne since a distinction is traditionally made between Sundbyvester and Sundbyøster, located on each their side of Amagerbrogade. Sundbyvester and Sundbyøster were originally two villages known from about 1100, in the second half of the 18th century, the area changed character when sailors and workers began to settle in the community which spread along the main road. Administratively, Sundby belonged to the parish of Tårnby. The differences between urban Sundby and rural Tårnby grew still larger and led to conflicts over such as schools, sewers. In the 1890 census, Sundbyerne had a population of 13,310, in 1895 when Sundby was finally disjoined from Tårnby. Sundbys status as an independent civil parish only lasted for seven years
Urban renewal, which is generally called urban regeneration, revitalization in the United States, is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures and its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of reconstruction. The process has had a impact on many urban landscapes. This process is carried out in rural areas, referred to as village renewal. In some cases, renewal may result in urban sprawl and less congestion when areas of cities receive freeways and expressways, Urban renewal has been seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism, and by critics as a mechanism for control. It may enhance existing communities, and in some cases result in the demolition of neighborhoods, many cities link the revitalization of the central business district and gentrification of residential neighborhoods to earlier urban renewal programs.
The agenda that emerged was a doctrine that assumed better housing conditions would reform its residents morally and economically. The first area to be targeted was the notorious slum called the Devils Acre near Westminster and this new movement was largely funded by George Peabody and the Peabody Trust and had a lasting impact on the urban character of Westminster. Slum clearance began with the Rochester Buildings, on the corner of Old Pye Street and Perkins Rent and they are one of the earliest large-scale philanthropic housing developments in London. The Rochester Buildings were sold to the Peabody Trust in 1877, angela Burdett-Coutts, 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts funded an experimental social housing estate, among the first of its kind, on the corner of Columbia Road and Old Pye Street. In 1869 the Peabody Trust built one of its first housing estates at Brewers Green, between Victoria Street and St. Jamess Park. What remained of the Devils Acre on the side of Victoria Street was cleared. In 1882, the Peabody Trust built the Abbey Orchard Estate on former marshland at the corner of Old Pye Street, like many of the social housing estates, the Abbey Orchard Estate was built following the square plan concept.
Blocks of flats were built around a courtyard, creating a space within the estate functioning as recreation area. The courtyards were meant to create a community atmosphere and the blocks of flats were designed to allow sunlight into the courtyards, the blocks of flats were built using high-quality brickwork and included architectural features such as lettering, glazing and fittings. The estates built in the area at the time were considered model dwellings and included shared laundry and sanitary facilities, innovative at the time, the design was subsequently repeated in numerous other housing estates in London. State intervention was first achieved with the passage of the Public Health Act of 1875 through Parliament, the Act focused on combating filthy urban living conditions that were the cause of disease outbreaks. It required all new construction to include running water and an internal drainage system
Amagerbro is an area in the northern part of the island Amager and a district in Copenhagen. The area is known as a working area, and has approximately 20,000 inhabitants. The district has two stations, Amagerbro station and Lergravsparken station. Amagerbrogade, a shopping street, runs through it. The district is bordered by the Amager Fælled nature reserve, the Christianhavn Ramparts and Kløvermarken, the main shopping and business area is Amagerbrogade and its sidestreets