Gammel Strand is a street and public square in central Copenhagen, Denmark. On the south side it borders on the narrow Slotsholmens Canal while the north side is lined by a row of brightly coloured houses from the 18th and 19th century. Across the canal, Thorvaldsens Museum and Christiansborg Palace are seen on the island Slotsholmen; the art gallery Kunstforeningen and the Ministry of Culture are the most notable institutions facing the street. Gammel Strand used to be the site of a natural harbour, sheltered by a few small islets to develop into Slotsholmen, it was around this harbour that Copenhagen was founded as a small fishing and trading settlement in the 11th century. However, archeological finds show that the beach at that time was located further inland; the area was marshy and boats were pulled up on the beach. Land reclamations moved the coastline and a proper harbour developed. Gammel Strand became the site of a fish market, known for the women who would sit in the square at all seasons to sell their fish.
Known as Skovserkoner because they would buy their fish in the small fishing village Skovshoved north of Copenhagen and walk the long way to Gammel Strand to sell them in the market. They were recognized by their characteristic white scarves. In the end space became too scarce and in 1958 a new fish market opened in South Harbour. Most of the buildings along Gammel Strand were completedly destroyed in the Copenhagen Fire of 1795, it began in a coal and timber storage at Gammelholm, spread to the area around St. Nicolas' Church before moving along Gammel Strand to the area around Gammeltorv and Nytorv. In the following years the houses were rebuilt. Most of the houses have been rebuilt and extended with an extra story over the years and exhibit a multitude of different styles. In spite of this the overall impression is harmonic and Gammel Strand is today considered one of the pret delightful urban spaces in Copenhagen; the oldest house in the street is No. 48. Built in 1750 to the design of Philip de Lange, it survived the fire of 1795 without severe damage.
In 1796 it was extended with an extra story. Today it houses the Kunstforeningen art gallery. Ved Stranden Gammel Strand on indenforvoldene.dk
Fiolstræde is a pedestrianised shopping street in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It passes the square Frue Plads on its way from Nørreport station in the north to Skindergade in the south where Jorcks Passage connects it to the shopping street Strøget. Copenhagen Cathedral is located in the street which passes the rear side of Copenhagen University Library; the area along the street was until the 17th century dominated by green areas and the more refers to the violet flower rather than the fiddle. The section from Nørre Voldgade to Krystalgade was called Store Fiolstræde while the section from Krystalgade to Skindergade was called Lille Fiolstræde. Ludvig Holberg lived the last years of his life in a professorial residence at No. 8. The building was destroyed during the British bombardment of Copenhagen in 1807. A plaque on the wall at No. 8 commemorates the event. The street was known for its many used bookstores. Fiolstræde was pedestrianised in 1968 following the successful pedestrianisation of Strøget in the early 1960s.
The narrow street was considered a natural second phase in the pedestrianisation of the area after the closure of Strøget in 1962. The most notable building in the street is the former Copenhagen University Library, it was completed in 1861 to a Historicist design by Johan Daniel Herholdt. No. 4–6 is the former Metropolitan School from 1811–15. It was designed by Christian Frederik Hansen, responsible for the rebuilding of Church of Our Lady on the other side of the street in the years after the British bombardment. Hotel Sankt Petri is located in the former Daells Varehus department store. Built in 1935, it was one of the first buildings designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen and one of the earliest Modernist buildings in Copenhagen. No. 8, Stiftsprovstsboligen, located on the corner of Store Kanikkestræde, was built in 1841 as official residence for the provost at Church of Our Lady. The house and a section of wall shielding the courtyard from the street was listed in 1939.. No. 11, No. 12–14, No. 13, No. 15, No.
16, No. 17, No. 18, No. 19, No. 20, No. 21, No. 12, No. 24, No. 25–27, No. 26, No. 28, No. 29, No. 30—32, No. 34–36, No. 38 and No. 40–42 are listed. The Neo-Baroque building with a rounded corner on Nørre Voldgade was built for the School of Merchantry in 1902 to design by Valdemar and Bernhard Ingemann, it still houses one of the campuses of Niels Brock Copenhagen Business College. Today pedestrian traffic is consistent throughout the year due to the presence of students during winter. However, it is a quiet street on evenings. Fiolstræde on indenforvoldene.dk Source
Sankt Annæ Plads
Sankt Annæ Plads is a public square which marks the border between the Nyhavn area and Frederiksstaden neighborhoods of central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is a long narrow rectangle which extends inland from the waterfront, at a point just north of the Royal Danish Playhouse at the base of the Kvæsthus Pier, now known as Ofelia Plads, until it meets Bredgade. A major renovation of the square was completed in 2016; the Garrison Church is located on the south side of the square. Amaliegade, one of the two axes on which Frederiksstaden is centered, extends from the square; the square has a central garden complex along its length with an equestrian statue of Christian X of Denmark facing Bredgade. Sankt Annæ Plads was part of a canal which continued along present-day Bredgade and Esplanaden, surrounding Sophie Amalienborg; the Royal Naval Hospital was built by Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger on reclaimed land on the south side of the canal in 1686. It moved to Christianshavn and the building was used as poorhouse and storage space.
The Garrison Church was built in 1703–06. The square was created when the canal was filled in connection with the foundation of the ambitious new Frederiksstaden district in circa 1750; the central garden complex was established in 1852. It was the result of one of the first successful initiatives of the founded Society for the Beautification of Copenhagen. With the establishment of the Kvæsthus Pier at the end of the square, the site had become a hub for the new steam ferries that had begun to operate between Copenhagen and the largest cities in the provinces; the ferry company Det Forenede Dampskibs-Selskab was from 1871 based in the former navel hospital. The building was expanded; the company would for the next many years dominate the square with hectic activity around the clock, both with passengers and goods. First cargo ships and also passenger boats disappeared from the area. In 2003 the Royal Naval Hospital building was acquired by the Danish Nurses' Organization which has since been headquartered in it.
The neighbouring building built by DFDS in 1890, has since 1871 housed the JL Foundation which owns the J. Lauritzen shipping company as well as 56% of DFDS. In 2014 a major renovation began, with a scheduled completion in 2016; the stated aims of the renovation were to provide a better experience for pedestrians and cyclists, as the waterfront project of Kvæsthusmolen plans to draw more activity to the area. The project resulted in the removal of some of the trees that lined the center of the street, although more trees are due to be planted in their place. A number of buildings on the square date from back when it was first established; these include. 7–9 and the Jegind House at No. 15, which were all designed by Nicolai Eigtved who created the masterplan for Frederiksstaden. Copenhagen Mason's Guild is headquartered in No. 7. The Prince William Mansion at No. 13 was completed in 1751 by an unknown architect but has been extended with an extra floor. Younger are Andreas Hallander's building at No. 10 and city builder Jørgen Henrich Rawert's two consecutive homes at No. 5 and No.
11, built in 1796 and 1801 respectively. Other buildings are in the Historicist style that dominated Danish architecture in the second half of the 19th century. Listed in 1932, No. 1–3 was built between 1847 and 1849 to designs by Gustav Friedrich Hetsch as an extension of the Lindencrone Mansion on Bredgade. Listed is No. 2, on the opposite corner with Bredgade, completed by Niels Sigfred Nebelong in 1866. The Neo-Gothic mansion at No. 17 was built in 1868 as winter residence of the Knuthenborg counts. The former DFDS headquarters at No. 24–30 was designed by Albert Jensen. The two corner pavilions now houses the Rmbassy of the Danish Nurses' Organization. No. 26–28 has housed the shipping company J. Lauritzen A/S as well as the Lauritzen Foundation, but they have moved and the building is now for sale. Albert Jensen designed the original home of the Brock School of Commerce on the other side of the square, at No. 19, from 1891. The square is home to two hotels. Hotel Skt. Annæ, a boutique hotel which reopened after a major renovation in 2016, is located at No. 18.
Hotel Scandic Waterfront overlooks Ofelia Plads. The Carl Frederik Tietgen statue was located at Børsen but moved to its current site in 1904, it was designed by Rasmus Andersen. A statue depicting composer Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann was installed on the square in 1904, it was designed by August Saabye. The equestrian statue of Christian X, which faces Bredgade, was added to the garden complex in 1954, it was designed by Einar Utzon-Frank. A memorial with a bust of Franklin D. Roosevelt was unveiled at the square on May 5, 1953 to commemorate America's role in World War II, it is a copy of a bust created by Jo Davidson in 1933. A bust of Herman Bang by Ingeborg Plockross Irminger from 1901 was installed on the square in 2012. Sankt Annæ Plads is used as a location in several Olsen-banden films, it is for instance seen at 0:34:43 in The Olsen Gang Outta Sight and the gang steals a precuious Ming vase in one of the mansions on the square at0:10:06 in The Olsen Gang Sees Red.. Store Strandstræde Sankt Annæ Plads on indenforvoldene.dk Source
Nordre Toldbod is a waterfront area in Copenhagen, located at the north end of Larsens Plads and just south of Kastellet. It toldbod which used to be located in the area. Most of the historic buildings in the area were torn down in 1973 when the site was redeveloped but its central waterfront space has remained intact and features a number of structures which bear testament to its former use. Among the modern buildings in the area are the headquarters of Mærsk and the Danish Energy Agency; the area is adjacent to Langelinie Parks. In Copenhagen, customs duties have been collected from ships since the 13th century. In 1617, the Royal Anchor Forge came into use as a custom house but when the king's grand plans for St. Ann's Rotunda, a monumental naval development, were abandoned and it was decided to convert the Anchor Forge to a naval church in its place, now the Church of Holmen, the custom house was moved to the other side of the harbour where it found a temporary home in a 10-bay building at Christianshavn.
In 1628, it was moved back across the harbour where a new custom house had been constructed on a filled site north of the city. The entrance to the harbour was blocked with a barrier at night which marked the boundary between the northern and southern custom house areas. King Christian VI ordered the construction of a new custom house, completed on the same site in 1734 to a Baroque design by Johan Cornelius Krieger; the quay at Nordre Toldbod served as the place where foreign monarchs and other peers were received when they arrived at Copenhagen by ship. It was the place where the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen was received, with great festivity, on 17 September 1838, when he returned home after four decades in Rome; the last decades of the 19th century brought change to the area. A new building for the Port Authority was built in 1868 to a design by Vilhelm Dahlerup and Frederik Bøttger, a new custom house designed by Vilhelm Petersen was built a little further south between 1872 and 1875; the new Free Port was inaugurated just north of Kastellet in 1884.
Christian VI's custom house at the boundary between Søndre and Nordre Toldbod was torn down in 1891 to make way for a new warehouse for goods in transit, the Frilagerbygningen building. In 1973 the majority of the buildings in the area were torn down. Most of the land was sold to A. P. Møller-Mærsk which built a new head office designed by Ole Hagen on the corner of Nordre Toldbod and Esplanaden between 1974 and 1979. To the south of that, a new building for the Customs Department was constructed to a design by Niels and Eva Koppel; the latter has been taken over by the Danish Energy Agency. Vilhelm Dahlerup's building from 1868 for the Port Authority marks the western boundary of the quayside space at Nordre Toldbod; the design was inspired by Italian Renaissance architecture and the building consisted of two stories with a small one-story appendix topped by a balustrade on each side. The original building was extended with an extra floor by Einar Madvig and now consists of a three-story main building with two low lateral wings in 1939, a rear wing was added in 1901.
The building is now Havn. Located just south of the Port Authority Building, the former main entrance to the Nordre Toldbod area is a gate with gate pillars topped by lions. Just inside the gate, the access road passes between two long one-story buildings with 8-arch arcades facing the traffic, they were designed by Gustav Friedrich Hetsch and built in 1856. The north side of the Port Authority's building connects to a rough iron fence which defines the northern boundary of the space, it is the only surviving section of the fence. The fence opens through a gate toward Langelinie; the gate pillars double as guardhouses and they are topped by two zinc statues depicting Neptune and Mercury. The two small pavilions on the quay in front of the Port Authority Building were built in 1905, it remains unclear who designed them but they are attributed to Osvald Rosendahl Langballe. They are today used when the Royal Family crosses the harbour to board HDMY Dannebrog, the Royal Yacht, docked at Holmen; the place where the royal challup lands is flanked by two street lights topped by dragon figures which hold the fixtures.
One of the dragons has red eyes. They were designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup and installed in 1892. In connection with their design of a master plan for the nearby Amerika Plads area, the architectural practice West 8 created a special street light for the new neighbourhood, a Cubist reinterpretation of Dahlerup's dragon lights at Nordre Toldbod; the Gefion Fountain is located outside the Langelinie Gate and portrays the legendary Norse goddess Gefjun driving a group of oxen, a reference to a legend about the creation of Zealand. The Gefion Fountain is situated next to the Gefion Bridge, a foot bridge which provides access to Langelinie along an elevated promenade. Designed by Asger Ostenfeld and completed in 1894, it spanned the Free Port rail line which connected the Free Port to the custom house, but now appears in a new context after the restoration of Kastellet
In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. When neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon the architrave and is capped by the moldings of the cornice. A frieze can be found on many Greek and Roman buildings, the Parthenon Frieze being the most famous, the most elaborate; this style is typical for the Persians. In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail and under the crown moldings or cornice. By extension, a frieze is a long stretch of painted, sculpted or calligraphic decoration in such a position above eye-level. Frieze decorations may depict scenes in a sequence of discrete panels; the material of which the frieze is made of may be plasterwork, carved wood or other decorative medium. In an example of an architectural frieze on the façade of a building, the octagonal Tower of the Winds in the Roman agora at Athens bears relief sculptures of the eight winds on its frieze.
A pulvinated frieze is convex in section. Such friezes were features of 17th-century Northern Mannerism in subsidiary friezes, much employed in interior architecture and in furniture; the concept of a frieze has been generalized in the mathematical construction of frieze patterns. Media related to Friezes at Wikimedia Commons "Frieze". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Rococo, less roccoco, or "Late Baroque", is a ornamental and theatrical style of decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding and pastel colors, sculpted molding, trompe l'oeil frescoes to create the illusions of surprise and drama. It first appeared in France and Italy in the 1730s and spread to Central Europe in the 1750s and 1760s, it is described as the final expression of the Baroque movement. The Rococo style began in France in the first part of the 18th century in the reign of Louis XV as a reaction against the more formal and geometric Style Louis XIV, it was known as the style rocaille style. It soon spread to other parts of Europe northern Italy, Austria, other parts of Germany, Russia, it came to influence the other arts sculpture, furniture and glassware, painting and theatre. The word rococo was first used as a humorous variation of the word rocaille. Rocaille was a method of decoration, using pebbles and cement, used to decorate grottoes and fountains since the Renaissance.
In the late 17th and early 18th century rocaille became the term for a kind of decorative motif or ornament that appeared in the late Style Louis XIV, in the form of a seashell interlaced with acanthus leaves. In 1736 the designer and jeweler Jean Mondon published the Premier Livre de forme rocquaille et cartel, a collection of designs for ornaments of furniture and interior decoration, it was the first appearance in print of the term "rocaille" to designate the style. The carved or molded seashell motif was combined with palm leaves or twisting vines to decorate doorways, wall panels and other architectural elements; the term rococo was first used in print in 1825 to describe decoration, "out of style and old-fashioned." It was used in 1828 for decoration "which belonged to the style of the 18th century, overloaded with twisting ornaments." In 1829 the author Stendhal described rococo as "the rocaille style of the 18th century."In the 19th century, the term was used to describe architecture or music, excessively ornamental.
Since the mid-19th century, the term has been accepted by art historians. While there is still some debate about the historical significance of the style, Rococo is now considered as a distinct period in the development of European art. Rococo features exuberant decoration, with an abundance of curves, counter-curves and elements modeled on nature; the exteriors of Rococo buildings are simple, while the interiors are dominated by their ornament. The style was theatrical, designed to impress and awe at first sight. Floor plans of churches were complex, featuring interlocking ovals; the style integrated painting, molded stucco, wood carving, quadratura, or illusionist ceiling paintings, which were designed to give the impression that those entering the room were looking up at the sky, where cherubs and other figures were gazing down at them. Materials used painted or left white; the intent was to create an impression of surprise and wonder on first view. Rococo was influenced by chinoiserie and was sometimes in association with Chinese figures and pagodas.
The Rocaille style, or French Rococo, appeared in Paris during the reign of Louis XV, flourished between about 1723 and 1759. The style was used in salons, a new style of room designed to impress and entertain guests; the most prominent example was the salon of the Princess in Hôtel de Soubise in Paris, designed by Germain Boffrand and Charles-Joseph Natoire. The characteristics of French Rococo included exceptional artistry in the complex frames made for mirrors and paintings, which sculpted in plaster and gilded; the furniture featured sinuous curves and vegetal designs. The leading furniture designers and craftsmen in the style included Juste-Aurele Meissonier, Charles Cressent, Nicolas Pineau; the Rocaille style lasted in France until the mid-18th century, while it became more curving and vegetal, it never achieved the extravagant exuberance of the Rococo in Bavaria and Italy. The discoveries of Roman antiquities beginning in 1738 at Herculanum and at Pompeii in 1748 turned French architecture in the direction of the more symmetrical and less flamboyant neo-classicism.
Artists in Italy Venice produced an exuberant rococo style. Venetian commodes imitated the curving lines and carved ornament of the French rocaille, but with a particular Venetian variation. Notable decorative painters included Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, who painted ceilings and murals of both churches and palazzos, Giovanni Battista Crosato who painted the ballroom ceiling of the Ca Rezzonico in the quadraturo manner, giving the illusion of three dimensions. Tiepelo travelled to Germany with his son during 1752–1754, decorating the ceilings of the Würzburg Residence, one of the major landmarks of the Bavarian rococo. An earlier celebrated Venetian painter was Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, who painted several notable church ceilings; the Venetian Rococo featured exceptional glassware Murano glass, ofte