Amateur boxing

Amateur boxing is a variant of boxing practised at the collegiate level, at the Olympic Games, Pan American Games and Commonwealth Games, as well as many associations. Amateur boxing bouts are short in duration, comprising three rounds of three minutes in men, four rounds of two minutes in women, each with a one-minute interval between rounds. Men's senior bouts changed in format from four two-minute rounds to three three-minute rounds on January 1, 2009; this type of competition prizes point-scoring blows, based on number of clean punches landed, rather than physical power. This short format allows tournaments to feature several bouts over several days, unlike professional boxing, where fighters rest several months between bouts. A referee monitors the fight to ensure. Referees ensure that the boxers do not use holding tactics to prevent the opponent from punching. Referees have to stop the bout if a boxer is injured, or if one boxer is dominating the other. Nowadays, amateur boxing is sometimes called Olympic-style boxing though not to be confused with Olympic boxing, which being a part of amateur boxing, could be defined as its highest level, on the verge of amateur and professional boxing, with the Olympians being compared to top-ranked professionals in terms of skills, as a rule receiving a quick start in world professional rankings for granted upon turning pro.

Amateur boxing emerged as a sport during the mid-to-late 19th century as a result of the moral controversies surrounding professional prize-fighting. Lampooned as an effort by upper and middle-class gentlemen to co-opt a traditionally working class sport, the safer, "scientific" style of boxing found favor in schools, universities and in the armed forces, although the champions still came from among the urban poor; the Queensberry Amateur Championships continued from 1867 to 1885, so, unlike their professional counterparts, amateur boxers did not deviate from using gloves once the Queensberry Rules had been published. In England, the Amateur Boxing Association was formed in 1880, it held its first championships the following year. Four weight classes were contested: Featherweight, Lightweight and Heavyweight. By 1902, American boxers were contesting the titles in the A. B. A. Championships, therefore, took on an international complexion. By 1924, the A. B. A. had 105 clubs in affiliation. Boxing first appeared at the Olympic Games in 1904 and, apart from the Games of 1912, has always been part of them.

From 1904 to 2016, the United States and Cuba won the most gold medals. S. and 21 for Cuba. Internationally, amateur boxing spread throughout the first half of the 20th century, but when the first international body, the Fédération Internationale de Boxe Olympique was formed in Paris in 1920, there were only five member nations. In 1946, when the International Amateur Boxing Association was formed in London, twenty-four nations from five continents were represented, the A. I. B. A. has continued to be the official world federation of amateur boxing since. The first World Amateur Boxing Championships were staged in 1974, prior to that only regional championships took place, the only worldwide event apart from the Olympics were World Military Boxing Championships first conducted in 1947 and since by the CISM; the results of amateur boxing match-ups are registered and published in a local, national or international press, broadcast by various media from the largest international media Associated Press, United Press International, covering the major international events, to bulletin-board-type of newspapers covering local events.

Bouts which end this way may be noted in English or in French Amateur boxing does not recognize terms "knockout," and "technical knockout," instead it use the following euphemisms:All wins, losses, or mismatches except for those achieved by way of a clean knockout, or in absentia, are disputable, could be contested through an appeal to the governing bodies. Amateur boxing to this day have several scoring systems, depending on the tournament regulations and sanctioning authority. Several archaic score systems, that survived to the 1980s the first of, a 3-point system, which gave one point for each of three rounds It coexisted for a long time with 3-vote decision system, 5-vote decision system, which resembled professional boxing decision-making system, it took five judges voting either for victory or a draw Depending on the tournament regulations an extra round or rounds could be appointed on the sudden death princi

Position operator

In quantum mechanics, the position operator is the operator that corresponds to the position observable of a particle. The eigenvalues of the position operator – when it is considered with its widest possible domains – are the possible position vectors of the particle. In one dimension, if by the symbol | x ⟩ we denote the unitary eigenvector of the position operator corresponding to the eigenvalue x | x ⟩ represents the state of the particle in which we know with certainty to find the particle itself at position x. Therefore, denoted the position operator by the symbol X – in literature we find other meaningful symbols for the position operator, for instance Q, x ^ and so on – we can write X | x ⟩ = x | x ⟩,for every real position x. One possible realization of the unitary state with position x is the Dirac delta distribution centered at the position x denoted by δ x. In quantum mechanics, the ordered family of all Dirac distributions, i.e. the family δ = x ∈ R,is called the position basis, just because it is a eigenbasis of the position operator X.

It is fundamental to observe that there exists only one linear continuous endomorphism X on the space of tempered distributions such that X = x δ x,for every real point x. It's possible to prove that the unique above endomorphism is defined by X = x ψ,for every tempered distribution ψ, where x denotes the coordinate function of the position line – defined from the real line into the complex plane by x: R → C: x ↦ x. In one dimension – for a particle confined into a straight line – the square modulus | ψ | 2 = ψ ∗ ψ,of a normalized square integrable wave-function ψ: R → C,represents the probability density of finding the particle at some position x of the real-line, at a certain time. In other terms, if – at a certain instant of time – the particle is in the state represented by a square integrable wave function ψ and assuming the wave function ψ be of L 2 -norm equal 1, | | ψ | | 2 = ∫ − ∞ + ∞ | ψ | 2 d x = 1 the probability to find the particle in the position range is π X = ∫ a b | ψ | 2 d x.

Hence the expected value of a measurement of the position X for the particle is the value ⟨ X ⟩ ψ = ∫ R x | ψ | 2 d x = ∫ R ψ ∗ x ψ d x, where: the particle is assumed to be in the state ψ. Accordingly, the quantum mechanical operator corresponding to the observable position X is denoted by X = x ^,and defined (


Seungsahn Haengwon, born Duk-In Lee, was a Korean Seon master of the Jogye Order and founder of the international Kwan Um School of Zen. He was the seventy-eighth Patriarch in his lineage; as one of the early Korean Zen masters to settle in the United States, he opened many temples and practice groups across the globe. He was known for his charismatic style and direct presentation of Zen, well tailored for the Western audience. Known by students for his many correspondences with them through letters, his utilization of dharma combat and expressions such as "only don't know" or "only go straight" in teachings, he was conferred the honorific title of Dae Jong Sa in June 2004 by the Jogye Order for a lifetime of achievements. Considered the highest honor to have bestowed upon one in the order, the title translates "Great Lineage Master" and was bestowed for his establishment of the World Wide Kwan Um School of Zen, he died in November that year at Hwagaesa in Seoul, South Korea, at age 77. Seung Sahn was born in 1927 as Duk-In Lee in Sunchon, South Pyongan Province of occupied Korea to Presbyterian parents.

In 1944, he joined an underground resistance movement in response to the ongoing occupation of Korea by the Empire of Japan. He was captured by Japanese police shortly after, avoided a death sentence, spent time in prison. Upon his release, he studied Western philosophy at Dongguk University. One day, a monk friend of his lent him a copy of the Diamond Sutra. While reading the text, he became inspired to ordain as a monk and left school, receiving the prātimokṣa precepts in 1948. Seung Sahn performed a one-hundred day solitary retreat in the mountains of Korea, living on a diet of pine needles and rain water, it is said he attained enlightenment on this retreat. While seeking out a teacher who could confirm his enlightenment, he found Kobong, who told him to keep a not-knowing mind. In the fall of 1948, Seung Sahn learned dharma combat while sitting a one-hundred day sesshin at Sudeoksa—where he was known to stir up mischief, nearly being expelled from the monastery. After the sesshin was concluded, he received dharma transmission from two masters and Keum'oh.

He went to see Kobong, who confirmed Seungsahn's enlightenment on January 25, 1949 and gave him dharma transmission as well. Seung Sahn is the only person, he spent the next three years in observed silence. Drafted into the Republic of Korea Army in 1953, he served as an army chaplain and as a captain for five years, taking over for Kobong as abbot of Hwagaesa in Seoul, South Korea in 1957. In the next decade, he would go on to found Buddhist temples in Hong Japan. While in Japan, he was acquainted with the kōan tradition of the Rinzai school of Zen undergoing kōan study with a Rinzai master. Coming to the United States in 1972, he settled in Providence, Rhode Island and worked at a laundromat as a repairman, spending much of his off time improving upon his English. Shortly after arriving, he found his first students at nearby Brown University, most of whom came by way of a recommendation from a professor there. Among these first students was Jacob Perl, who helped to found the Providence Zen Center with the others.

In 1974, Seung Sahn began founding more Zen centers in the United States—his school still yet to be established—beginning with Dharma Zen Center in Los Angeles—a place where laypeople and the ordained could practice and live together. That following year, he went on to found the Chogye International Zen Center of New York City, in 1977, Empty Gate Zen Center. Meanwhile, in 1979, the Providence Zen Center moved from its location in Providence to its current space in Cumberland, Rhode Island; the Kwan Um School of Zen was founded in 1983 and, unlike more traditional practice in Korea, Seungsahn allowed laypersons in the lineage to wear the robes of full monastics. Celibacy was not required and the rituals of the school are unique. Although the Kwan Um School does utilize traditional Seon and Zen rituals, elements of their practice closely resemble rituals found in Pure Land Buddhism, Chan Buddhism, the Huayan school. In 1986, along with a former student and Dharma heir Dae Gak, Seungsahn founded a retreat center and temple in Clay City, Kentucky called Furnace Mountain—the temple name being Kwan Se Um San Ji Sah.

The center functions independently of the Kwan Um organization today. Over his tenure as Guiding Teacher, Seungsahn appointed many Dharma heirs, he created the title Ji Do Poep Sa Nim for those not ready for full dharma transmission but capable of teaching at a higher capacity. In 1977, Seungsahn was hospitalized for cardiac arrhythmia and it was discovered that he had advanced diabetes, he had been in and out of hospitals for heart complications for years preceding his death, in 1987 began spending much less time at his residence in the Providence Zen Center. Starting in 1990, under invitation from Mikhail Gorbachev, Seungsahn began making trips to the Soviet Union to teach, his student, Myong Gong Sunim opened a practice center in the country. Seungsahn implemented the use of simple phraseology to convey his messages, delivered with charisma, which helped make the teachings easier to consume for Western followers; some of his more employed phrases included "only go straight" or "only don't know".

He went so far as to call his teachings "Don't Know Zen", reminiscent of the style of Bodhidharma. Seungsahn used correspondences between him and his students as teaching opp