The Amateur Athletic Union is an amateur sports organization based in the United States. A multi-sport organization, the AAU is dedicated to the promotion and development of amateur sports and physical fitness programs, it has more than 700,000 members nationwide, including more than 100,000 volunteers. The AAU was founded on January 21, 1888, by James E. Sullivan with the goal of creating common standards in amateur sport. Since most national championships for youth athletes in the United States have taken place under AAU leadership. From its founding as a publicly supported organization, the AAU has represented U. S. sports within the various international sports federations. The AAU worked with the United States Olympic Committee to prepare U. S. athletes for the Olympic Games. As part of this, the AAU Junior Olympic Games were introduced in 1949, with athletes aged 8 to 16 years, or older in certain sports, being able to participate. Many future World and Olympic champions have appeared in these events, which are still held every year.
In the 1970s, the AAU received growing criticism. Many claimed. Women were banned from participating in certain competitions and some runners were locked out. There were problems with sporting goods that did not meet the standards of the AAU. During this time, the Olympic Sports Act of 1978 organized the United States Olympic Committee and saw the re-establishment of independent associations for the Olympic sports, referred to as national governing bodies; the rise of professionalism in all sports in the latter half of the 20th century hurt the AAU's viability. As a result, the AAU lost its influence and importance in international sports, focused on the support and promotion of predominantly youthful athletes, as well as on the organization of national sports events; the AAU was founded in 1888 by William Buckingham Curtis to establish standards and uniformity in amateur sports. During its early years the AAU served as a leader in international sport representing the United States in the international sports federations.
The AAU worked with the Olympic movement to prepare athletes for the Olympic Games. After the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 broke up the AAU's responsibility as the national Olympic sports governing body, the AAU focused on providing sports programs for all participants of all ages beginning at the local and regional levels; the philosophy of the AAU is "Sports for All, Forever." In 1923 the AAU sponsored the First American Field championships for women. The AAU is divided into 56 distinct district associations, which annually sanction 34 sports programs, 250 national championships, over 30,000 age division events; the AAU events have over 50,000 volunteers. The Amateur Sports Act of 1978 was precipitated by grumblings of the inefficiency of the AAU to manage the multitude of sports at the Olympic level. USA Gymnastics was formed as a feeder program in 1963 as a response to perceived poor performance by the American performers in the Olympics and at World Championships; the USWF was formed in 1968 as an effort to take wrestling as an independent governing body.
Their position was supported when FILA the world governing body refused to accept membership of "umbrella" sports organizations like the AAU. After years of grumbling by athletes, the International Track Association was formed after the 1972 Olympics to provide track and field athletes an opportunity to make money from their sporting efforts. Participants in the professional league were "banned for life" from the Olympics and their record-breaking performances were never accepted. In the early 1970s, the AAU became the subject of criticism, notably by outspoken track star Steve Prefontaine, over the living conditions for amateur athletes under the AAU, as well as rules that were perceived to be arbitrary. Congress adopted the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 in response to such criticisms removing the organization from any governance role; the AAU now continues as a voluntary organization promoting youth sports. In 2008, The AAU found itself under scrutiny over the privacy of information of athletes.
A local news station near the AAU Headquarters found boxes of personal information thrown out in dumpsters, raising questions about the organization's handling of private data. In 2015, Kobe Bryant criticized the AAU, describing it as "Horrible, terrible AAU basketball. It's stupid, it doesn't teach our kids how to play the game at all so you wind up having players that are big and they bring it up and they do all this fancy crap and they don't know how to post. They don't know the fundamentals of the game. It's stupid." Kobe, who moved to Italy at age 6 because of his father playing basketball there, stated that the AAU has been "treating like cash cows for everyone to profit off of". Steve Kerr has spoken out against the AAU, stating that the AAU's structure devalues winning, with many teams playing about as many as four times a day and some players changing teams as early as from one morning to an afternoon the same day. Kerr states that "The process of growing as a team basketball player — learning how to become part of a whole, how to fit into something bigger than oneself — becomes lost within the AAU fabric."In the wake of sexual scandals that hit two U.
S. universities, Penn State and Syracuse, involving acts of sexual abuse with children, charges have reached the AAU in Memphis, through the alleged misconduct of President Robert W. "Bobby" Dodd. In 2016, the AAU was sued for allowing Rick Butler, a youth volleyball coach accused of sexually abusing his players in the past, coach an under-18 team in the
Santa Cruz River is a river in the Argentine province of Santa Cruz. The Santa Cruz begins at the shore of the Viedma and Argentino Lakes, of glacial origin and located in the Los Glaciares National Park, runs 385 kilometres eastwards before reaching the Atlantic Coast, 350 kilometres north of the southern tip of South America, creating a delta, it is one of the last large free-flowing rivers in Patagonia. The river has an important flow of 790 m3 on average, is used for irrigation. Two dams are planned for the Jorge Cepernic and Nestor Kirchner Dams, they will have a combined installed capacity of 1,740 MW. Contracts to construct the dams were awarded to a consortium of Chinese and domestic companies in August 2013, it is estimated. Santa Cruz River was discovered by Europeans during Magellan's circumnavigation of the Earth, by Juan Serrano, captain of the Santiago, one of the ships of the Magellan fleet, by August 5, 1520. After learning of the favourable conditions that Serrano found at Santa Cruz, Ferdinand Magellan decided to move the fleet there from St. Julian, where they had stopped to overwinter, around August 24.
They would spend six weeks at Santa Cruz before resuming their search for the strait that would link the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, now called the Magellan Strait. On April 13, 1834, HMS Beagle anchored in the mouth of the river to begin an expedition up the river as part of its survey voyage. Three boats set out on April 18, carrying twenty-five men, including Captain Robert Fitz Roy and naturalist Charles Darwin. All involved took turn in teams dragging the boats up river for 16 days. Darwin took careful note of everything, including the terrain around the river the flora and fauna of the region, the geology exposed as the river cut through the plains. April 22nd. -- The country remained the same, was uninteresting. The complete similarity of the productions throughout Patagonia is one of its most striking characters; the level plains of arid shingle support dwarf plants. Everywhere we see the same insects; the banks of the river and of the clear streamlets which entered it, were scarcely enlivened by a brighter tint of green.
The curse of sterility is on the land, the water flowing over a bed of pebbles partakes of the same curse. Hence the number of waterfowl is scanty. Captain Robert Fitz Roy had given Darwin a book by Charles Lyell on Principles of Geology which used the paradym that the key to the past is the present and that led to the interpretation of present geology in the light of slow and gradual processes. Being convinced such a valley could only be cut by seas over long ages and such a valley should cut through the continent connecting Atlantic and Pacific, Darwin prevailed upon HMS Beagle to have an expedition down the Santa Cruz river for 100 miles. In his Journal of researches, p. 218, Darwin criticised former geologists who, in trying to explain the erosion of the lava and other rocks of the valley, "....would have brought into play, the violent action of some overwhelming debacle. No possible action of any flood could have thus modelled the land in these two situations, he was wrong. The expedition ended due to fast water and turned around, had they gone a bit further they would have discovered the true cause of the river valley to be a glacial lake at the foot of the mountain.
This he would never discover and clung to the conclusions demanded by his presuppositions. May 4th. -- Captain Fitz Roy determined to take the boat no higher. The river had a winding course, was ver rapid. Everywhere we met with the same productions, the same dreary landscape. We wer now one hundred and forty miles distant from the Atlantic and about sixty from the nearest arm of the Pacific; the valley in this upper part expanded into a wide basin, bounde on the north and south by the basaltic platforms, fronte by the long range of the snow-clad Cordillera. But w viewed these grand mountains with regret, for we wer obliged to imagine their nature and productions, instead o standing, as we had hoped, on their summits. Besides the useless loss of time which an attempt to ascend the river an higher would have cost us, we had been for som days on half allowance of bread. This, although reall enough for reasonable men, after a hard day's march rather scanty food: a light stomach and an easy digestio are good things to talk about, but unpleasant in practice 5th.
-- Before sunrise we commenced our descent. W shot down the stream with great rapidity at the rate of ten knots an hour. In this one day we effected wha had cost us five-and-a-half hard days' labour in ascending On the 8th, we reached the Beagle after our twenty-one days expedition; every one, excepting myself, had cause to b dissatisfied. The river valley cut through 91 metr
In 1995, it was estimated that there were 50,000 people of Cape Verdean descent or national origin in Portugal. By 2000, this estimation rose to 83,000 people, of which 90% resided in Greater Lisbon." In 2008, Portugal’s National Statistics Institute estimated that there were 68,145 Cape Verdeans who resided in Portugal. This made up "15.7% of all foreign nationals living in the country." Germano Almeida writer Ângela Maria Fonseca Spínola Cláudio Aguiar Jorge Andrade Hernâni Borges Nelson Évora Arlindo Gomes Semedo José Gonçalves Sara Tavares Néné da Luz Nélson Marcos Sandro Mendes Vítor Moreno Nani Nilton Fernandes Pedro Pelé Rolando Manuel Estêvão Sanches Ernesto da Conceição Soares Marco Soares Edson Rolando Silva Sousa José Veiga Nélson Veiga João Gomes, basketball player Lura singer Oceano da Cruz Renato Sanches Central Intelligence Agency. "Portugal." The World Factbook. Retrieved October 18, 2007
The Isotta Fraschini V.5 of 1916 was an Italian eight-cylinder, water-cooled, in-line piston aero engine of World War I. The "V" denoted "Volo" or "flight" rather than piston arrangement; the V.5's construction was typical of aircraft engines of the period with cast-iron cylinders mounted in pairs with common heads and water jackets. It was built at a similar time. Though powerful, it was heavy and thus, like some other Isotta Fraschini engines, better suited to airships than aircraft. Forlanini airship Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War I Type: 8-cylinder inline Bore: 130 mm Stroke: 180 mm Displacement: 19 L Length: 1,990 mm Width: 600 mm Height: 1,010 mm Dry weight: 351 kg Valvetrain: Overhead camshaft Fuel system: Twin carburettors, twin eight spark magnetos Oil system: Forced feed Cooling system: water.
NorthWood High School is a high school located in Nappanee, United States. It is a part of the Wa-Nee Community School System, shared with Wakarusa. In the 2016–17 school year, total enrollment was 883 students. In the 2016-17 school year the ethnicity breakdown was: White - 85.5% Hispanic - 8.8% Black - 1.0% Asian - 1.6% Multi-racial - 2.9% NorthWood High School's mascot is the panther and its colors are red and black. The school competes in the Northern Lakes Conference along with Concord, Elkhart Memorial, Northridge, Wawasee and Warsaw. NorthWood's football team was state champion in 2005. List of high schools in Indiana
Riho Sayashi is a Japanese pop singer under Hello! Project, she is a former ninth generation member of the Japanese pop group Morning Musume, along with Mizuki Fukumura, Erina Ikuta, Kanon Suzuki. Her uncle, Tomoya Sayashi, is a former Japanese baseball player of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp of Japan's Central League, she is a former member of the duo Peaberry. In 2019 she became a touring member of Babymetal, including their performance at Glastonbury Festival 2019. Prior to joining Morning Musume, Sayashi was a member of ASH whose graduates include Suzuka Nakamoto, Himeka Nakamoto, Ruru Dambara. Sayashi was one of the winners of the Jc&Jk actress audition and got a chance to perform in Morning Musume's Fashionable stage play. Sayashi passed Morning Musume's ninth generation auditions, along with Erina Ikuta, Kanon Suzuki, former Hello! Pro Egg Mizuki Fukumura; the ninth generation members debuted in Morning Musume January 2, at the Hello! Project 2011 WINTER ~Kangei Shinsen Matsuri~ concert. Sayashi's first single with Morning Musume is titled "Maji Desu ka Ska!".
On March 27, 2011, it was announced Sayashi would be replacing Erina Mano for the radio show Mano Deli, renaming it Riho Deli. Sayashi was the only ninth generation member to receive solo lines in "Only You". On July 29, 2011 Sayashi was out of events for a few weeks to rest due to ischium nerve pain on her right side. In July 2012, it was announced that Sayashi will be part of the new Hello! Project duo Peaberry, along with S/mileage's Ayaka Wada, that they would perform their original song "Cabbage Hakusho" at the Hello! Project summer concerts, they were formed alongside the group DIY♡ to be part of Hello! SATOYAMA Life. On October 29, 2015, it was announced that Sayashi will graduate from Morning Musume'15 on December 31, 2015 during the annual Hello! Project Countdown Live. On December 29, 2015, Morning Musume'15 released their 60th single. On December 31, 2015, Sayashi graduated from Morning Musume and is now an artist under Hello! Project. On December 7, 2018, it was that announced her contract with UP-FRONT PROMOTION had ended and she subsequently graduated from Hello!
Project at the end of November 2018 After a 3 year and 3 month hiatus, Sayashi re-appeared to the public at Hello! Project 20th Anniversary!! Hello! Project Hina Fes 2019 on March 30, she made a guest appearance at the event and performed with several current and former Morning Musume members. On June 28, Sayashi appeared as a support dancer for the kawaii metal group Babymetal on the "Babymetal Awakens -The Sun Also Rises-" concert in Yokohama Arena. Two days on June 30, she appeared with them at the prestigious Glastonbury Festival, in the same capacity as they became the first Japanese band to perform on a main stage at the festival. Morning Musume Hello! Project Mobekimasu Peaberry Morning Musume"Maji Desu ka Ska!" "Only You" "Kono Chikyū no Heiwa o Honki de Negatterun Da yo! / Kare to Issho ni Omise ga Shitai!" "Pyoco Pyoco Ultra" "Ren'ai Hunter" "One Two Three / The Matenrō Show" "Wakuteka Take a Chance" "Help Me!!" "Brainstorming / Kimi Sae Ireba Nani mo Iranai" "Wagamama Ki no Mama Ai no Joke / Ai no Gundan" "Egao no Kimi wa Taiyō sa / Kimi no Kawari wa Iyashinai / What is Love?"
"Toki o Koe Sora o Koe / Password is 0" "Tiki Bun / Shabadaba Dū / Mikaeri Bijin" "Seishun Kozo ga Naiteiru / Yūgure wa Ameagari / Ima Koko Kara" "Oh My Wish! / Sukatto My Heart / Ima Sugu Tobikomu Yūki" "Tsumetai Kaze to Kataomoi / Endless Sky / One and Only" Reborn Eleven"Reborn ~Inochi no Audition~" October 8, 2011 Hello! Project Mobekimasu"Busu ni Naranai Tetsugaku" November 16, 2011 Peaberry"Cabbage Hakusho ~Haru Hen~" February 27, 2013 Sayashi Riho Un Deux Trois Taiyou Juurokusai Sharehouse Sūgaku Joshi Gakuen Bijo Gaku Hello Pro! Time Hello! Satoyama Life Fashionable Reborn: Inochi no Audition "Lilium: Girls' Purity Musical" Riho Deli UstreaMusume Official Hello! Project Profile Ustreamusume Link