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Amaretto is a sweet Italian liqueur that originated in Saronno, Italy. While flavoured from bitter almonds, various modern commercial brands are prepared from a base of apricot stones, peach stones, or almonds, all of which are natural sources of the benzaldehyde that provides the principal almond-like flavour of the liqueur; when served as a beverage, amaretto can be drunk by itself, used as an ingredient to create several popular mixed drinks, or added to coffee. Amaretto is commonly used in culinary applications; the name amaretto originated as a diminutive of the Italian word amaro, meaning "bitter," which references the distinctive flavour lent by the mandorla amara or by the drupe kernel. However, the bitterness of amaretto tends to be mild, sweeteners enhance the flavour in the final products, thus one can interpret the liqueur's name as a description of the taste as "a little bitter". Cyanide is processed out of the almond preparation prior to its use. One should not confuse amaretto with amaro, a different family of Italian liqueurs that, while sweetened, have a stronger bitter flavour derived from herbs.

Despite the known history on the introduction and acceptance of almonds into Italian cuisine, newer takes on the meanings and origins have been popularized by two major brands. Though of sometimes questionable factuality, these tales hold a sentimental place in Saronno culture: In 1525, a Saronno church commissioned artist Bernardino Luini, one of Leonardo da Vinci's pupils, to paint its sanctuary with frescoes; as the church was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Luini needed to depict the Madonna, but was in need of a model. He found his inspiration in a young widowed innkeeper, who became his lover. Out of gratitude and affection, the woman wished to give him a gift, her simple means did not permit much, so she steeped apricot kernels in brandy and presented the resulting concoction to a touched Luini. DeKuyperNetherlands Disaronno – Italy Lazzaroni – Italy Bols – Netherlands Luxardo – Italy Amaretto serves a variety of culinary uses. Amaretto is added to desserts, including ice cream, which enhances the flavour of the dessert with almonds and is complementary to the flavor of chocolate.

Tiramisu, a popular Italian cake, is flavoured with either real amaretto or alcohol-free amaretto aroma. Savoury recipes that call for amaretto involve meats, such as chicken. A few shots of amaretto can be added to pancake batter for a richer flavour. Amaretto is added to almondine sauce for fish and vegetables. Amaretto is added to whipped cream; some popular cocktails highlight Amaretto liqueur as a primary ingredient. Amaretto Piña Colada - Amaretto liqueur, light rum, coconut milk, pineapple juice. Amaretto Sour - Amaretto liqueur, lemon juice, sometimes various popular enhancements. French Connection - Amaretto liqueur and Cognac. Godfather - Amaretto liqueur and Scotch. Nutcracker Martini - Amaretto liqueur, dark crème de cacao and Irish cream. Snickerdoodle Cookie Martini - Amaretto liqueur, cinnamon liqueur, cinnamon vodka. Amaretto is sometimes used as a substitute for Orgeat Syrup in places where the syrup cannot be found, or just to impart a less sweet flavour. List of cocktails List of almond dishes Media related to Amaretto liqueurs at Wikimedia Commons

The Story of the Last Thought

The novel The Story of the Last Thought of the German-Jewish writer Edgar Hilsenrath is about the Armenian Genocide in 1915. The epic which has the form of a fairy tale and for which Hilsenrath received many prizes is regarded as the most important book about this historical episode. In 2006 the president of Armenia presented the author with the State Award for Literature of the Republic of Armenia for his work; the Story of the Last Thought is the history of a village in Anatolia, being destroyed by the Turks. The main character is the Armenian Wartan Khatisian, his last thought - the last thought of a man, the fairy tale says, is beyond time - is being told the history of his ancestors, the life of suffering of the Armenian people. The storyteller Meddah guides the last thought of Thovma along the life paths of his father, that lead from a small idyllic mountain village into the torture chambers of the Turkish rulers, let him become a witness of the big pogrom against the Armenians in 1915.

"By means of an oriental fairy tale, drawing from sagas and legends of this distressed nation, Hilsenrath goes far back into Armenian history and touches upon the plight of all genocide victims. A cruel book and a book of love, of hope and of wonders." Despite choosing a fictitious genre the historical facts have been investigated and verified by the author. Translated into Armenian by Lili Ter-Minasyan. For his epic The Story of the Last Thought Edgar Hilsenrath has received many prizes. In 1989 Günter Grass presented him with the prestigious Alfred Döblin prize. In 2006 the president of Armenia, where Hilsenrath is regarded as a national hero, honoured him with the State Award for Literature of the Republic of Armenia for his work. In 2006 he received an Honorary Doctorate from the Yerevan State University for his work. After the first publication of Hilsenrath's novel the critic Alexander von Bormann wrote in the Swiss newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung with regard to Franz Werfel's The Forty Days of Musa Dagh, the novel, considered to be the most important book about Armenia in world literature: "But I think Hilsenrath's novel is superior to Werfel's: it is a historic and poetic novel at the same time."

According to Dagmar C. G. Lorenz, "Hilsenrath's Marchen vom letzten Gedanken is a powerful artistic statement against all forms of oppression. In addition to racism and nationalist arrogance, Hilsenrath isolates inequality and ignorance, but above all, dishonesty, as factors contributing to genocide; the dynamics of oppression and submission are present in all enclaves of society and thus difficult to combat, although Hilsenrath argues that to avoid further genocides they must be eradicated."Manfred Orlick judged: "Over and over they say: one cannot write about this topic like this. But the author has managed to delineate the cruelties through innumerable short dialogues, to portray them movingly and in this way get across the historical facts. An inhuman book of fairy tales as only Hilsenrath could write it."The author himself considers The Story of the Last Thought to be his most poetic work. The English translation was published in Great Britain in 1990. Armenian article with photograph of Edgar Hilsenrath presented with the State Award for Literature of the Republic of Armenia for his work by the president, Robert Kocharyan Bestselling German-Jewish Author Satirizes the Holocaust, Deutsche Welle, April 9, 2006

Edward I. Nickerson

Edward Irving Nickerson was an American architect from Providence, Rhode Island. He was known for large Queen Anne style wooden residences in Providence. Nickerson was born in 1845 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, attended the local schools. After leaving school, in about 1862, he entered the office of Providence architect Clifton A. Hall, where he remained until 1871, when he opened his own office. After practicing for some time, he embarked on an extended tour of Europe which lasted until his return to Rhode Island in 1881, he practiced until his death, though no works of his are known after 1897. He was married to the daughter of a founder of Brown & Sharpe; the Brown money enabled Nickerson to travel abroad many times. At least one of Nickerson's works has been listed independently on the National Register of Historic Places, many others are contributing properties to listed historic districts. William H. Crins House, 24 Linden St. Providence, Rhode Island Joseph O. Starkweather Cottage, 26 Nayatt Rd. Barrington, Rhode Island George W. Whitford Duplex, 48 Barnes St. Providence, Rhode Island Joseph C.

Hartshorn House, 81 Parade St. Providence, Rhode Island Frederick W. Hartwell House, 77 Parade St. Providence, Rhode Island Walter E. Richmond House, 163 Waterman St. Providence, Rhode Island George W. Whitford House, 54 Barnes St. Providence, Rhode Island George W. Carr House, 29 Waterman St. Providence, Rhode Island Grace Memorial Home, 133 Delaine St. Olneyville, Rhode Island - Burned 1959. Providence Art Club, 11 Thomas St. Providence, Rhode Island Jane S. Hammond Duplex, 29-31 Cabot St. Providence, Rhode Island Newton D. Arnold House, 24 Stimson Ave. Providence, Rhode Island Stephen A. Cooke, Jr. House, 158 Bowen St. Providence, Rhode Island George Wilkinson House, 153 Ontario St. Providence, Rhode Island Frank H. Maynard House, 420 Angell St. Providence, Rhode Island Miramar, 217 Hope St. Bristol, Rhode Island Alfred Barth Duplex, 561-563 Public St. Providence, Rhode Island Jesse W. Coleman House, 272 President Ave. Providence, Rhode Island Almena I. Kern House, 148 Melrose St. Providence, Rhode Island Charles H. Sprague House, 44 Stimson Ave. Providence, Rhode Island George W. Williams House, 26 Sycamore St. Providence, Rhode Island John E. Camfield House, 349 Hope St. Providence, Rhode Island B.

Thomas Potter House, 8 Stimson Ave. Providence, Rhode Island

William Robertson Wood

The Reverend William Robertson Wood was a Presbyterian minister and politician in Manitoba, Canada. He served in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1915 to 1920, as a member of the Liberal Party. Wood was born in Veira, Scotland, the son of William Wood and Margaret Robertson, came to Canada in 1887, he was educated in Scotland and at Port Elgin High School, at Toronto University and at Knox College in Toronto, graduating in 1904. In the same year, he married Margaret Workman. Ordained as a Presbyterian minister, he served in Dunbarton, Ontario from 1904 to 1908, in Claremont, Ontario from 1908 to 1913, in Franklin, Manitoba after 1913, he continued to work as a minister after winning election to the legislature. From 1916 to 1917, he was secretary of the Free Trade League of Canada. In 1917, he became secretary of the Manitoba Grain Growers' Association. In 1919 Wood received a D. D. from Bates College. He first ran for the Manitoba legislature in the 1914 provincial election, losing to Conservative cabinet minister James H. Howden by 32 votes in the Beautiful Plains constituency.

Howden did not seek re-election in the 1915 election, Wood defeated his Conservative opponent J. H. Irwin by 197 votes; the Liberals won a landslide majority in this election, Wood served as a backbench supporter of Tobias Norris's government. He did not seek re-election in 1920. Wood became secretary of the United Farmers of Manitoba serving until 1925. In that year, he became chairman of the Manitoba Prohibition Alliance. In 1928, he became principal of the Ahousat Indian School on Vancouver Island and of the Indian School at Portage la Prairie. From 1943 to 1946, Wood was chaplain for the Stony Mountain Penitentiary, he died in Portage la Prairie as the result of injuries sustained in a fall in Poplar Point

The Valachi Papers (film)

The Valachi Papers is a 1972 crime film directed by Terence Young and starring Charles Bronson and Lino Ventura. Adapted from the book The Valachi Papers by Peter Maas, it tells the story of Joseph Valachi, a Mafia informant in the early 1960s; the movie begins in the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary, where an aging prisoner named Joseph Valachi is imprisoned for smuggling heroin. The boss of his crime family, Vito Genovese, is imprisoned there as well. Genovese is certain that Valachi is an informant, gives him the "kiss of death," whereupon Valachi kisses him back. Valachi mistakenly kills. Told of the mistake by federal agents, Valachi becomes an informant, he tells his life story in flashbacks. The movie traces Valachi from a young punk to a gangster associating with bosses like Salvatore Maranzano. Maranzano tells a mourner at a funeral, "I cannot bring back the dead. I can only kill the living." Valachi marries a boss's daughter, played by Bronson's real-life wife Jill Ireland. Valachi's rise in the Mafia is hampered by his poor relations with Tony Bender.

Bender is portrayed castrating a mobster for having relations with another mobster's wife. Valachi shoots the victim to put him out of his misery; the mayhem and murder continue to the present, with Valachi shown testifying before a Senate committee. He is upset with having to testify and attempts suicide, but in the end outlives Genovese, who dies in prison. Charles Bronson as Joe Valachi Lino Ventura as Vito Genovese Jill Ireland as Maria Reina Valachi Walter Chiari as Dominick Petrilli Joseph Wiseman as Salvatore Maranzano Gerald S. O'Loughlin as Ryan Guido Leontini as Tony Bender Amedeo Nazzari as Gaetano Reina Fausto Tozzi as Albert Anastasia Pupella Maggio as Letizia Reina Angelo Infanti as Lucky Luciano Alessandro Sperli as Joe Masseria Maria Baxa as Donna Franco Borelli as Buster from Chicago Anthony Dawson as Federal Investigator Joe Don Baker as Irish member of Valachi gang Sabine Sun as Jane Franco Ressel Producer Dino de Laurentiis had to convince Charles Bronson to take the role of Joe Valachi.

He turned it down at least twice before accepting it when he found out the character got to age from his late teens to early 60s. Bronson was given a three-film contract that guaranteed him $1 million per picture plus a percentage of the gross; the film was shot at De Laurentiis' studios in Rome. Production began on March 20, 1972; the film shows a 1930s night street scene, 27 minutes into the film, in which numerous 1960s model cars are parked and drive by. In another scene depicted as occurring in the early 1930s, eluding police pursuit, drives a car into the East River just north of the Brooklyn Bridge, where the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center are visible against the dawn sky. Paramount, the film's original distributor, had planned to release the film in February 1973, but the premiere date was moved up to capitalize on the popularity of the similarly-themed film The Godfather. Bronson's opinion of Francis Ford Coppola's gangster epic, although he admired Marlon Brando's performance, was "The Godfather?, the shittiest movie I've seen in my entire life."

The film departed from the true story of Joseph Valachi, as recounted in the Peter Maas book, in a number of ways. Though using real names and depicting real events, the film contained numerous events that were fictionalized. Among them was the castration scene; the Valachi Papers was released in Chicago on 20 October 1972. The Valachi Papers was released on DVD on 3 January 2006 by Sony Pictures Home Video; the film was released on blu-ray by Mill Creek Entertainment in 2018 as part of a 4-film set that included high-def transfers of The Stone Killer and Hard Times. The Valachi Papers grossed about $17 million domestically; the film earned rentals of $9.3 million. Reviews were negative, as many critics compared the film unfavorably to The Godfather. Roger Greenspun of The New York Times wrote, "Often ludicrous and just dull, Terence Young's'The Valachi Papers' has the look of a movie project that ran short of ideas before it was finished, ran out of class before it was begun." A positive review in Variety called the film "a hard-hitting, violence-ridden documented melodrama of the underworld" that "carries a fine sweep that projects it as an important crime picture."

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film two-and-a-half stars out of four and called it "an ambitious but not inspired movie about the mob." Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune awarded two stars out of four and wrote, "Generally,'The Valachi Papers' tries to cover too many years, thus provides paper-thin treatment of each event. As a result, the film implies power and violence, but shows it; the visual power of'The Godfather' has been replaced with meaningless names and dates." Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times dismissed the film as "two hours of relentless tedium, interrupted from time to time by savage violence." Gary Arnold of The Washington Post declared the film "a stiff. It may be possible to make a duller gangster melodrama, but I would hate to sit through the attempt... It takes considerable ineptitude to produce a gangster movie this enervating." John Raisbeck wrote in The Monthly Film Bulletin, "Inviting inevitable comparisons with The Godfather, Terence Young's film proves markedly surprisingly, inferior to Coppola's on every level.

Young and his

Livingstone Museum

The Livingstone Museum David Livingstone Memorial Museum and Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, is the largest and the oldest museum in Zambia, located in Livingstone near Victoria Falls. The museum has exhibits of artifacts related to local history and prehistory, including photographs, musical instruments, possessions of David Livingstone, the explorer and missionary; the Livingstone Museum is the largest and the oldest museum in Zambia, established in the 1934 as the David Livingstone Memorial Museum. In 1948, Captain A. W. Whittington offered to sell the two specimens of a fossilized human femur to the Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, but the museum could not afford to make the purchase. A new Spanish colonial-style building was opened in 1951. Jock Millar, former mayor of Livingstone, requested that Harry Susman donate a'four-faced' tower clock to the museum, but before it was unveiled in the museum, Susman died. In 1960 the museum recreated villages from five ethnic groups to give visitors a sense of traditional tribal life and to present the "way of life during the bronze and iron age."

Its original name the Rhodes–Livingstone Museum was changed to Livingstone Museum in 1966. In 2003 the buildings were renovated with funds from the European Union. Over the years, the museum has been a trustee of numerous archaeological expeditions in Zambia. In 1956 the museum was a trustee, along with National Monuments Commission of Northern Rhodesia and the Wenner-Gren Foundation, of the excavation of the Kalambo Falls Prehistoric Site. In 2005, a statue of David Livingstone was erected in front of the museum in memory as was a statue of Emil Holub, a noted Czech doctor, explorer and ethnographer who made the first map of the Victoria Falls region; the Livingstone Museum is located in the heart of the Livingstone town on the Mosi-o-Tunya Road. It is 10 km away on the Zambian side. Road access is from three directions; the 11 kilometres drive from across the border near the town of Victoria Falls crosses over the famous Victoria Falls Bridge. The second approach is 60 kilometres from Botswana involving crossing the border at Kazungula by ferry.

Livingstone is 470 kilometres from Lusaka, taking the southbound Kafue Road, crossing the Kafue River Bridge and taking a right turn towards Mazabuka. The museum provides an important insight into the cultural heritage of Zambia. An open archaeological site is located next to the museum next to the falls which has unearthed items from the early Stone Age to the present, covering some 250,000 years. Experts from the museum, such as Dr. J. Desmond Clark, once director, have provided an important contribution to research in the country; the museum has provided expertise and support to archaeological expeditions in neighboring South Africa,The museum is laid out in five galleries namely, the Archaeology gallery, the Ethnographic gallery, the History gallery, the Art gallery and Livingstone gallery. They cover topics such as archaeology, ethnography and natural history, ornithology, entomology and ichthyology; the Archaeology gallery has exhibits of human evolution and cultural development in Zambia starting with Stone Age to Iron Age.

The Ethnography and Art gallery has exhibits of the different cultures of the country. Handicrafts and musical instruments are part of this gallery; the History gallery traces the origins of the Bantu people, the era of British colonial rule and the period till Zambia achieved independence from the colonial rule. On display are exhibits of endemic animals as seen in their natural habitats in Zambia; the Livingstone gallery has an extensive collection of David Livingstone memorabilia, which were donated by the Livingstone family. The museum has a large library of books on archaeology and wildlife and some of the journals published by Livingston; the museum has special exhibits. It features sculptures and paintings by Zambian artists; the museum started publishing "Occasional Papers" from 1948 but published the 16 papers in 1967 as a new series titled "Zambian Museum Papers", based on extensive research of Zambia’s prehistory, history and natural history. These papers were authored by specialists in each field.

The papers provide substantial information on each of the large number of exhibits systematically displayed in the museum with labels