Arcins is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Occitania is the historical region and a nation, in southern Europe where Occitan was the main language spoken, where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language. This cultural area encompasses the southern third of France, as well as part of Spain and smaller parts of Italy. Occitania has been recognized as a linguistic and cultural concept since the Middle Ages, but has never been a legal nor a political entity under this name, although the territory was united in Roman times as the Seven Provinces and in the Early Middle Ages. About 200,000–800,000 people out of 16 million living in the area are either native or proficient speakers of Occitan, although the languages more spoken in the area are French, Catalan and Italian. Since 2006, the Occitan language has been an official language of Catalonia, which includes the Aran Valley where Occitan gained official status in 1990. Under Roman rule, most of Occitania was known as Aquitania, the earlier conquered territories were known as Provincia Romana, while the northern provinces of what is now France were called Gallia.
Under the Later Empire, both were grouped in the Seven Provinces Nine Provinces or Viennensis. So Provence and Gallia Aquitania are the names used since medieval times for Occitania, thus the historic Duchy of Aquitaine must not be confused with the modern French region called Aquitaine: this is the main reason why the term Occitania was revived in the mid-19th century. The names "Occitania" and "Occitan language" appeared in Latin texts from as early as 1242–1254 to 1290 and during the following years of the early 14th century; the name Lenga d'òc, used in Italian by Dante in the late 13th century. The somewhat uncommon ending of the term Occitania is most a portmanteau French clerks coined from òc and Aquitània, thus blending the language and the land in just one concept. On 28 September 2016 Occitanie became the name of the administrative region that succeeded the regions of Midi-Pyrénées and Languedoc-Roussillon, it is a small part of Occitania; the extent of Occitania may vary according to the criteria used: Based on a geolinguistic definition, Occitania coincides with the current area of Occitan language.
The Occitanophone regions are not included, on the other hand one always speaks Occitan in the French Basque Country and in the Països Catalans, internal allophone enclaves. This last definition of a contiguous and compact territory is the most widespread. Occitania was first defined in relation to its civilization before its language, it gave rise in Europe to the troubadour movement, the idea of equality in human rights and religious tolerance and a new culture of love which allowed the first moral and social promotion of women. According to this definition taken up by historians and anthropologists, the domain is extended north to the Loire including former Occitanophone regions; the Northern Italy and the Països Catalans were homes of troubadour using the Koiné Occitan literary. In the same way, the Basque Country and Aragon benefited from Occitan stands, old or newer, which notably gave rise to the appearance of a Occitan dialect south of the Pyrenees. We can note the historical use of a Occitan scripta as official language.
The name Occitanie appeared in the Middle Ages on the basis of a geographical and cultural concept, to designate the part of the French royal domain speaking the langue d’oc. Its current definition is variable. In the most common usage, Occitania designates the territory where the Occitan has remained used until today, within the limits defined between 1876 and the 20th century. If Occitan language and culture are always associated with it, we find references to a common history, an ethnic group, a homeland, to a people or to a nation; the first sociological study in Occitan language to know how the Occitan define themselves was started in 1976. The survey shows that the Occitan reality is defined by language for 95% of people, characterization by a common history, an ethnic group, a nation. Occitania, as defined by the modern Occitan linguistic territory, covers most of the current Southern France, the Alpine valleys of the Western Piedmont, in Italy, Val d'Aran in Spain and Monaco an area of 190,000 km2.
It had about fifteen million inhabitants in 1999 with about 20% inhabitants born outside the territory and about 20% of the natives who left. On the other hand, in the absence of a linguistic census, we know only imperfectly the number of speakers of Occitan. If the preceding notions are limited to the modern linguistic boundaries of Occitan, this term can be used to designate a larger territory; the term "Occitania" becomes commonplace more in the vocabulary of scientists. It is used in a historical sense and anthropolog
Abzac is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern Metropolitan France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Andernos-les-Bains is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Andernos-les-Bains is a located on the northeast shore of Arcachon Bay. To its northwest is the town of Arès. Andernos-les-Bains consists of four other small communities: Taussat, Cassy and Audenge. All these villages are characterized by small fisheries. For many years, the oyster and fishing industry provided the main income to the area. More tourism has become a strong economic factor in the area; the bay was well known for the Portuguese oyster which died out during 1970-1972 because of gill disease. But a new oyster was found, the "Pacific oyster". In 1974 the new oyster developed a disease caused by the paint used on fishing boats. An oil tanker spill in 1978 further damaged the oyster industry, which continued to suffer until 1981; the oyster industry suffered around the bay. This was a disaster for whole of France and Europe as the Arcachon oyster is a world-famous delicacy. Since 2000 the oyster industry has been recovering and now nearly 15,000 metric tons are produced per year.
Andernos-les-Bains has a 5.4 km long sand beach. The closest airport is Bordeaux-Mérignac. Sarah Bernhardt, a French actress, is known to have visited Andernos during the First World War; the Great Dune of Pyla - the longest in Europe Island of Birds - with two bird houses in the middle of the bay which act as landmarks Cape Ferret light house at the tip of the Arcachon Bay Andernos-les-Bains is twinned with: Largs, Scotland Communes of the Gironde department INSEE Andernos-les-Bains Official site Andernos-les-Bains Information
Ayguemorte-les-Graves is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Balizac is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE