Amaterasu, Amaterasu-ōmikami, or Ōhirume-no-muchi-no-kami is a deity of the Japanese myth cycle and a major deity of the Shinto religion. She is seen as the goddess of the universe; the name Amaterasu is derived from Amateru and means "shining in heaven". The meaning of her whole name, Amaterasu-ōmikami, is "the great august kami who shines in the heaven". According to the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles in Japanese mythology, the Emperors of Japan are considered to be direct descendants of Amaterasu. Records of the worship of Amaterasu are found from the c. 712 CE Kojiki and c. 720 CE Nihon Shoki, the oldest records of Japanese history. In Japanese mythology, the goddess of the sun, is the sister of Susanoo, the god of storms and the sea, of Tsukuyomi, the god of the moon, it was written that Amaterasu had painted the landscape with her siblings while she created ancient Japan. Amaterasu was said to have been created by the divine couple Izanagi and Izanami, who were themselves created by, or grew from, the originator of the universe, Amenominakanushi.
All three deities were born from Izanagi when he was purifying himself upon entering Yomi, the underworld, after breaking the promise not to see dead Izanami and he was chased by her and Yakusan-no-ikaduchigami, surrounding rotten Izanami. Amaterasu was born when Izanagi washed out his left eye, Tsukuyomi was born from the washing of the right eye, Susanoo from the washing of the nose. Amaterasu became the ruler of the sun and the heavens along with her brother, Tsukuyomi as the ruler of the night, Susanoo as the ruler of the seas. Amaterasu shared the sky with Tsukuyomi, her husband and younger brother until, out of disgust, he killed the goddess of food, Uke Mochi, when she pulled "food from her rectum and mouth"; this killing upset Amaterasu causing her to split away from him. The texts tell of a long-standing rivalry between Amaterasu and her other brother, Susanoo. Susanoo is said to have insulted claiming she had no power over the higher realm; when Izanagi ordered him to leave Heaven, he went to bid his sister goodbye.
Amaterasu was suspicious, but when Susanoo proposed a challenge to prove his sincerity, she accepted. Each of them took an object belonging from it, birthed deities. Amaterasu birthed three female deities from Susanoo's sword while he birthed five male deities from her necklace. Claiming the gods were hers because they were born of her necklace, the goddesses were his, she decided that she had won the challenge, as his item produced women. After Susanoo's defeat he went on a rampage destroying much of the heavenly and earthly realm, including Amaterasu's rice fields. Amaterasu, in fury and grief, hid inside the Ama-no-Iwato, plunging the earth into darkness and chaos, she was persuaded to leave the cave. Omoikane threw a party outside of the Ama-no-Iwato to lure Amaterasu out but it was not until the Goddess Ame-no-Uzume danced promiscuously outside of the cave that Amaterasu came out. Susanoo was punished by being banished from heaven. Both amended their conflict when Susanoo gave her the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi sword as a reconciliation gift.
According to legend, responsible from keeping balance and harmony within the earthly realm, bequeathed to her descendant Ninigi: the mirror, Yata no Kagami. Collectively, the sacred mirror and sword became the three Imperial Regalia of Japan; the Ise Grand Shrine located in Ise, Mie Prefecture, houses the inner shrine, dedicated to Amaterasu. Her sacred mirror, Yata no Kagami, is said to be kept at this shrine as one of the Imperial regalia objects. A ceremony known as Shikinen Sengū is held every twenty years at this shrine to honor the many deities enshrined, formed by 125 shrines altogether. New shrine buildings are built at a location adjacent to the site first. After the transfer of the object of worship, new clothing and treasure and offering food to the goddess the old buildings are taken apart; the building materials taken apart are given to buildings to renovate. This practice is a part of the Shinto faith and has been practiced since the year 690 CE, but is not only for Amaterasu but for many other deities enshrined in Ise Grand Shrine.
Additionally, from the late 7th century to the 14th century, an unmarried princess of the Imperial Family, called "Saiō" or itsuki no miko, served as the sacred priestess of Amaterasu at the Ise Shrine upon every new dynasty. The Amanoiwato Shrine in Takachiho, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan is dedicated to Amaterasu and sits above the gorge containing Ama-no-Iwato; the worship of Amaterasu to the exclusion of other kami has been described as "the cult of the sun." This phrase may refer to the early pre-archipelagoan worship of the sun. According to the Engishiki and Sandai Jitsuroku of the Heian period, the sun goddess had many shrines named "Amateru" or "Amateru-mitama", which were located in the Kinki area. However, there have been records of a shrine on Tsushima Island, coined as either "Teruhi Gongen," or the "Shining Sun Deity" during medieval times, it was found that such a shrine was meant for a male sun deity named Ameno-himitama. Amaterasu was once worshiped at Hinokuma Shrines; the Hinokuma shrines were used to worship the goddess by the Ama people in the Kii Provinces.
Because the Ama people were believed to have been fishermen, researchers
Goddess in Progress is a 1984 EP by Julie Brown, released on Rhino Records on 12" vinyl and cassette. The two tracks on side one first appeared on Brown's independently released 1983 single "I Like'Em Big And Stupid". Side One Side Two In late 2007 Brown re-released it on CD format, she included six unreleased tracks recorded between 1984 and 1987. The cover art was a altered version of the original. Track listing: Will I Make It Through The Eighties 2:47 ‘Cause I’m A Blond 2:19 I Like'em Big and Stupid 2:44 The Homecoming Queen's Got a Gun 4:46 Earth Girls Are Easy 4:52 Too Much Girl 3:28 Call Me For A Good Time 3:44 Back In The Back Seat 3:20 Surf’s Up, So What 1:46 Fallin’ 3:02 Kiss & Tell 2:35 The back of the album cover is designed to look like a newspaper front page
Women are under-represented in the academic and professional fields of engineering, however many females have contributed to the diverse fields of engineering and currently. A number of organizations and programs have been created to understand and overcome this tradition of gender disparity; some have decried this gender gap. Though the gender gap as a whole is narrowing, there is still a growing gap with minority women compared to their white counterparts. Gender stereotypes, low rates of female engineering students, engineering culture are factors that contribute to the current situation where men are dominated in the engineering field; the history of women as designers and builders of machines and structures predates the development of engineering as a trade. Prior to the creation of the term "engineer" in the 11th century, women had contributed to the technological advancement of societies around the globe. By the 19th century, women who participated in engineering work had academic training in mathematics or science.
Ada Lovelace was schooled in mathematics before beginning her collaboration with Charles Babbage on his analytical engine that would earn her the designation of the "first computer programmer." In the early years of the 20th century, greater numbers of women began to be admitted to engineering programs, but they were looked upon as anomalies by the men in their departments. The first University to award an engineering's bachelor's degree for women was University of California, Berkeley. Elizabeth Bragg was the recipient of a bachelor's degree in civil engineering in 1876, becoming the first female engineer in the United States. Prior to the 19th century, it was rare for women to earn bachelor's degree in any field because they did not have the opportunity to enroll in universities due to gender disparities; some universities started to admit women to their colleges by the early 1800s and by the mid-1800s they started to admit them into all academic programs including engineering. In the United States, the entry into World War II created a serious shortage of engineering talent, as men were drafted into the armed forces.
To address the shortage, initiatives like GE on-the-job engineering training for women with degrees in mathematics and physics and the Curtiss-Wright Engineering Program among others created new opportunities for women in engineering. Curtiss-Wright partnered with Cornell, Penn State, the University of Minnesota, the University of Texas, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Iowa State University to create an engineering curriculum that lasted ten months and focused on aircraft design and production. During this time, there were few public attacks on female engineers. Chiefly, these attacks were kept quiet inside institutions due to the fact that women did not pressure aggressively to shift the gender gap between men and women in the engineering field. Another reason why these “attacks” were kept private is due to how men believed that it was impossible for engineering to stop being a male-dominated field. Women's roles in the workforce in engineering fields, changed during the Post–World War II period.
As women started to marry at ages, have fewer children, divorce more and stopped depending on male breadwinners for economic support, they started to become more active in the engineering labor force despite the fact that their salaries were less than men's. Women played a crucial role in programming the ENIAC from its construction during the World War II period through the next several decades. Recruited by the Army in 1943, female ENIAC programmers made considerable advancements in programming techniques, such as the invention of breakpoints, now a standard debugging tool. In addition to the wartime shortage of engineers, the number of women in engineering fields grew due to the gradual increase of public universities admitting female students. For example, Georgia Tech began to admit women engineering students in 1952, while the École Polytechnique in Paris, a premier French engineering institution, began to admit female students in 1972; as a result gender stereotypical roles have changed due to industrialization resolution.
Stereotype threat may contribute to the under-representation of women in engineering. Because engineering is a traditionally male-dominated field, women may be less confident about their abilities when performing equally. At a young age, girls do not express the same level of interest in engineering as boys due in part to gender stereotypes. There is significant evidence of the remaining presence of implicit bias against female engineers, due to the belief that men are mathematically superior and better suited to engineering jobs; the Implicit Association Test shows that people subconsciously connect men with science and women with art, according to the results from over half a million people around the world between 1998 and 2010. This unconscious stereotype has negative impact on the performance for women. Women who persist are able to overcome these difficulties, enabling them to find fulfilling and rewarding experiences in the engineering profession. Due to this gender bias, women's choice in entering an engineering field for college is highly correlated to the background and exposure they have had with mathematics and other science courses during high school.
Most women that do choose to study engineering regard themselves as better at these types of courses and as a result, think they are capable of studying in a male-dominated field. Women's self-efficacy is a contributor to the gender stereotype that plays a role in the underrepresentation of women in engineering. Women's ability to think that they c
PRS for Music Limited is the UK's leading collection society, bringing together two collection societies: the Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society and the Performing Right Society. It undertakes collective rights management for musical works on behalf of its 140,000 members. PRS for Music was formed in 1997 following the MCPS-PRS Alliance. In 2009, PRS and MCPS-PRS Alliance became PRS for Music. PRS represents their songwriter and music publisher members’ performing rights, collects royalties on their behalf whenever their music is played or performed publicly. MCPS represents songwriters and music publishers – representing their mechanical rights, collects royalties whenever their music is reproduced as a physical product – this includes CDs, DVDs, digital downloads and broadcast or online. PRS and MCPS are two separate collection societies with PRS running its own operations, providing services to MCPS under the name PRS for Music; the Performing Right Society was founded in 1914 by a group of music publishers, to protect the value of copyright and to help provide an income for composers and music publishers.
At the time, PRS collected fees for live performance from sheet music. PRS was distinct from both the activities of the Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society, founded in 1910, the Phonographic Performance Limited, founded in 1934 by Decca and EMI; the Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society began as Mecolico, the Mechanical Copyright Licenses Company, founded in 1910 in anticipation of the Copyright Act of 1911. Mecolico licensed the mechanical rights within musical works and merged with the Copyright Protection Society in 1924. While Phonographic Performance Limited collected fees for playing gramophone recordings. Another agency, the British Copyright Protection Company or Britico was founded in 1932 by Alphonse Tournier, specialising on collecting royalties in the UK on French and German musical copyright, becoming the British Copyright Protection Association in 1962; this company, started to share computer facilities with PRS in 1970. PRS for Music administers the performance rights and mechanical rights of about 25 million musical works on behalf of its songwriters and publishing members and in 2018 processed over 11.1 trillion uses of music.
PRS for Music licenses and collects royalties for its members' musical works whenever they are publicly performed, or recordings of them are broadcast, streamed online or played in public spaces, both in the UK and globally through its partner network. After operating costs are deducted, the remaining money is distributed to PRS for Music's songwriter and publisher members and to affiliate societies; the principal sources of PRS for Music revenue collection come from. PRS for Music has a number of tariffs for organisations in different sectors. Dependent on their size and the extent to which each premises uses music, whether they are commercial premises or not, as well as other criteria, PRS for Music's tariffs vary. Around 350,000 UK businesses have paid and are licensed to play music under a PRS for Music licence, however some workplaces do not need one: Inpatient and treatment areas in hospitals Medical day centres Residential homes Music used in divine worship Civil wedding ceremonies and partnership ceremonies Lone and home workers.
In 2018, PPL and PRS for Music formed a jointly owned subsidiary, PPL PRS Ltd, to collect all licence fees for public performances. PPL PRS Ltd is based in England. ICE - Global Licensing Hub In July 2015, PRS for Music, Sweden collecting society STIM and German collecting society GEMA announced the completion of a joint venture to launch an integrated multi-territory music licensing and processing hub covering European territories. In November 2015, it was confirmed the new hub would be called ‘ICE’. PRS for Music and PPL joint venture for public performance licensing In February 2016, PRS for Music and PPL, the body who licenses the sound recording of a song, confirmed plans to create a new joint venture for public performance licensing; the new joint venture would focus on servicing all UK public performance licensing customers. The joint venture launched in 2018. Streamfair In July 2015, PRS for Music launched; the campaign focused on four areas, Copyright Legislation, Online Licensing, Promoting the value of music creators and education.
The campaign was supported by acclaimed songwriters and composers including Jimmy Napes, Michael Price, Crispin Hunt, Gary Clark and Debbie Wiseman. Heritage Awards The PRS for Music Heritage Award scheme launched in 2009 with the first award going to Blur. Ceremonial plaques are unveiled to honour the performance birthplaces of legendary bands and songwriters - as well as recognising the network of pubs and live music venues; those honoured include Squeeze, Elton John, Queen and UB40. In May 2016, PRS for Music announced its 2015 financial results, which showed an 8.4% increase in distributions to its songwriter members. The figures for 2016 were announced in May 2017 showing that revenues increased by 10.1% and royalty payments to its members increased to £527.6m. The organisation reported record royalty distributions in 2017, with a payou
West Union Downtown Historic District is a national historic district located at West Union, Doddridge County, West Virginia. It encompasses 27 contributing buildings that include the commercial and civic core of the town, surrounding residential buildings; the district includes a number of buildings representative of popular architectural styles from the late-19th century and early-20th century including Romanesque Revival and Queen Anne. Notable buildings include the Doddridge County Courthouse and Jail, Scott W. Stuart House, Silas P. Smith House, Town Hall, Droppleman Residence, Michel's Pharmacy. Empire Oil Building, Myles Manufacturing Co. Inc.. Located in the district is the separately listed Silas P. Smith Opera House, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003
K. P. Kittappa Pillai was the son of Sangita Kalanidhi Sri K. Ponniah Pillai, a scion of the famous Tanjore Quartet, codifiers of the Bharatanatyam format; those celebrated brothers were born into a nattuvanar family and were trained in music by Sri Muthuswami Dikshitar. They went on to become asthana vidwans in the various South Indian courts. Chinniah took bharathanatyam to the Wodeyar court at Mysore; the brothers codified the basic bharathanatyam adavus, developed the margam as we know it today, composed an impressive number of alarippus, kavituvams, varnams, javalis and tillanas and in brief, transformed both the temple and court presentation of sadir, as this form was known. K. P. Kittappa Pillai began his career as a vocalist having been trained by his own father Sri Ponniah Pillai and flourished in that sphere for some time; as a direct disciple of his maternal grandfather, the veteran Nattuvanar Pandanallur Meenakshi Sundaram Pillai, Kittappa Pillai established himself as a versatile Nattuvanar during the major part of his career.
The Quartet's heritage and expanded by the next eight generations of this family, remains the richest resource for traditional performers of the form to this day. Guru Kittappa Pillai himself was a brilliant musician and choreographer and revived many rare pieces of the original Tanjavur repertoire, producing the first annotated versions in the 1950s, including the Sarabhendra Bhupala Kuravanji and the Navasandhi Kavituvams, he trained several students in India and from abroad, some of whom became prominent performers of the Thanjavur tradition. He was the great-great grandson of one of the Thanjavur Quartets. K. P. Kittappa Pillai was associated as a faculty member in Tamizh Isai College and at Annamalai University, he was honoured with several awards and titles during his lifetime which include: Sangeetha Nataka Academy Award Sangita Kala Acharya, Isai Perarignar Kala Tilakam Kalidas Samman from Govt. of Madhya Pradesh Fellowship of the Central Sangeetha Nataka Academy K. P. Kittappa Pillai has published works relating to the repertoire of his illustrious ancestors, the Tanjore Quartet.
Among his other noteworthy contributions to the field of Bharatanatyam, are several rare dance compositions of the Quartet set to dance and Marathi compositions of Shahji Maharaja of Thanjavur in Bharatanatyam format. Https://archive.is/20130704043711/http://kittappanatyalaya.org/