Amazing Stories is an American science fiction magazine launched in April 1926 by Hugo Gernsback's Experimenter Publishing. It was the first magazine devoted to science fiction. Science fiction stories had made regular appearances in other magazines, including some published by Gernsback, but Amazing helped define and launch a new genre of pulp fiction; as of 2018, Amazing has been published, with some interruptions, for ninety-two years, going through a half-dozen owners and many editors as it struggled to be profitable. Gernsback was forced into bankruptcy and lost control of the magazine in 1929. In 1938 it was purchased by Ziff-Davis. Palmer made the magazine successful though it was not regarded as a quality magazine within the science fiction community. In the late 1940s Amazing presented as fact stories about the Shaver Mystery, a lurid mythos that explained accidents and disaster as the work of robots named deros, which led to increased circulation but widespread ridicule. Amazing switched to a digest size format in 1953, shortly before the end of the pulp-magazine era.
It was sold to Sol Cohen's Universal Publishing Company in 1965, which filled it with reprinted stories but did not pay a reprint fee to the authors, creating a conflict with the newly formed Science Fiction Writers of America. Ted White took over as editor in 1969, eliminated the reprints and made the magazine respected again: Amazing was nominated for the prestigious Hugo Award three times during his tenure in the 1970s. Several other owners attempted to create a modern incarnation of the magazine in the following decades, but publication was suspended after the March 2005 issue. A new incarnation appeared in July 2012 as an online magazine. Print publication resumed with the Fall 2018 issue. Gernsback's initial editorial approach was to blend instruction with entertainment, his audience showed a preference for implausible adventures, the movement away from Gernsback's idealism accelerated when the magazine changed hands in 1929. Despite this, Gernsback had an enormous impact on the field: the creation of a specialist magazine for science fiction spawned an entire genre publishing industry.
The letter columns in Amazing, where fans could make contact with each other, led to the formation of science fiction fandom, which in turn had a strong influence on the development of the field. Writers whose first story was published in the magazine include John W. Campbell, Isaac Asimov, Howard Fast, Ursula K. Le Guin, Roger Zelazny, Thomas M. Disch. Overall, Amazing itself was an influential magazine within the genre after the 1920s; some critics have commented that by "ghettoizing" science fiction, Gernsback harmed its literary growth, but this viewpoint has been countered by the argument that science fiction needed an independent market to develop in to reach its potential. By the end of the 19th century, stories centered on scientific inventions, stories set in the future, were appearing in popular fiction magazines; the market for short stories lent itself to tales of invention in the tradition of Jules Verne. Magazines such as Munsey's Magazine and The Argosy, launched in 1889 and 1896 carried a few science fiction stories each year.
Some upmarket "slick" magazines such as McClure's, which paid well and were aimed at a more literary audience carried scientific stories, but by the early years of the 20th century, science fiction was appearing more in the pulp magazines than in the slicks. In 1908, Hugo Gernsback published the first issue of Modern Electrics, a magazine aimed at the scientific hobbyist, it was an immediate success, Gernsback began to include articles on imaginative uses of science, such as "Wireless on Saturn". In April 1911, Gernsback began the serialization of his science fiction novel, Ralph 124C 41+, but in 1913 he sold his interest in the magazine to his partner and launched a new magazine, Electrical Experimenter, which soon began to publish scientific fiction. In 1920 Gernsback retitled the magazine Science and Invention, through the early 1920s he published much scientific fiction in its pages, along with non-fiction scientific articles. Gernsback had started another magazine called Practical Electrics in 1921.
In 1924, he changed its name to The Experimenter, sent a letter to 25,000 people to gauge interest in the possibility of a magazine devoted to scientific fiction. However, in 1926 he decided to go ahead, ceased publication of The Experimenter to make room in his publishing schedule for a new magazine; the editor of The Experimenter, T. O'Conor Sloane, became the editor of Amazing Stories; the first issue appeared on 10 March 1926, with a cover date of April 1926. The magazine focused on reprints. In the August issue, new stories were noted with an asterisk in the table of contents; the editorial work was done by Sloane, but Gernsback retained final say over the fiction content. Two consultants, Conrad A. Brandt and Wilbur C. Whitehead, were hired to help find fiction to reprint. Frank R. Paul, who had worked with Gernsback as early as 1914, became the cover artist. Amazing was issued in the large bedsheet format, 8.5 × 11.75 in, the same size as the technical magazines. It was an immediate success and by the following March reached a circulation of 150,000.
Gernsback saw there was an enthusiastic readership for "scientific
Tokyo Xtreme Racer 2, known as Shutokō Battle 2 in Japan and Tokyo Highway Challenge 2 in Europe, is the sequel to Tokyo Xtreme Racer, on the Sega Dreamcast. Tokyo Xtreme Racer 2 has been enhanced with better sound quality and graphics over its predecessor; the game managed to produce two more sequels. It is the last game in the series, produced for Sega Dreamcast; some of the game's mechanics were implemented into Daytona USA 2001. In 2001 a port was created for the PlayStation 2 called Tokyo Xtreme Racer: Zero, but with improved graphics and slight differences in gameplay in order to complete the game. In 2003 Tokyo Xtreme Racer 3 is the third game, developed for PlayStation 2; the game takes place after the events of previous games. The response to this game was a limited release; the game was released in some parts of North America. The game was met with mixed to positive reception upon release, as GameRankings gave it a score of 81%, while Metacritic gave it 79 out of 100. In Japan, Famitsu gave it a score of 34 out of 40.
Tokyo Xtreme Racer 2 at MobyGames
St. Elizabeth's F. C. was an amateur association football club who were based in Dundonald, County Down, Northern Ireland and played in the Northern Amateur Football League. The football club was named after St. Elizabeth's Church in the town of Dundonald. St. Elizabeth's player, Robert McGimpsey went on to manage the club and was thereafter appointed club honorary secretary in the 1960s. Alec Dempster Jim Close Brian Robinson Walter McCallum William Robinson E Massey D Kane R Shields T McConnell C Wilson S Orderly J Conkey J Thompson B Mackie E Bowman Jack Dundas Trevor Marshall Robbie Duncan Mark "Chalky" White Alan "Skinny" Little Neil Hewitt Bobby Anderson Trevor Hollinger Craig Brotherston Maurice "Mo" Anderson Steven Kelly Garry McKeown Billy Bailie Robert McGimsey Herbie Barr NAFL 2 Division A Winners: 1954-55. Runners-up List of association football clubs in Northern Ireland Donard Hospital F. C. Dundonald F. C