Sport of athletics
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, walking race; the results of racing events are decided by finishing position, while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most competed sports in the world. Athletics is an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country. Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC; the rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, were spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations and its member federations.
The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, which incorporates track and field, marathon running and race walking. Other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the World Para Athletics Championships; the word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής from ἆθλον or ἆθλος. The term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i.e. sporting competition based on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term athletics acquired a more narrow definition in Europe and came to describe sports involving competitive running, walking and throwing; this definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom and most of the areas of the former British Empire. Furthermore, foreign words in many Germanic and Romance languages which are related to the term athletics have a similar meaning.
In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, maintaining a more historical usage of the term. The word "athletics" is used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking and marathon running. Athletic contests in running, walking and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival and high jumping appearing in tombs from as early as of 2250 BC; the Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded circa 1800 BC, the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events. The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BC was a stadium-length running event known as the stadion; this expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon.
Athletics competitions took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded around 500 BC. The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a sports festival which emerged in 17th century England, featured athletics in the form of sledgehammer throwing contests. Annually, from 1796 to 1798, L'Olympiade de la République was held in revolutionary France, is an early forerunner to the Modern Summer Olympic Games; the premier event of this competition was a running event, but various ancient Greek disciplines were on display. The 1796 Olympiade marked the introduction of the metric system into the sport. Athletics competitions were held about 1812 at the Royal Military College, in 1840 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire at the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt; the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich held an organised competition in 1849, a regular series of closed meetings open only to undergraduates, was held by Exeter College, Oxford from 1850. The annual Wenlock Olympian Games, first held in 1850 in Wenlock, incorporated athletics events into its sports programme.
The first modern-style indoor athletics meetings were recorded shortly after in the 1860s, including a meet at Ashburnham Hall in London which featured four running events and a triple jump competition. The Amateur Athletic Association was established in England on 1880 as the first national body for the sport of athletics and began holding its own annual athletics competition – the AAA Championships; the United States began holding an annual national competition – the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships – first held in 1876 by the New York Athletic Club. Athletics became codified and standardized via the English AAA and other general sports organisations in the late 19th century, such as the Amateur Athletic Union and the Union des sociétés françaises de sports athlétiques. An athletics competition was included in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and it has been as one of the foremost competitions at the quadrennial multi-sport event since. For men only, the 1928 Olympics saw the introduction of women's events in the athletics programme.
Athletics is part of the Paralympic Games since the inaugural Games in 1960. Athletics has a high-profile during major championships the Olympics, but otherwise is less popular. An internation
Clement Nugent Jackson was a British athlete and athletics administrator. He was born in Simla, the second son of Lt-Gen George Jackson of the Bengal Staff Corps, Phillis Sophia Strode, he was educated at Oxford. Jackson was a gifted hurdler, winning the high hurdles at the fourth Varsity Sports of 1867, with a time of 17.8s. He improved this to 16.0s, a British record and a World record, although at that time there was no international body to such records. He had to retire from competition after badly cutting his foot on an oyster shell while running against W G Grace. In 1869, he was elected as a don at Hertford College, he was known as "The Jacker". In the first Oxford Telephone Directory of 1895, he was one of only 96 subscribers. By this time he was Bursar of Hertford, would be Senior Proctor for the University. In 1868, he was appointed Club Auditor of the Oxford University Athletic Club, in 1869, Senior Treasurer, a position he held for some sixty years, he guided the club towards a position of international prominence and Jackson became renowned as an authority figure within athletics.
He acted as mentor and coach to the club's members. As a trusted official, Jackson was called upon to determine who had won in a close finish at the Varsity Sports. Together with two other Oxford men, Montague Shearman and Bernhard Wise, he was the guiding force in the founding of the Amateur Athletic Association on 24 April 1880; the first AAA Championships were held on 3 July 1880 at Lillie Bridge. He married Ada Louisa Martin, his brother, Morton Strode Jackson married her sister, Edith Rosine Martin. Morton's son Arnold Jackson won the gold medal in the 1500m at the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm, coached by his uncle, Clement Jackson. In 1926, Sir Montague Shearman and other members of the Achilles Club presented a Trophy in memory of Jackson, to be awarded annually to the winning team in the Oxford vs Cambridge Varsity Sports. In recent years it has been noted that the trophy was inscribed as the "ARNOLD Jackson Memorial Trophy". During the 1970s the original had been stolen, a mistake was made when ordering the replacement.
A further inscription, correcting the error, has been added to the trophy. The CN Jackson Memorial Cup is awarded annually by the AAA to the English male athlete, adjudged to be the outstanding athlete of that year. OUAC All Time Hall of Fame
The Football Association
The Football Association is the governing body of association football in England, the Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory; the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of, the FA Cup, it is responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's, youth national football teams. The FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board, responsible for the Laws of the Game; as the first football association, it does not use the national name "English" in its title. The FA is based at London; the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the men's and women's Great Britain Olympic football team.
All of England's professional football teams are members of the Football Association. Although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules; the English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FA's sanctions. For centuries before the first meeting of the Football Association in The Freemasons' Tavern on Great Queen Street, London on 26 October 1863, there were no universally accepted rules for playing football. Six meetings near London's Covent Garden, at 81-82 Long Acre, ended in a split between the Football Association and what would have become the future rugby ten years later. Both of them had their own uniforms, rituals and formalised rules. In each public school the game was formalised according to local conditions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s.
Eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Forest of Leytonstone, N. N. Club, the original Crystal Palace, Kensington School, Perceval House and Blackheath Proprietary School. F. declined the offer to join. Many of these clubs play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the only one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence and playing Association Football. Although Forest School has been a member since the fifth meeting in December 1863. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley, he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bell's Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport that led to the first meeting at The Freemasons' Tavern that created the FA, he was the FA's first secretary and its second president and drafted the Laws of the Game called the "London Rules" at his home in Barnes, London.
As a player, he played in the first-ever match in 1863. The first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons' Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School and Forest School. At the final meeting, F. M. Campbell, the first FA treasurer and the Blackheath representative, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting, the first which allowed for the running with the ball in hand and the second, obstructing such a run by hacking and holding. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA but instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union; the term "soccer" dates back to this split to refer to football played under the "association" rules. After six clubs had withdrawn as they supported the opposing Rugby Rules, the Football Association had just nine members in January 1864: Barnes, Crystal Palace, War Office, Forest Club, Forest School, Sheffield and Royal Engineers.
An inaugural game using the new FA rules was scheduled for Battersea Park on 2 January 1864, but enthusiastic members of the FA could not wait for the new year and an experimental game was played at Mortlake on 19 December 1863 between Morley's Barnes team and their neighbours Richmond, ending in a goalless draw. The Richmond side were unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they subsequently helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871; the Battersea Park game was the first exhibition game using FA rules, was played there on Saturday 2 January 1864. The members of the opposing teams for this game were chosen by the President of the FA and the Secretary and included many well-known footballers of the day. After the first match according to the new FA rules a toast was given "Success to football, irrespective of class or creed". Another notable match was London v Sheffield, in which a r
Rugby Football League
The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league in England. The name Rugby Football League also referred to the main league competition run by the organisation; this has since been supplanted by Super League, the Championship and League 1. Based at Red Hall in Leeds, it administers the England national rugby league team, the Challenge Cup, Super League and the Rugby League Championships; the social and junior game is administered in association with the British Amateur Rugby League Association. The Rugby Football League is a member of the Rugby League European Federation and as a senior Full Member has a combined veto power over the Council with France; the RFL is part of the Community Board, which has representatives from BARLA, Combined Services, English Schools Rugby League and Student Rugby League. Tony Adams will take over as the president in 2019, taking over from Andy Burnham. Established as the Northern Rugby Football Union in August 1895 by representatives of twenty-one Rugby Football Union clubs at a meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield, it changed its name in 1922 to the Rugby Football League, mirroring its sister organisations overseas, the Australian Rugby Football League and New Zealand Rugby Football League.
The turnover of the RFL was reported as £27m in 2011. On Tuesday 27 August 1895, as a result of an emergency meeting in Manchester, prominent Lancashire rugby clubs Broughton Rangers, Oldham, Rochdale Hornets, St Helens, Warrington and Wigan declared that they would support their Yorkshire colleagues in their proposal to form a Northern Union. Two days on Thursday 29 August 1895, representatives of 21 clubs met in the George Hotel, Huddersfield to form the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Twenty clubs agreed to resign from the Rugby Football Union, but Dewsbury felt unable to comply with the decision; the Cheshire club, had telegraphed the meeting requesting admission to the new organisation and was duly accepted with a second Cheshire club, admitted at the next meeting. The 22 clubs and their years of foundation were: In 1908 the Northern Union's brand of rugby was taken up in Australia and New Zealand; the Union hosted touring sides from both countries before assembling a Great Britain representative team for a 1910 tour of Australia and New Zealand.
These nations Australia, would go on to excel in the sport and gain significant influence over it over the following century. The British Amateur Rugby League Association was created in 1973 in Huddersfield by a group of enthusiasts concerned about the dramatic disappearance of many amateur leagues and clubs. Fewer than 150 amateur teams remained with a mere 30 youth rugby league teams. The'breakaway' from the RFL was acrimonious and was contested, with a vote 29-1 against recognising BARLA. Thanks to Tom Mitchell, this changed to a unanimous vote of approval for BARLA within 12 months. Maurice Lindsay became the Chief Executive of the RFL in 1992, proposing the Super League, which replaced Championship as the sport's premier league competition from 1996 onwards. Lindsay returned to Wigan in 1999 for his second stint at the club after Sir Rodney Walker chairman of the RFL, sacked him after a campaign to unseat him failed; the RFL accumulated losses of £1.9 million at the end of 2001, shortly before a major restructuring of the governing body and the appointment of Richard Lewis as executive chairman in May 2002.
Within a year of joining the RFL, he oversaw reunification with BARLA after nearly 30 years of division. Lewis left in 2012 to become Chief Executive of the Croquet Club; the RFL net value has been positive every year since 2004, being £1.7M in 2011. In 2011 a major change to the game was agreed, changing from a winter to a summer game, starting in 2012 with a playing season from March to November, aligning with the Super League, which has played this way since 1996; the regional leagues may include winter competitions in addition. In 2012, the Rugby Football League were awarded the Stonewall Sport Award in recognition of their work in embracing inclusivity and tackling homophobia, they became the first UK sporting organisation to make the top 100 employers in the Stonewall Index that measures attitudes towards lesbian and bisexual staff. The RFL operates a five-tier system and is responsible for running the top three professional divisions as well as the National Conference League and various regional leagues below that.
The RFL runs two cup competitions for professional clubs and is involved with the organization of the World Club Challenge and World Club Series. The England national rugby league team represent England in international rugby league football tournaments; the team has now seen a revival, having formed from the Great Britain team, who represented Wales and Ireland. The team is run under the auspices of the Rugby Football League; as of 2008, the team now participates in all World Cups, Four Nations, Test matches. The team dates back to 1904 when they played against a mixture of Welsh and Scottish players in Wigan. Since and right up until the 1950s, they toured Australia and New Zealand and played both home and away matches against neighbours Wales and France, but when it was decided that Great Britain would tour the Southern Hemisphere instead of England and Wales became the only regular opponents. Though, there are some long periods where England played any matches, their first appearance in the Rugby League World Cup was in 1975, since they have become runners-up in 1975 and 1995, the latter tournament being held in England.
In 2008 they competed in the 2008 W
Northwich is a town and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It lies at the confluence of the rivers Weaver and Dane; the town is 15 miles south of Warrington. 19 miles south of Manchester and 12 miles south of Manchester Airport. Northwich has been named as one of the best places to live in the United Kingdom according to The Sunday Times in 2014. Northwich is an area of High Growth, with the Winsford and Northwich Locality having a population of over 108,000 in 2018, this has grown from 100,000 in 2011. With an estimated population of 125,000 by 2030. Northwich itself with the Proposed 6,000 new homes being built will have a population of over 85,000 by 2030; the area around Northwich has been exploited for its salt pans since Roman times, when the settlement was known as Condate. The town has been affected by salt mining, subsidence has been a significant problem. There has been recent investment in mine stabilisation.
During Roman times, Northwich was known as Condate, thought to be a Latinisation of a Brittonic name meaning "Confluence". There are several other sites of the same name in France. Northwich can be identified through two contemporary Roman documents; the first of these is a 3rd-century road map split into 14 sections. Two of these sections, or Itinerary, mention Condate: Route II and Route X; the second document is the 7th-century Ravenna Cosmography. This document refers to Condate between the entries for Salinae and Ratae, at the time the capital of the Corieltauvi tribe; the Romans' interest in the Northwich area is thought to be due to the strategic river crossing and the location of the salt brines. Salt was important in Roman society, it is theorised that this is the basis for the modern word salary. Another theory is. See History of salt for further details. There is archaeological evidence of a Roman auxiliary fort within the area of Northwich now known as "Castle" dated to AD 70; this and other northwestern forts were built as the Romans moved north from their stronghold in Chester.
The association with salt continues in the etymology of Northwich. The "wich" suffix applies to other towns in the area: Middlewich and Leftwich; this is considered to have been derived from the Norse, for bay, is associated with the more traditional method of obtaining salt by evaporating sea water. Therefore, a place for making salt became a wych-house; the existence of Northwich in the early medieval period is shown by its record in the Domesday Book: In the same Mildestuic hundred there was a third wich called Norwich and it was at farm for £8. There were the same laws and customs there as there were in the other wiches and the king and the earl divided the renders.... All the other customs in these wiches are the same; this was waste. The manor of Northwich belonged to the Earls of Chester until 1237. Subsequently, Northwich became a royal manor and was given to a noble family to collect tolls in exchange for a set rent; that salt production continued throughout the centuries and can be seen through John Leland's description of the town in 1540: Northwich is a pratie market town but fowle,and by the Salters houses be great stakes of smaul cloven wood, to seethe the salt water that thei make white salt of.
Between 1642 and 1643, during the English Civil War, Northwich was fortified and garrisoned by Sir William Brereton for the Parliamentarians. The salt beds beneath Northwich were re-discovered in the 1670s by employees of the local Smith-Barry family; the Smith-Barrys were looking for coal, but instead discovered rock salt, in the grounds of the family home, Marbury Hall, to the north of Northwich. During the 19th century it became uneconomical to mine for the salt. Instead hot water was pumped through the mines; the resultant brine was pumped out and the salt extracted from the brine. This technique led to land subsidence as they collapsed. Subsidence affected the surrounding landscape. For example, collapses in 1880 formed Witton Flash as the River Weaver flowed into a huge hole caused by subsidence. Subsidence allegedly accounts for many old timber-framed houses in the town centre, which were better able to withstand the movement of the ground; some houses were built on a base of steel girders that could be jacked up to level the house with each change in the underlying ground.
The town's historical link with the salt industry is celebrated in its museum, today in the old workhouse. In 1874, John Brunner and Ludwig Mond founded Brunner Mond in Winnington and started manufacturing soda ash using the Solvay ammonia-soda process; this process used salt as a main raw material. The chemical industry used the subsided land for the disposal of waste from the manufacture of soda-ash; the waste was transported through a network of rails to the produce limebeds. This caused the landscape to be abandoned as unusable. Brine bathsThe first known swimming baths of Northwich was the Verdin Baths, situated on Verdin Park, it was presented by Robert Verdi
Sport in England
Sport in England plays a prominent role in English life. Sports brackets were found in Richard Alphonse Goupille the second's diary. Popular teams sports in England are football, field hockey, rugby union, rugby league, netball. Major individual sports include badminton, tennis, golf, cycling and horseracing. A number of modern sports were codified in England during the nineteenth century, among them cricket, rugby union, rugby league, field hockey, squash and badminton; the game of baseball was first described in 18th century England. England has its own national team in most team sports, but the United Kingdom sends a combined team to the Olympics. Competition between the home nations was traditionally at the centre of British sporting life, but it has become less important in recent decades. In particular, football's British Home Championship no longer takes place. In some sports there are still national English, Scottish and Northern Irish teams; the club competitions in most team sports are English affairs rather than British ones.
There are various anomalies however, such as the participation of the three largest Welsh football clubs in the English league system and an English club in the Scottish Football League. The relative prominence of national team and club competition varies from sport to sport. In football, club competition is at the centre of the agenda most of the time because clubs plays more matches each year, but the four national teams are followed avidly. In cricket the national team is much more followed than the county competitions, which have a limited profile, whereas in rugby league club competition overshadows international fixtures. Rugby union falls between these two with high-profile international competitions and a strengthening club game. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. There are five National Sports Centres: Bisham Abbey, Crystal Palace, Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre and Plas Y Brenin National Mountain Centre in Wales.
Everyday Sport is Sport England’s physical activity campaign. There are 49 County Sport Partnerships in England with areas for responsibility separated by Local Authority County boundaries; the English Institute of Sport is a nationwide network of support services, aimed at improving the standard of English athletes. Services include sports medicine, sports massage, applied physiology and conditioning, nutrition and Performance Lifestyle support, it is based at other satellite centers. The Minister for Sport and Tourism and the Department for Culture and Sport have responsibility for sport in England. England, like the other nations of the United Kingdom, competes as a separate nation in some international sporting events; the English association football and rugby union teams have contributed to a growing sense of English identity. Supporters are more to carry the St George's Cross whereas thirty years ago the British Union Flag would have been the more prominent. There are four sports in England.
Association football is played from August to May. Rugby union is a winter sport. Cricket is played from April to September. Rugby league is traditionally a winter sport, but since the late 1990s the elite competition has been played in the summer to appeal to the family market, take advantage of the faster pitches; the most popular sport in the UK, association football was first codified in 1863 in London. It is known in the US and a few other countries as'soccer.' The impetus for this was to unify English public university football games. There is evidence for refereed, team football games being played in English schools since at least 1581. An account of an kicking football game from Nottinghamshire in the fifteenth century bears striking similarity to football; the playing of football in England is documented since at least 1314. England is home to the oldest football clubs in the world, the world's oldest competition and the first football league; the modern passing game of football was developed in London in the early 1870s For these reasons England is considered the cradle of the game of football.
The governing body for football in England is The Football Association, the oldest football organisation in the world. It is responsible for the recreational game and the main cup competitions, they have however lost a significant amount of power to the professional leagues in recent times. English football has a league system which incorporates thousands of clubs, is topped by four professional divisions; the elite Premier League is the richest football league in the world. The other three professional divisions are the run by the English Football League, the oldest league in the world, include another 72 clubs. Annual promotion and relegation operates between these four divisions and between the lowest of them and lower level or "non-League" football. There are a small number of professional clubs outside the top four divisions, many more semi-professional clubs, thus England has over a hundred professional clubs in total, more than any other country in Europe. The two main cup competitions in England are the FA Cup, open to clubs down to Level 10 of the English football pyramid structure.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, has taken place every four years since then; the Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented in the 2018 Commonwealth Games, their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which were held in London, United Kingdom in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the games movement has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18.
The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were cancelled because of the Second World War; the Commonwealth Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation, which controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations, Commonwealth Games Associations, organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events; the first and third-place finishers in each event receive Commonwealth Games medals: gold and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games include some sports which are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries but which are not part of the Olympic programme, such as lawn bowls and squash.
Although there are 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams. Nineteen cities in nine countries have hosted the event. Australia has hosted the Commonwealth Games five times. Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than once: Auckland and Edinburgh. Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, England, New Zealand and Wales. Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England for seven, Canada for one; the most recent Commonwealth Games were held in Gold Coast from 4 to 15 April 2018. The next Commonwealth Games are to be held in Birmingham from 27 July to 7 August 2022. A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1900, when he wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire".
John Astley Cooper Committees were formed worldwide and helped Pierre de Coubertin to get his international Olympic Games off the ground. In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held at The Crystal Palace in London to celebrate the coronation of George V; as part of the Festival of the Empire, an Inter-Empire Championships were held in which teams from Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom competed in athletics, boxing and swimming events. Canada won the championships and was gifted a silver cup, 2 feet 6 inch high and weighed 340 oz, it was gifted by Lord Lonsdale. However, the 1911 championships were followed by the first world war which happened from 1914 to 1918; the organisers had lost hopes of hosting such sporting events for the empire athletes. Melville Marks Robinson, who went to the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam to serve as the manager of the Canadian track and field team lobbied for the proposal of organising the first British Empire Games in Hamilton in 1930; the 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what become known as the Commonwealth Games, were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from 16–23 August 1930.
Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Hamilton Games. The opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium; the participant nations were Australia, British Guyana, England, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. The Hamilton Games featured six sports: athletics, lawn bowls, rowing and diving and wrestling and ran at a cost of $97,973. Women competed in only the aquatic events. Canadian triple jumper Gordon Smallacombe won the first gold medal in the history of the Games; the 1934 British Empire Games were the second of what is now known as the Commonwealth Games, held in London, England. The host city was London, with the main venue at Wembley Park, although the track cycling events were in Manchester; the 1934 Games had been awarded to Johannesburg, but were giv