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Amaryllis is the only genus in the subtribe Amaryllidinae. It is a small genus with two species; the better known of the two, Amaryllis belladonna, is a native of the Western Cape region of South Africa the rocky southwest area between the Olifants River Valley and Knysna. For many years there was confusion among botanists over the generic names Amaryllis and Hippeastrum, one result of, that the common name "amaryllis" is used for cultivars of the genus Hippeastrum sold in the winter months for their ability to bloom indoors. Plants of the genus Amaryllis are known as belladonna lily, Jersey lily, naked lady, Easter lily in Southern Australia or, in South Africa, March lily due to its propensity to flower around March; this is one of numerous genera with the common name "lily" due to their flower shape and growth habit. However, they are only distantly related to Lilium. In the Victorian Language of Flowers, amaryllis means "pride". Amaryllis is a bulbous plant, with each bulb being 5–10 cm in diameter.

It has green leaves, 30 -- 50 cm long and 2 -- 3 cm broad, arranged in two rows. Each bulb produces one or two leafless stems 30–60 cm tall, each of which bears a cluster of two to twelve funnel-shaped flowers at their tops; each flower is 6–10 cm diameter with six tepals. The usual color is white with crimson veins, but pink or purple occur naturally; the single genus is in the tribe Amaryllideae. The taxonomy of the genus has been controversial. In 1753 Carl Linnaeus created the name Amaryllis belladonna, the type species of the genus Amaryllis. At the time both South African and South American plants were placed in the same genus; the key question is whether Linnaeus's type was a South American plant. If the latter, Amaryllis would be the correct name for the genus Hippeastrum, a different name would have to be used for the genus discussed here. Alan W. Meerow et al. have summarized the debate, which took place from 1938 onwards and involved botanists on both sides of the Atlantic. The outcome was a decision by the 14th International Botanical Congress in 1987 that Amaryllis L. should be a conserved name and based on a specimen of the South African Amaryllis belladonna from the Clifford Herbarium at the Natural History Museum in London.

Amaryllidinae are placed within Amaryllideae as follow: These are phylogenetically related as follows: The name Amaryllis is taken from a shepherdess in Virgil's pastoral Eclogues, from "Amarella" for the bitterness of the bulb. Although the 1987 decision settled the question of the scientific name of the genus, the common name "amaryllis" continues to be used differently. Bulbs sold as amaryllis and described as "ready to bloom for the holidays" belong to the allied genus Hippeastrum; the common name "naked lady" used for Amaryllis is used for other bulbs with a similar growth and flowering pattern. The common name "naked lady" comes from the plant's pattern of flowering when the foliage has died down. In areas of its native habitat with mountainous fynbos flowering tends to be suppressed until after bush fires as dense overhead vegetation prevents growth. In more open sandy areas of the Western Cape, the plant flowers annually. Plants tend to be localized in dense concentrations due to the seeds' large size and heavy weight.

Strong winds shake loose the seeds, which fall to ground and start to germinate, aided by the first winter rains. The leaves are produced in the autumn or early spring in warm climates depending on the onset of rain and die down by late spring; the bulb is dormant until late summer. The plant is not frost-tolerant, nor does it do well in tropical environments since they require a dry resting period between leaf growth and flower spike production. One or two leafless stems arise from the bulb in the dry ground in late summer; the plant has a symbiotic relationship with carpenter bees. It is visited by noctuid moths at night; the relative importance of these animals as pollinators has not yet been established. The plant's main parasite is the lily borer Brithys crini and/or Diaphone eumela. Amaryllis belladonna was introduced into cultivation at the beginning of the eighteenth century, it reproduces by either bulb division or seeds and has naturalized from plantings in urban and suburban areas throughout the lower elevations and coastal areas in much of the West Coast of the USA since these environments mimic their native South African habitat.

Hardiness zones 6-8. It is naturalized in Australia. There is an Amaryllis belladonna hybrid, bred in the 1800s in Australia. No one knows the exact species it was crossed with to produce color variations of white, peach and nearly red hues; the hybrids were crossed back onto the original Amaryllis belladonna and with each other to produce seed-bearing crosses that come in a wide range of flower sizes, stem heights and intensities of pink. Pure white varieties with bright green stems were bred as well; the hybrids are quite distinct in that the many shades of pink have stripes, dark

Ministry of Defence (Pakistan)

The Ministry of Defence, is an executive ministry of the Government of Pakistan, tasked in defending Pakistan's national interests and values at home and abroad. It plays a major supporting role to the Pakistan Armed Forces and coordinates with a range of domestic and inter-governmental bodies; the existence and functions of the ministry are statutorily defined in Part XII, Chapter II of the Constitution of Pakistan. The responsibilities for procurement and disposal of equipment were transferred in 2004 to the Ministry of Defence Production; the Ministry of Defence is one of the largest federal ministries of the Government of Pakistan in terms of budget as well as staff. The Minister of Defence is Cabinet member, responsible for controlling the armed forces; the current Minister of Defence is Pervez Khan Khattak. The Secretary of Defence is the senior-most administrative figure within the ministry, who in recent decades has been a retired three-star Pakistani army general; the assistant secretaries serving under him are serving flag-officers belonging to the respective services.

The following is a simplified representation of the MoD's senior leadership: Minister of Defence Secretary of Defence Assistant Secretary I Joint Secretary I Joint Secretary III Assistant Secretary II Joint Secretary V Joint Secretary VII Assistant Secretary III Joint Secretary II Joint Secretary IV The Ministry of Defence is a successor of the Military Department created by the British East India Company in Calcutta in 1776. Its main function was to coordinate and record orders, relating to the Army, issued by various Departments of the Government of the East India Company; the Military Department functioned as a branch of the Public Department and maintained a list of Army personnel. Following Pakistan's independence in 1947, the Ministry of Defence was established at Karachi in August of that year, with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan holding the Minister of Defence, while Iskander Mirza served as Defence Secretary. British flag officers remained commanders-in-chief of the army and air force in Pakistan until 1956.

In December 1959, the federal capital shifted temporarily to Rawalpindi, while plans for Islamabad were drawn up by then-General Ayub Khan's military government. The proximity of the Army Headquarters in Rawalpindi played a major role in the decision to relocate the capital. In March 1972, President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in response to criticism over the difficulties in inter-service coordination in previous wars decreed that all service HQs were to move to Islamabad; the Navy was the first to comply, with Naval Headquarters moving from Karachi to Sector E9 Islamabad 1974, while Air Headquarters moved from Peshawar to Sector E10 Islamabad in 1983. Following two failed assassination attempts in Rawalpindi, President Pervez Musharraf restarted plans in 2004 for the entire defence establishment to shift to Sector E10 in Islamabad where the Ministry of Defence along with the four service headquarters would be based; this was subsequently cancelled in 2008 grounds of cost following Musharraf's forced resignation.

The Ministry of Defence is presently located at "Calcutta House" in Rawalpindi. Other related top-level head offices based in Rawalpindi include the Ministry of Defence Production, Joint Staff Headquarters and the Army General Headquarters; the Air Headquarters and the Naval Headquarters are located in Islamabad. The following organizations and services are under the Ministry of Defence: Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee Inter Services Public Relations Inter Services Selection Board National Defence University Strategic Plans Division National Engineering and Scientific Commission Defence Science and Technology Organisation Air Weapons Complex National Defence Complex Kahuta Research Laboratories Military Engineering Services Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate Pakistan Army National Guard Frontier Works Organisation Pakistan Air Force Pakistan Navy Pakistan Marines Maritime Security Agency Pakistan Armed Services Board Military Accounts Department Military Lands and Cantonments Department Survey of Pakistan Many of Pakistan's paramilitary organisations such as the Rangers, GB Scouts, Frontier Corps and Coast Guards although officered and operationally directed by the Pakistan Army are administered and paid for by the Ministry of the Interior.

The Special Communications Organization is administratively part of the Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication but is maintained by Pakistan Army Corps of Signals. It was established in July 1976 with the mission of providing telecommunication services for civil government and the general population in AJK and Gilgit-Baltistan In 2013 the Airports Security Force, Pakistan International Airlines and Civil Aviation Authority were transferred from the MoD to the newly formed Aviation Division of the Cabinet Secretariat. Overseen by a senior civil servant it is answerable to the Prime Minister; the MoD's Defence Production Division was established in 1972 by President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto which absorbed existing facilities such as Pakistan Ordnance Factories as well as overseeing the establishment of enterprises such as Heavy Industries Taxila and Pakistan Aeronautical Complex. In 2004 under President Pervez Musharraf the division was upgraded to a separate Ministry of Defence Production.

Following the establishment of the National Command Authority in February 2000 the Strategic Plans Division


Beneharo was a Guanche king of Menceyato de Anaga on the island of Tenerife. Beneharo made peace in 1492 with Lope de Salazar, sent by the governor of Gran Canaria Francisco Maldonado. After a slave raid shortly after against the Guanches of Anaga, the mencey withdrew its support to the Europeans although after the landing of Alonso Fernández de Lugo renewed the peace with the Castilians. A bronze statue of Beneharo is located in Candelaria with the other menceyes Guanches of Tenerife. José Juan Acosta. Batalla de Acentejo 510 Aniversario de la Batalla de Acentejo: La Derrota de un Imperio Los guanches

Roman River

The Roman River is a river that flows through the English county of Essex. It is a tributary of the River Colne, flowing into its tidal estuary below Colchester; the lower end of the Roman River is tidal, with tidal water flowing upstream to just above Fingringhoe. In the past, the river was important for milling. There was a tide mill at Fingringhoe, used between about 1520 and 1893, when it was replaced by a steam roller mill. Further upstream, Layer de la Haye Mill was a conventional watermill with a longer history, as the first mill on the site was mentioned in the Domesday book, it was a corn mill, but finished its working days grinding product for a mushroom farm, built nearby. There were two further mills on the river; the Roman River has the Birch Hall Brook and Layer Brook. The latter used to supply some of the water for Abberton Reservoir. However, work to extend it began in 2009, water from the upper Layer Brook is now pumped into the reservoir, because its level has been raised by 10.5 feet.

The reservoir is of international importance for wildlife, has several conservation designations to protect its status. The Essex Wildlife Trust operate a visitor centre near the raised dam, which enables visitors to see the large bird populations; the Roman River rises from springs to the west of Great Tey. Three small streams merge, it passes under the railway line from Marks Tey to Chappel and Wakes Colne and another minor road, before reaching a major bridge under both the Great Eastern Main Line and the A12 road to the north of Copford. It turns to the south-east, it is joined by a tributary flowing north-eastwards from Birch, turns again to the east, passing under the B1026 Kings Ford Bridge to the north of Layer de la Haye. The channel widens to form the mill pond for Layer de la Haye watermill. On the south bank is Roman River Valley, a 44-acre nature reserve, managed by the Essex Wildlife Trust. Another minor road crosses the river at Bounstead Bridge; this was known at Brownsford, the first bridge was built around 1563.

After the bridge, the river flows along the southern edge of Friday Wood. This is one of the few remaining sites of unimproved acid grassland in Essex, is notable as the habitat for over 1000 species of moths and butterflies, it is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, forms part of the Roman River SSSI. Layer Brook joins from the south, the outflow from Abberton Reservoir. Just before it reaches the B1025 Manwood Bridge, it has descended to a level. Beyond the bridge is Donyland Wood a separate SSSI, but now part of the Roman River SSSI. Together, the two areas of woodland cover 680.90 acres. The river meanders to the east; the present bridge was built in 1923, but replaced an earlier structure, as there has been a bridge at the site since at least 1875. Having passed under Fingringhoe Mill, the river turns towards the north-east, joins the River Colne opposite Wivenhoe; the main tributary of the Roman River is Layer Brook. This rises near Tiptree Heath, close to the 160-foot contour, passes under a minor road and the B1023 on the northern edge of Tolleshunt Knights.

It continues to the north east, at Layer Marney, turns to the south east, flowing over a weir to enter Abberton Reservoir. A weir and bridge allow the water from the first section of the reservoir to flow under the Layer Breton causeway into the second section. In December 2009, a contract was awarded to raise the level of the main section by 10.5 feet. This increased the surface area of the reservoir from 1.8 square miles to 2.5 square miles, involved moving the B1026 road to the north of the second causeway further to the west. Water can no longer move from the west of the reconstructed causeway into the main reservoir by gravity, a pumping station was constructed in its centre to achieve this; the reservoir is of international importance for wildlife, is an SSSI, a designated Ramsar site in recognition of its wetland status, a Special Protection Area in order to safeguard its habitats for migratory birds. The expansion project included the construction of a new visitor centre, run by Essex Wildlife Trust, enables visitors to see some of the 40,000 birds that visit the site annually.

The Layer Brook resumes after the dam at the north-eastern corner of the reservoir, joins the Roman River after passing under the road that runs from Layer de la Haye to the village of Abberton. Fingringhoe Mill was a tide mill; the present building dates from the late 18th or early 19th centuries, is timber-framed, with two storeys and weatherboard cladding. From 1952 it was covered externally in asbestos sheeting, it was Grade II listed, despite being hidden from view. The first mill on the site was built in 1520 or 1531; the incoming tide filled the pool behind the mill, as the tide dropped, the water was fed along a mill race to drive a large breastshot waterwheel. Milling could take place for up to eight hours per tide; the tide mill was rebuilt in 1750, but in 1893, a steam roller mill was erected, use of the tide mill ceased. The mill was used to grind flour, but this ceased as a condition of the sale when the mill was sold in 1931. Subsequently, it was used to produce animal feedstuffs steam-cooked barley and oats.

The mill burnt down in 1936, when the oil generators caught fire, but was rebuilt in corrugated iron sheeting, became electrically powered. The tide mill was used in 1942 during an extended power cut, but the w

Julio César Chávez vs. Meldrick Taylor

The world championship bout held on March 17, 1990 between WBC world champion Julio César Chávez of Mexico and IBF world champion Meldrick Taylor of the United States, both at light welterweight, was a historic event in professional boxing. It was titled "Thunder Meets Lightning" as an allusion to the punching power of Chávez and fast handspeed of Taylor; the fight was expected to be a rousing and exciting one but few, if any, could have foreseen the intense action it would produce, or the lasting fame it would earn in boxing history due to its dramatic and controversial ending that continues to be debated to this day. It would be named The Ring magazine's Fight of the Year for 1990, the "Fight of the Decade" for the 1990s. From the mid 80s until early 1990 much of the attention given to boxing by the casual fan, was devoted to Mike Tyson; this served to overshadow a number of emerging stars in the lower weight classes. However, after Tyson lost to Buster Douglas in February 1990, it would give other bouts and fighters a new chance to shine.

As Chávez-Taylor took place only a month it was one of the first bouts to benefit from this. The fact that both Chávez and Taylor were undefeated champions with vastly different personalities and fighting styles did nothing to diminish the pre-fight hype, intense. Julio César Chávez was a legend in the making in his native Mexico. A three-time world champion in the Jr. Lightweight, Lightweight and Jr. Welterweight divisions, he brought an impressive undefeated record of 68–0 with 55 wins by knockout; that undefeated streak was the longest in nearly 80 years. In many ways Chávez was the epitome of the "Mexican" style of boxing: He patiently but relentlessly stalked and closed in on the other fighter, ignoring whatever punishment he took for the chance to dish out his own at close range in the form of a crunching body attack that would either wear down his opponents until they collapsed in pain and exhaustion, or became too tired to defend as Chávez shifted his attack to the head and went for a knockout.

Meldrick Taylor was nearly a polar opposite to the methodical Chávez. Taylor was gifted with astounding hand and foot speed and had won an Olympic gold medal at just 17 as a member of the 1984 boxing team, which featured future legends such as Evander Holyfield and Pernell Whitaker. Taylor's rise through the professional ranks was quick, as his speed and reflexes proved to be nearly impossible for his foes to counter, his greatest weakness seemed not to be physical but in his attitude, because despite his relative lack of punching power Taylor had proven to be more than willing to brawl with his opponents, giving them opportunities to hit him that they might not have had otherwise. Taylor's brilliant hand and foot speed and boxing abilities gave him the early advantage, allowing him to begin building a large lead on points, he hit Chávez with dazzling combinations and danced around the other man, making it difficult for Chávez, a skilled combination puncher who relied on an accumulation of damage to knock out his foes, to land more than one blow at a time.

However rather than become discouraged Chávez remained relentless in his pursuit of Taylor and due to his greater punching power Chávez made sure that Taylor had to pay a terrible toll in order to win rounds. Coming into the rounds, Taylor was bleeding from the mouth, his entire face was swollen, the bones around his eye socket had been broken, he had swallowed a considerable amount of his own blood, as he grew tired, Taylor was forced into exchanging blows with Chávez, which only gave Chávez a greater chance to cause damage. While there was little doubt that Taylor had solidly won the first three quarters of the fight, the question at hand was whether he would survive the final quarter after the end of the 11th round when Taylor was so dazed that he nearly went into Chávez' corner between rounds, until referee Richard Steele directed him back to his own. Going into the final round, Taylor held a secure lead on the scorecards of two of the three judges, the sense for everyone watching was that Chávez would have to knock Taylor out to claim a victory, whereas Taylor needed to stay away from the Mexican legend.

However, in a strange scene between rounds, Taylor's trainer Lou Duva told him that he needed to win the final round, as a result Taylor did not stay away, but continued to trade blows with Chávez. As he did so, Taylor showed signs of extreme exhaustion, which included staggering around the ring, visibly wobbling as he moved and at one point he fell to the canvas after missing Chávez with a wild left, but regardless of that, every tick of the clock brought Taylor closer to victory unless Chávez could knock him out. With about a minute left in the round, Chávez hit Taylor squarely with several hard punches, Taylor responded by mockingly feigning weakness, but Chávez was not convinced by Taylor's bravado and stayed on the attack, continuing to hit Taylor with well-placed shots. With about 25 seconds to go, Chávez landed a hard right hand that caused Taylor to stagger forward towards a corner, forcing Chávez back ahead of him. Chávez stepped around Taylor, positioning him so that Taylor was trapped in the corner, with no way to escape from Chávez' desperate final flurry.

Chávez nailed Taylor with a tremendous right hand that dropped the younger man. By using the ring ropes to pull himself up, Taylor managed to return to his feet and was given the mandatory 8-count. Referee Richard Steele asked Taylor twice if he was able to continue fighting, but Taylor failed to answer. Steel

Kevin Bond Allen

Kevin Bond Allen is a bishop in the Anglican Church in North America. He was consecrated in September 2011 after being elected the first bishop of the Diocese of Cascadia, he serves concurrently as rector of St. Brendan's Anglican Church in Washington. Allen grew up in Kitsap County, where he graduated from Central Kitsap High School, he pursued undergraduate and graduate studies at Pacific Lutheran University, Seattle University, General Theological Seminary, Ridley Hall. He has served as a lay missioner in London, pastor of an Episcopal parish in Cambodia, university pastor, a missionary to Bangladesh through the United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Prior to 2008, he was rector of Bellingham, in the Diocese of Olympia. In March 2008, Allen was installed as the first full-time rector of St. Brendan's. Allen was elected Cascadia's first bishop at the diocesan synod meeting on June 25, 2011. and consecrated on September 30, 2011 by Archbishop Robert Duncan of the Anglican Church in North America