Digital video recorder
A digital video recorder is an electronic device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, USB flash drive, SD memory card, SSD or other local or networked mass storage device. The term includes set-top boxes with direct to disk recording, portable media players and TV gateways with recording capability, digital camcorders. Personal computers are connected to video capture devices and used as DVRs. Many DVRs are classified as consumer electronic devices. Consumer digital video recorders ReplayTV and TiVo were launched at the 1999 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada. Microsoft demonstrated a unit with DVR capability, but this did not become available until the end of 1999 for full DVR features in Dish Network's DISHplayer receivers. TiVo shipped their first units on March 31, 1999. ReplayTV won the "Best of Show" award in the video category with Netscape co-founder Marc Andreessen as an early investor and board member, but TiVo was more successful commercially. Legal action by media companies forced ReplayTV to remove many features such as automatic commercial skip and the sharing of recordings over the Internet, but newer devices have regained these functions while adding complementary abilities, such as recording onto DVDs and programming and remote control facilities using PDAs, networked PCs, Web browsers.
In contrast to VCRs, hard-disk based digital video recorders make "time shifting" more convenient and allow for functions such as pausing live TV, instant replay, chasing playback and skipping over advertising during playback. Many DVRs use the MPEG format for compressing the digital video. Video recording capabilities have become an essential part of the modern set-top box, as TV viewers have wanted to take control of their viewing experiences; as consumers have been able to converge increasing amounts of video content on their set-tops, delivered by traditional'broadcast' cable and terrestrial as well as IP networks, the ability to capture programming and view it whenever they want has become a must-have function for many consumers. At the 1999 CES, Dish Network demonstrated the hardware that would have DVR capability with the assistance of Microsoft software. Which included WebTV Networks internet TV. By the end of 1999 the Dishplayer had full DVR capabilities and within a year, over 200,000 units were sold.
In the UK, digital video recorders are referred to as "plus boxes". Freeview+ have been around in the UK since the late 2000s. British Sky Broadcasting markets a popular combined receiver and DVR as Sky+. TiVo launched a UK model in 2000, is no longer supported, except for third party services, the continuation of TiVo through Virgin Media in 2010. South African based Africa Satellite TV beamer Multichoice launched their DVR, available on their DStv platform. In addition to ReplayTV and TiVo, there are a number of other suppliers of digital terrestrial DVRs, including Thomson, Fusion, Pace Micro Technology, Humax, VBox Communications, AC Ryan Playon and Advanced Digital Broadcast. Many satellite, cable and IPTV companies are incorporating digital video recording functions into their set-top box, such as with DirecTiVo, DISHPlayer/DishDVR, Scientific Atlanta Explorer 8xxx from Time Warner, Total Home DVR from AT&T U-verse, Motorola DCT6412 from Comcast and others, Moxi Media Center by Digeo, or Sky+.
Astro introduced their DVR system, called Astro MAX, the first PVR in Malaysia but was phased out two years after its introduction. In the case of digital television, there is no encoding necessary in the DVR since the signal is a digitally encoded MPEG stream; the digital video recorder stores the digital stream directly to disk. Having the broadcaster involved with, sometimes subsidizing, the design of the DVR can lead to features such as the ability to use interactive TV on recorded shows, pre-loading of programs, or directly recording encrypted digital streams, it can, however force the manufacturer to implement non-skippable advertisements and automatically expiring recordings. In the United States, the FCC has ruled that starting on July 1, 2007, consumers will be able to purchase a set-top box from a third-party company, rather than being forced to purchase or rent the set-top box from their cable company; this ruling only applies to "navigation devices," otherwise known as a cable television set-top box, not to the security functions that control the user's access to the content of the cable operator.
The overall net effect on digital video recorders and related technology is unlikely to be substantial as standalone DVRs are readily available on the open market. In Europe Free-To-Air and Pay TV TV gateways with multiple tuners have whole house recording capabilities allowing recording of TV programs to Network Attached Storage or attached USB storage, recorded programs are shared across the home network to tablet, smartphone, PC, Smart TV. In 2003 many Satellite and Cable providers introduced dual-tuner digital video recorders. In the UK, BSkyB introduced their first PVR Sky+ with dual tuner support in 2001; these machines have two independent tuners within the same receiver. The main use for this feature is the capability to record a live program while watching another live program or
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
HDMI is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device. HDMI is a digital replacement for analog video standards. HDMI implements the EIA/CEA-861 standards, which define video formats and waveforms, transport of compressed and uncompressed LPCM audio, auxiliary data, implementations of the VESA EDID. CEA-861 signals carried by HDMI are electrically compatible with the CEA-861 signals used by the Digital Visual Interface. No signal conversion is necessary, nor is there a loss of video quality when a DVI-to-HDMI adapter is used; the CEC capability allows HDMI devices to control each other when necessary and allows the user to operate multiple devices with one handheld remote control device. Several versions of HDMI have been developed and deployed since initial release of the technology, but all use the same cable and connector.
Other than improved audio and video capacity, performance and color spaces, newer versions have optional advanced features such as 3D, Ethernet data connection, CEC extensions. Production of consumer HDMI products started in late 2003. In Europe either DVI-HDCP or HDMI is included in the HD ready in-store labeling specification for TV sets for HDTV, formulated by EICTA with SES Astra in 2005. HDMI began to appear on consumer HDTVs in 2004 and camcorders and digital still cameras in 2006; as of January 6, 2015, over 4 billion HDMI devices have been sold. The HDMI founders were Hitachi, Philips, Silicon Image, Thomson, RCA, Toshiba. Digital Content Protection, LLC provides HDCP for HDMI. HDMI has the support of motion picture producers Fox, Warner Bros. and Disney, along with system operators DirecTV, EchoStar and CableLabs. The HDMI founders began development on HDMI 1.0 on April 16, 2002, with the goal of creating an AV connector, backward-compatible with DVI. At the time, DVI-HDCP and DVI-HDTV were being used on HDTVs.
HDMI 1.0 was designed to improve on DVI-HDTV by using a smaller connector and adding audio capability and enhanced Y′CBCR capability and consumer electronics control functions. The first Authorized Testing Center, which tests HDMI products, was opened by Silicon Image on June 23, 2003, in California, United States; the first ATC in Japan was opened by Panasonic on May 2004, in Osaka. The first ATC in Europe was opened by Philips on May 2005, in Caen, France; the first ATC in China was opened by Silicon Image on November 2005, in Shenzhen. The first ATC in India was opened by Philips on June 2008, in Bangalore; the HDMI website contains a list of all the ATCs. According to In-Stat, the number of HDMI devices sold was 5 million in 2004, 17.4 million in 2005, 63 million in 2006, 143 million in 2007. HDMI has become the de facto standard for HDTVs, according to In-Stat, around 90% of digital televisions in 2007 included HDMI. In-Stat has estimated that 229 million HDMI devices were sold in 2008. On April 8, 2008 there were over 850 consumer electronics and PC companies that had adopted the HDMI specification.
On January 7, 2009, HDMI Licensing, LLC announced that HDMI had reached an installed base of over 600 million HDMI devices. In-Stat has estimated that 394 million HDMI devices would sell in 2009 and that all digital televisions by the end of 2009 would have at least one HDMI input. On January 28, 2008, In-Stat reported that shipments of HDMI were expected to exceed those of DVI in 2008, driven by the consumer electronics market. In 2008, PC Magazine awarded a Technical Excellence Award in the Home Theater category for an "innovation that has changed the world" to the CEC portion of the HDMI specification. Ten companies were given a Technology and Engineering Emmy Award for their development of HDMI by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences on January 7, 2009. On October 25, 2011, the HDMI Forum was established by the HDMI founders to create an open organization so that interested companies can participate in the development of the HDMI specification. All members of the HDMI Forum have equal voting rights, may participate in the Technical Working Group, if elected can be on the Board of Directors.
There is no limit to the number of companies allowed in the HDMI Forum though companies must pay an annual fee of US$15,000 with an additional annual fee of $5,000 for those companies who serve on the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors is made up of 11 companies who are elected every 2 years by a general vote of HDMI Forum members. All future development of the HDMI specification take place in the HDMI Forum and are built upon the HDMI 1.4b specification. On the same day HDMI Licensing, LLC announced that there were over 1,100 HDMI adopters and that over 2 billion HDMI-enabled products had shipped since the launch of the HDMI standard. From October 25, 2011, all development of the HDMI specification became the responsibility of the newly created HDMI Forum. On January 8, 2013, HDMI Licensing, LLC announced that there were over 1,300 HDMI adopters and that over 3 billion HDMI devices had shipped since the launch of the HDMI standard; the day marked the 10th anniversary of the release of the first HDMI specification.
The HDMI specification defines the protocols, electrical interfaces and mechanical requirements of the standard. The maximum pixel clock rate for HDMI 1.0 is 165 MHz, suffic
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
A microconsole is a type of video game console. Many of the devices that the term has been used to describe are low-cost Android-based devices that are designed to connect to televisions and play video games downloaded from an application store, such as Google Play. In late 2010, cloud gaming startup OnLive released MicroConsole, a television adapter and wireless controller that connects the company's computer game streaming service to televisions. VentureBeat's Dean Takahashi described the device as representing the company founder's "vision to turn the video game industry upside down" as an inexpensive console providing "high-end games on low-end hardware" that could eliminate the cycle of regular consumer hardware upgrades; the MicroConsole TV adapter was produced at a loss. OnLive's MicroConsole made the company an early leader in the nascent microconsole field. Amidst a "new war for TV" in the consumer electronics industry, an inexpensive and simple Android-based video game console designed for televisions called Ouya was announced for crowdfunding in July 2012.
The Ouya raised $8.5 million. Significant interest in low-cost Android console gaming followed Ouya's success, spurred by the mobile games industry growth; the industry began to refer to the resulting consoles as alternative microconsoles. Polygon reported that Android "consoles" were best-in-show at the January 2013 Consumer Electronics Show, citing devices like the MOGA Pro, Green Throttle Games Atlas controller, Nvidia Shield, news of Valve's Steam Machine, a non-Android console. Following Ouya's success, other similar set-top Android gaming devices were announced as direct competitors, including the GameStick in early 2013, GamePop in May 2013, Mad Catz's MOJO in June 2013. Forbes's Daniel Nye Griffiths referred to Ouya and GameStick's close release dates as the microconsole field's first "showdown"; the GamePop and MOJO announcements in the early summer referred to the devices as "microconsoles". The PlayStation TV is a microconsole announced in September 2013 at a Sony Computer Entertainment Japan presentation.
It was released in Japan on November 14, 2013 and in North America on October 14, 2014. Gamasutra called Ouya, GameStick, GamePop "console alternatives" that represent "a potential new market space for developers". Tadhg Kelly, writing for Edge, called 2013 "the year of the microconsole", citing less consumer need for traditional console power, the low price of microconsole manufacture, increased system compatibility for easier game development, more developer freedom from console business interests. Microconsole promises of a less restrictive platform are expected to empower independent game developers. Kelly referred to the "deliberately small" microconsoles as "the netbooks of the console world", not intended to compete with big video game consoles. Other reviewers called the microconsoles competitors, though not a threat, referred to a crowded "non-traditional console space" as a disadvantage. Kelly added that Ouya is focused on the early adopter audience and its interests, that Ouya's "natural advantage" of price has not been communicated effectively.
Edge questioned possibilities of microconsole success due to competition within the field as well as from Nintendo and Microsoft's new consoles. The pre-release Ouya was panned by early reviewers; the Verge called it unfinished, in a review, Eurogamer questioned why consumers would purchase a console that duplicated the functionality of smartphones they had. The video game industry saw the digital media receiver on Apple's Apple TV as potential microconsole competition due to the company's experience in the mobile games market. Polygon reported in January 2013 that the Apple TV "continue to be dangerously close to upending the mobile gaming space" and speculated that an Apple TV App Store could spark "a rush of games to the television". List of microconsoles Mobile game Cloud gaming Handheld TV game Video game clones
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the industrial and medical radio bands, from 2.400 to 2.485 GHz, building personal area networks. It was conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 30,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing and consumer electronics; the IEEE standardized no longer maintains the standard. The Bluetooth SIG oversees development of the specification, manages the qualification program, protects the trademarks. A manufacturer must meet Bluetooth SIG standards to market it as a Bluetooth device. A network of patents apply to the technology; the development of the "short-link" radio technology named Bluetooth, was initiated in 1989 by Nils Rydbeck, CTO at Ericsson Mobile in Lund, Sweden and by Johan Ullman. The purpose was to develop wireless headsets, according to two inventions by Johan Ullman, SE 8902098-6, issued 1989-06-12 and SE 9202239, issued 1992-07-24.
Nils Rydbeck tasked Tord Wingren with specifying and Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson with developing. Both were working for Ericsson in Lund. Invented by Dutch electrical engineer Jaap Haartsen, working for telecommunications company Ericsson in 1994; the first consumer bluetooth launched in 1999. It was a hand free mobile headset which earned the technology the"Best of show Technology Award" at COMDEX; the first Bluetooth mobile phone was the Sony Ericsson T36 but it was the revised T39 model which made it to store shelves in 2001. The name Bluetooth is an Anglicised version of the Scandinavian Blåtand/Blåtann, the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald Bluetooth who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom; the implication is. The idea of this name was proposed in 1997 by Jim Kardach of Intel who developed a system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with computers. At the time of this proposal he was reading Frans G. Bengtsson's historical novel The Long Ships about Vikings and King Harald Bluetooth.
The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Younger Futhark runes and, Harald's initials. Bluetooth operates at frequencies between 2402 and 2480 MHz, or 2400 and 2483.5 MHz including guard bands 2 MHz wide at the bottom end and 3.5 MHz wide at the top. This is in the globally unlicensed industrial and medical 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. Bluetooth uses. Bluetooth divides transmitted data into packets, transmits each packet on one of 79 designated Bluetooth channels; each channel has a bandwidth of 1 MHz. It performs 1600 hops per second, with adaptive frequency-hopping enabled. Bluetooth Low Energy uses 2 MHz spacing. Gaussian frequency-shift keying modulation was the only modulation scheme available. Since the introduction of Bluetooth 2.0+EDR, π/4-DQPSK and 8-DPSK modulation may be used between compatible devices. Devices functioning with GFSK are said to be operating in basic rate mode where an instantaneous bit rate of 1 Mbit/s is possible; the term Enhanced Data Rate is used to describe π/4-DPSK and 8-DPSK schemes, each giving 2 and 3 Mbit/s respectively.
The combination of these modes in Bluetooth radio technology is classified as a BR/EDR radio. Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master/slave architecture. One master may communicate with up to seven slaves in a piconet. All devices share the master's clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 µs intervals. Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 µs, two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 µs. In the simple case of single-slot packets, the master transmits in slots and receives in odd slots; the slave, receives in slots and transmits in odd slots. Packets may be 1, 3 or 5 slots long, but in all cases the master's transmission begins in slots and the slave's in odd slots; the above excludes Bluetooth Low Energy, introduced in the 4.0 specification, which uses the same spectrum but somewhat differently. A master BR/EDR Bluetooth device can communicate with a maximum of seven devices in a piconet, though not all devices reach this maximum; the devices can switch roles, by agreement, the slave can become the master.
The Bluetooth Core Specification provides for the connection of two or more piconets to form a scatternet, in which certain devices play the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another. At any given time, data can be transferred between one other device; the master chooses. Since it is the master that chooses which slave to address, whereas a slave is supposed to listen in each receive slot, being a master is a lighter burden than being a slave. Being a master of seven slaves is possible; the specification is vague as to required behavior in scatternets. Bluetooth is a standard wire-replacement communications proto
The Ouya, stylized as OUYA, is an Android-based microconsole developed by Ouya Inc. Julie Uhrman founded the project in 2012, bringing in designer Yves Béhar to collaborate on its design and Muffi Ghadiali as VP of Product Management to put together the engineering team. Development was funded via Kickstarter, raising $8.5 million and becoming the website's eighth-highest earning project in its history at the time. Units started to ship to Kickstarter backers in March 2013 and were released to the general public in June 2013, it features an exclusive Ouya store for applications and games designed for the Ouya platform, of which the majority are casual games targeted at or used by a mass audience of casual gamers. Out of the box, Ouya supports media apps such as XBMC media player, it runs a modified version of Android Jelly Bean, with rooting being encouraged. The console's hardware design allows it to be opened up, requiring only a standard screwdriver for easy modding and possible hardware add-ons.
All systems can be used as development kits, allowing any Ouya owner to be a developer, without the need for licensing fees. All games were required to have some kind of free-to-play aspect, whether that be free, has a free trial, or has purchasable upgrades, levels, or other in-game items; this requirement was removed. Despite the successful Kickstarter campaign, sales of the Ouya were lackluster, causing financial problems for Ouya Inc. and forcing the company to wind down the business. Its software assets were sold to Razer Inc. who announced the discontinuation of the Ouya console in July 2015. The Ouya has since been considered a commercial failure. Ouya was announced on July 3, 2012 as a new home video game console, led by Julie Uhrman, the chief executive officer of Santa Monica, California-based Boxer8, Inc.. On July 10, Ouya started a campaign to gauge. Boxer8 confirmed having a working prototype with in-progress user interface, it features an Nvidia Tegra 3 chip and a price tag of $99.
The Kickstarter fundraising goal was reached within 8 hours. Funding continued to increase. According to Kickstarter, in reaching its goal, Ouya holds the record for best first-day performance of any project hosted to date. Within the first 24 hours, the project attracted one backer every 5.59 seconds. Ouya became the eighth project in Kickstarter history to raise more than a million dollars and was the quickest project to do so; the Kickstarter campaign finished on August 9 with $8,596,475 at 904% of their goal. This made the Ouya Kickstarter the fifth-highest earning in the website's history at the time. Ouya units for Kickstarter funders started to ship on March 28, 2013. On June 25, 2013, the Ouya was released to the public for $99. Ouya announced the "Free the Games Fund" in July 2013 with the goal to support developers making games for their system with Ouya matching a Kickstarter campaign's pledge dollar-for-dollar if a minimum of $50,000 is raised, but only if the game will be an Ouya exclusive for six months.
In October 2013, Uhrman stated that the company planned on releasing a new iteration of the Ouya console sometime in 2014, with an improved controller, double the storage space, better Wi-Fi. On November 23, 2013, a limited edition white Ouya with double the storage of the original and a new controller design was available for pre-order at $129; as of January 1, 2014, the limited edition white Ouya went off sale and cannot be found on the official store, nor from any official resellers. On January 31, 2014, a new black version of the Ouya was released with double storage and new controller design. In January 2015, Ouya received an investment of 10 million USD from Alibaba with the possibility of incorporating some of Ouya technologies into Alibaba’s set-top box. In April 2015, it was revealed that Ouya was trying to sell the company because it failed to renegotiate its debt. On July 27, 2015, it was announced that Razer Inc. had acquired Ouya's employees and content library and that Ouya hardware was now discontinued.
The deal does not include Ouya's hardware assets. Owners were encouraged to migrate to Razer's own Forge microconsole. On the same day Uhrman stepped down as Ouya's CEO; the technical team and developer relations personnel behind Ouya joined the software team of Razer, which developed its own game platform called the Forge TV. The Forge TV was discontinued in 2016; the Ouya is a 75-millimetre cube designed to be used with a TV as the display via an HDMI connection. It ships with a single wireless controller, but it can support multiple controllers. Games can be side-loaded. Notes iFixit has a detailed step-by-step teardown of the console. Hardware video decode supported by experimental XBMC using libstagefright; the Ouya controller is a typical gamepad with dual analogue sticks, a directional pad, 4 face buttons and pairs of back bumpers and triggers. It includes a single-touch touchpad in the center of the controller; the Ouya controller has magnetically attached faceplates which enclose the 2 AA batteries, one on each side of the removable plates.
Alternate controllers may be used with the console but only for compatible games. While initial reception of the Ou