Ludovico Sforza of Milan, seeking an ally against the Republic of Venice, encouraged Charles VIII of France to invade Italy, using the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples as a pretext. For several months, French forces moved through Italy virtually unopposed, Charles VIII made triumphant entries into Pisa on November 8,1494, Florence on November 17,1494, and Rome on December 31,1494. Upon reaching the city of Monte San Giovanni in the Kingdom of Naples, Charles VIII sent envoys to the town, the garrison killed and mutilated the envoys and sent the bodies back to the French lines. This enraged the French army so that reduced the castle in the town with blistering artillery fire on February 9,1495 and stormed the fort. This was the sack of Naples. News of the French Armys sack of Naples provoked a reaction among the city-states of Northern Italy, the League was specifically formed to resist French aggression. The League was established on 31 March after negotiations by Venice, Milan and the Holy Roman Empire.
Later on the League consisted of the Holy Roman Empire, the Duchy of Milan, the Papal States, the Republic of Florence, the Duchy of Mantua and this coalition, cut Charles army off from returning to France. After establishing a government in Naples, Charles started to march north on his return to France. However, in the town of Fornovo he met the League army. In contemporary tradition, the battle counted as a Holy League victory, because the French forces had to leave, to the Italian coalition, however, it was at best a pyrrhic victory, in that its strategic outcome and long-term consequences were unfavorable. Although the League managed to force Charles VIII off the battlefield, it suffered much higher casualties and could not prevent the opposing army crossing the Italian lands as it returned to France. As a result of Charles VIIIs expedition, the states of Italy were shown once. In fact, the individual Italian states could not field armies comparable to those of the feudal monarchies of Europe in numbers.
Thus, Charles VIII lost all that he conquered in Italy, King Charles VIII died on April 7,1498 and was succeeded to the throne of France by his cousin, Louis II, Duke of Orléans, who became Louis XII of France. Ludovico Sforza retained his throne in Milan until 1499, when Charless successor, Louis XII of France, invaded Lombardy, Louis XII justified his claim to the Duchy of Milan by right of his paternal grandfather, Louis duc dOrléans having married Valentina Visconti in 1387. Valentina Visconti was the heir to the Duchy of Milan in the Visconti dynasty, the marriage contract between Valentina Visconti and Louis, duc dOrléans, guaranteed that in failure of male heirs, she would inherit the Visconti dominions. However, when the Visconti dynasty died out in 1447, the Milanese ignored the Orleans claim to the Duchy of Milan, bitter factionalism arose under the new republic which set the stage for Francisco Sforza to seize control of Milan in 1450
The Ambassadors (Holbein)
The Ambassadors is a painting by Hans Holbein the Younger. It was created in the Tudor Period in the same year Elizabeth I was born, as well as being a double portrait, the painting contains a still life of several meticulously rendered objects, the meaning of which is the cause of much debate. It incorporates a much-cited example of anamorphosis in painting and it is part of the collection at the National Gallery in London. Although a German-born artist who spent most of his time in England and this influence can be noted most outwardly in the use of oil paint, the use of which for panel paintings had been developed a century before in Early Netherlandish painting. The choice for the inclusion of the two figures can furthermore be seen as symbolic, the figure on the left is in secular attire while the figure on the right is dressed in clerical clothes. In contrast, other scholars have suggested the painting contains overtones of religious strife, the conflicts between secular and religious authorities are here represented by Jean de Dinteville, a landowner, and Georges de Selve, the Bishop of Lavaur.
The commonly accepted symbol of discord, a lute with a string, is included next to a hymnbook in Martin Luthers translation. The terrestrial globe on the lower shelf repeats a portion of a cartographically imaginative map created in possibly 1530, the map is referred to as the Ambassadors Globe due to its popularly known appearance in the painting. The work has described as one of the most staggeringly impressive portraits in Renaissance art. The most notable and famous of Holbeins symbols in the work, while the skull is evidently intended as a vanitas or memento mori, it is unclear why Holbein gave it such prominence in this painting. One possibility is that this painting represents three levels, the heavens, the world, and death. A further possibility is that Holbein simply wished to show off his ability with the technique in order to secure future commissions, artists often incorporated skulls as a reminder of mortality, or at the very least, death. Holbein may have intended the skulls and the crucifix in the left corner to encourage contemplation of ones impending death.
Before the publication of Mary F. S. Herveys Holbeins Ambassadors, The Picture and the Men in 1900, the identity of the two figures in the picture had long been a subject of intense debate. In 1890, Sidney Colvin was the first to propose the figure on the left as Jean de Dinteville, Seigneur of Polisy, shortly afterwards, the cleaning of the picture revealed that his seat of Polisy is one of only four French places marked on the globe. Hervey identified the man on the right as Georges de Selve, Bishop of Lavaur, according to art historian John Rowlands, de Selve is not wearing episcopal robes because he was not consecrated until 1534. De Selve is known from two of de Dintevilles letters to his brother François de Dinteville, Bishop of Auxerre, to have visited London in the spring of 1533. On 23 May, Jean de Dinteville wrote, Monsieur de Lavaur did me the honour of coming to see me, there is no need for the grand maître to hear anything of it
High commissioner (Commonwealth)
In the Commonwealth of Nations, a high commissioner is the senior diplomat in charge of the diplomatic mission of one Commonwealth government to another. Instead of an embassy, the mission is generally called a high commission. For example, when Cyprus came under British administration in 1878 it remained nominally under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, another example were the high commissioners for Palestine. As diplomatic residents were appointed to native rulers, high commissioners could likewise be appointed as British agents of indirect rule over native states. The first high commissioner of India to London was appointed in 1920, he had no political role, the first agent of the Indian government was appointed to South Africa in 1927. The high commissioner to New Zealand ex officio is the governor of the Pitcairn Islands, the first dominion high commissioner was appointed by Canada as its envoy in London. Macdonald, from 1869 to 1874 and was given the title of Financial Commissioner from 1874 until 1880, the Canadian government appointed Alexander Tilloch Galt as the first high commissioner of Canada to the United Kingdom in 1880.
New Zealand appointed a commissioner in 1905, in place of a resident agent-general which have been appointed since 1871. Australia did the same in 1910, and South Africa in 1911, the British government continued not to appoint high commissioners to the Dominions, holding that the British government was already represented by the relevant governor-general or governor. The practice became the norm throughout the Commonwealth, the first British high commissioner to a dominion was appointed in 1928 to Canada. South Africa received a British high commissioner in 1930, Australia in 1936, the first high-ranking official envoy from one dominion to another was appointed by South Africa to Canada in 1938. Yet, because of various complications, only in 1945 was South African envoy to Canada designated officially as high commissioner. New Zealand appointed a commissioner to Canada in 1942. As sixteen Commonwealth members, known as the Commonwealth realms, share the same monarch as head of state, in diplomatic usage, a high commissioner is considered equivalent in rank and role to an ambassador.
The difference in accreditation is reflected in the titles of envoys to foreign and Commonwealth states. For historical reasons, high commissioners are appointed even in the case of republics in the Commonwealth, in this case, letters of commission are usually issued by one head of state and presented to the other. g. The British high commissioner in Suva, Fiji, is accredited as high commissioner to Kiribati, Tuvalu. Zimbabwe, as a Commonwealth country, traditionally had high commissioners in other Commonwealth countries, when it withdrew from the Commonwealth, it changed the style of its high commissions to embassies
Public international law concerns the structure and conduct of sovereign states, analogous entities, such as the Holy See, and intergovernmental organizations. To a lesser degree, international law may affect multinational corporations and individuals, the field of study combines two main branches, the law of nations and international agreements and conventions. The Italian jurist Sir Alberico Gentili was the first to write on public international law and it is usually distinguished from private international law, which concerns the resolution of conflict of laws. The concept of nationalism became increasingly important as people began to see themselves as citizens of a nation with a distinct national identity. Men who take up arms against one another in public war do not cease on this account to be moral beings, responsible to one another and it does not admit of the use of poison in any way, nor of the wanton devastation of a district. It admits of deception, but disclaims acts of perfidy, and, in general, because international law is a relatively new area of law its development and propriety in applicable areas are often subject to dispute.
Under article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, in addition, judicial decisions and teachings may be applied as subsidiary means for the determination of rules of law. International treaty law comprises obligations states expressly and voluntarily accept between themselves in treaties, customary international law is derived from the consistent practice of States accompanied by opinio juris, i. e. the conviction of States that the consistent practice is required by a legal obligation. Judgments of international tribunals as well as scholarly works have traditionally looked to as persuasive sources for custom in addition to direct evidence of state behavior. Attempts to codify customary international law picked up momentum after the Second World War with the formation of the International Law Commission, codified customary law is made the binding interpretation of the underlying custom by agreement through treaty. For states not party to treaties, the work of the ILC may still be accepted as custom applying to those states.
General principles of law are commonly recognized by the major legal systems of the world. Certain norms of international law achieve the binding force of peremptory norms as to all states with no permissible derogations. Colombia v Perú ICJ6, recognising custom as a source of international law, belgium v Spain ICJ1, only the state where a corporation is incorporated has standing to bring an action for damages for economic loss. Where there are disputes about the meaning and application of national laws. The subjective approach, which takes into consideration i. the idea behind the treaty, ii. treaties in their context, what the writers intended when they wrote the text. A third approach, which bases itself on interpretation in the light of its object and purpose, i. e. the interpretation that best suits the goal of the treaty and these are general rules of interpretation, specific rules might exist in specific areas of international law. Greece v United Kingdom ICJ1, ICJ had no jurisdiction to hear a dispute between the UK government and a private Greek businessman under the terms of a treaty
Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger was a German and Swiss artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style. He is best known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century and he produced religious art and Reformation propaganda, and made a significant contribution to the history of book design. He is called the Younger to distinguish him from his father, Hans Holbein the Elder, Born in Augsburg, Holbein worked mainly in Basel as a young artist. At first he painted murals and religious works and designed for stained glass windows and he painted the occasional portrait, making his international mark with portraits of the humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam. When the Reformation reached Basel, Holbein worked for reformist clients while continuing to serve traditional religious patrons and his Late Gothic style was enriched by artistic trends in Italy and the Netherlands, as well as by Renaissance humanism. The result was a combined aesthetic uniquely his own, Holbein travelled to England in 1526 in search of work, with a recommendation from Erasmus.
He was welcomed into the humanist circle of Thomas More, where he built a high reputation. After returning to Basel for four years, he resumed his career in England in 1532 and this time he worked under the patronage of Anne Boleyn and Thomas Cromwell. By 1535, he was Kings Painter to King Henry VIII, in this role, he produced not only portraits and festive decorations but designs for jewellery and other precious objects. His portraits of the family and nobles are a record of the court in the years when Henry was asserting his supremacy over the English church. Holbeins art was prized from early in his career, the French poet and reformer Nicholas Bourbon dubbed him the Apelles of our time, a typical contemporary accolade. Holbein has described as a great one-off of art history. After his death, some of his work was lost, but much was collected, recent exhibitions have highlighted his versatility. He turned his fluid line to designs ranging from jewellery to monumental frescoes. Holbeins art has sometimes been called realist, since he drew and his portraits were renowned in their time for their likeness, and it is through Holbeins eyes that many famous figures of his day, such as Erasmus and More, are now seen.
Holbein was never content, with outward appearance and he embedded layers of symbolism and paradox in his art, to the lasting fascination of scholars. In the view of art historian Ellis Waterhouse, his portraiture remains unsurpassed for sureness and economy of statement, penetration into character, Holbein was born in the free imperial city of Augsburg during the winter of 1497–98. He was a son of the painter and draughtsman Hans Holbein the Elder, whose trade he and his brother, Ambrosius
Guadeloupe is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. Administratively, it is a region consisting of a single overseas department. With a land area of 1,628 square kilometres and a population of 400,132 as of January 2015. Guadeloupes two main islands are Basse-Terre to the west and Grande-Terre to the east, which are separated by a strait that is crossed with bridges. They are often referred to as a single island, the department includes the Dependencies of Guadeloupe, which include the smaller islands of Marie-Galante and La Désirade, and the Îles des Saintes. Guadeloupe, like the other departments, is an integral part of France. As a constituent territory of the European Union and the Eurozone, as an overseas department, however, it is not part of the Schengen Area. The prefecture of Guadeloupe is the city of Basse-Terre, which lies on the island of the same name, the official language is French, and virtually the entire population except recent arrivals from metropolitan France speak Antillean Creole.
Christopher Columbus named the island Santa María de Guadalupe in 1493 after the Virgin Mary, venerated in the Spanish town of Guadalupe, the island was called Karukera by the Arawak people, who settled on there in 300 AD/CE. During the 8th century, the Caribs came and killed the population of Amerindians on the island. During his second trip to the Americas, in November 1493, Christopher Columbus became the first European to land on Guadeloupe, while seeking fresh water. He called it Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura, after the image of the Virgin Mary venerated at the Spanish monastery of Villuercas, in Guadalupe, the expedition set ashore just south of Capesterre, but left no settlers behind. Columbus is credited with discovering the pineapple on the island of Guadeloupe in 1493 and he called it piña de Indias, which can be correctly translated as pine cone of the Indies. During the 17th century, the Caribs fought against the Spanish settlers, after successful settlement on the island of St.
Due to Martiniques inhospitable nature, the duo resolved to settle in Guadeloupe in 1635, took possession of the island and it was annexed to the kingdom of France in 1674. Over the next century, the British seized the island several times, the economy benefited from the lucrative sugar trade, which commenced during the closing decades of the 17th century. Guadeloupe produced more sugar than all the British islands combined, worth about £6 million a year, the British captured Guadeloupe in 1759. The British government decided that Canada was strategically important and kept Canada while returning Guadeloupe to France in the Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven Years War
Many principles of diplomatic immunity are now considered to be customary law. Diplomatic immunity as an institution developed to allow for the maintenance of government relations, including during periods of difficulties, an international agreement known as the Vienna Conventions codified the rules and agreements, providing standards and privileges to all states. However, many refuse to waive immunity as a matter of course. Alternatively, the country may prosecute the individual. If immunity is waived by a government so that a diplomat can be prosecuted, it must be there is a case to answer. For instance, in 2002, a Colombian diplomat in London was prosecuted for manslaughter, the concept of diplomatic immunity can be found in ancient Indian epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata, where messengers and diplomats were given immunity from capital punishment. During the evolution of justice, many wars were considered rebellions or unlawful by one or more combatant sides. In such cases, the servants of the sovereign were often considered accomplices.
In other circumstances, harbingers of inconsiderable demands were killed as a declaration of war, even for Herodotus, this maltreatment of envoys is a crime, and he immediately recounts a story of divine vengeance befalling Sparta for this deed. A Roman envoy was urinated on as he was leaving the city of Tarentum, the oath of the envoy, This stain will be washed away with blood. Was fulfilled during the Second Punic War, the arrest and ill-treatment of the envoy of Raja Raja Chola by the king of Kulasekhara dynasty, which is now part of modern India, led to the naval Kandalur War in AD994. Pope Gelasius I was the first pope recorded as enjoying diplomatic immunity, genghis Khan and the Mongols were well known for strongly insisting on the rights of diplomats, and they would often take terrifying vengeance against any state that violated these rights. The Mongols would often raze entire cities in retaliation for the execution of their ambassadors, modern diplomatic immunity evolved parallel to the development of modern diplomacy.
In the 17th century, European diplomats realized that protection from prosecution was essential to doing their jobs, and these were still confined to Western Europe and were closely tied to the prerogatives of nobility. Thus, an emissary to the Ottoman Empire could expect to be arrested and imprisoned upon the outbreak of hostilities between his state and the empire, the French Revolution disrupted this system, as the revolutionary state and Napoleon imprisoned numerous diplomats who were accused of working against France. More recently, the Iran hostage crisis is considered a violation of diplomatic immunity. Although the hostage takers did not officially represent the state, host countries are obligated to protect diplomatic property, on the other hand, during World War II, diplomatic immunity was upheld and the embassies of the belligerents were evacuated through neutral countries. For the upper class of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, the first embassies were not permanent establishments but actual visits by high-ranking representatives, often close relatives, of the sovereign or the sovereign in person
Francis I of France
Francis I was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and he succeeded his cousin and father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a male heir. Francis reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, Jacques Cartier and others claimed lands in the Americas for France and paved the way for the expansion of the first French colonial empire. For his role in the development and promotion of a standardized French language, he became known as le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres. He was known as François au Grand Nez, the Grand Colas, following the policy of his predecessors, Francis continued the Italian Wars. In his struggle against Imperial hegemony, he sought the support of Henry VIII of England at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. When this was unsuccessful, he formed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with the Muslim sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, a controversial move for a Christian king at the time.
Francis was born on 12 September 1494 at the Château de Cognac in the town of Cognac, which at that time lay in the province of Saintonge, today the town lies in the department of Charente. Francis was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. His family was not expected to inherit the throne, as his third cousin King Charles VIII was still young at the time of his birth, as was his fathers cousin the Duke of Orléans, King Louis XII. However, Charles VIII died childless in 1498 and was succeeded by Louis XII, the Salic Law prevailed in France, thus females were ineligible to inherit the throne. Therefore, the four-year-old Francis became the heir presumptive to the throne of France in 1498 and was vested with the title of Duke of Valois. In 1505, Louis XII, having fallen ill, ordered that his daughter Claude and Francis be married immediately, Claude was heiress to the Duchy of Brittany through her mother, Anne of Brittany. Following Annes death, the took place on 18 May 1514.
Louis died shortly afterwards and Francis inherited the throne and he was crowned King of France in the Cathedral of Reims on 25 January 1515, with Claude as his queen consort. As Francis was receiving his education, ideas emerging from the Italian Renaissance were influential in France, some of his tutors, such as François Desmoulins de Rochefort and Christophe de Longueil, were attracted by these new ways of thinking and attempted to influence Francis. His academic education had been in arithmetic, grammar, reading, Francis came to learn chivalry and music and he loved archery, horseback riding, jousting, real tennis and wrestling. He ended up reading philosophy and theology and he was fascinated with art, literature and his mother, who had a high admiration for Italian Renaissance art, passed this interest on to her son
Head of government
The term head of government is often differentiated from the term head of state, as they may be separate positions, and/or roles depending on the country. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto leader of the government. For example, in the United Kingdom, the prime minister advises the Queen on the appointment of the cabinet, advice she is required to accept. On the other hand, the Queens long service as the head of state enables her to provide the prime minister with information and insight into many matters to better run the government. However, because the United Kingdom is a monarchy, the Prime Minister uses his or her own discretion regarding whether or not to follow the Queens advice. The Queen is entitled to appoint a new Prime Minister, in presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary greatly, ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, in semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each countrys constitution.
A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958, in France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, who is the head of government. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party, in this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the presidents influence is largely restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people, a prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister, various constitutions use different titles, and even the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, some of these titles relate to governments below the national level.
Have been used by various Empires and Princely States of India as a title for the Prime Minister, maltese, In Malta, the head of government is Prim Ministru. In this case, the prime minister serves at the pleasure of the monarch, some such titles are diwan, pradhan, wasir or vizier. However, just because the head of state is the de jure dominant position does not mean that he/she will not always be the de facto political leader, in some cases, the head of state is a figurehead whilst the head of the government leads the ruling party. In some cases a head of government may even pass on the title in hereditary fashion, the ability to vote down legislative proposals of the government. Control over or ability to vote down fiscal measures and the budget, all of these requirements directly impact the Head of governments role. Many parliamentary systems require ministers to serve in parliament, while others ban ministers from sitting in parliament, heads of government are typically removed from power in a parliamentary system by Resignation, Defeat in a general election
She serves as Liechtensteins Permanent Representative to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and to the United Nations. Born in Vienna as Princess Maria-Pia of Liechtenstein, Kothbauer is the child and second daughter of Prince Karl Alfred and his wife. A member of the Princely Family of Liechtenstein, she is a first cousin of the present monarch, on 4 August 1995, she married Max Kothbauer, now Vice President of the National Bank of Austria. The couples only child, a son named Hieronymus, was born on 26 January 1997, since her marriage, she has been officially styled as Her Serene Highness Maria-Pia Kothbauer, Princess of Liechtenstein. Princess Maria-Pia graduated from the Schule der Dominikanerinnen, run by Dominican nuns and she enrolled in Columbia University, attaining the degree of Master of Arts in Political Science. From 1984 until 1986, she worked for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, since 1989, Princess Maria-Pia has been in diplomatic service of the Principality of Liechtenstein, and started working for the Embassy of Liechtenstein in Vienna in 1990.
From 1993 until 1996, she served as Liechtensteins Ambassador to Belgium, in December next year, Kothbauer assumed the office of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Liechtenstein to Austria. Since July 2000, she has served as Permanent Representative of Liechtenstein to the United Nations, in April 2011, she became Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Liechtenstein to the Czech Republic. Kothbauer speaks German and French, and has knowledge of Spanish
Saint Ursula is a Romano-British Christian saint. Her feast day in the pre-1970 General Roman Calendar is October 21, after a miraculous storm brought them over the sea in a single day to a Gaulish port, Ursula declared that before her marriage she would undertake a pan-European pilgrimage. She headed for Rome with her followers and persuaded the Pope, after setting out for Cologne, which was being besieged by Huns, all the virgins were beheaded in a massacre. The Huns leader fatally shot Ursula with a bow and arrow in about 383, the legend of Ursula is based on a 4th- or 5th-century inscription from the Church of St. Ursula, located on Ursulaplatz in Cologne. It states that the ancient basilica had been restored on the site where some holy virgins were killed, the Catholic Encyclopedia states that this legend, with its countless variants and increasingly fabulous developments, would fill more than a hundred pages. Various characteristics of it were regarded with suspicion by certain medieval writers.
Neither Jerome nor Gregory of Tours refers to Ursula in their writings, Gregory of Tours mentions the legend of the Theban Legion, to whom a church that once stood in Cologne was dedicated. The most important hagiographers of the early Middle Ages do not enter Ursula under October 21, her feast day. A legend resembling Ursulas appeared in the first half of the century, but it does not mention the name of Ursula. Pinnosas relics were transferred about 947 from Cologne to Essen, in 970, for example, the first Passio Ursulae was written naming Ursula rather than Pinnosa as the groups leader. This change might be due in part to the discovery at this time of an epitaph speaking of Ursula the innocent virgin, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, a 12th-century British cleric and writer, Ursula was the daughter of Dionotus, ruler of Cornwall. But this may have based on his misreading of the words Deo notus in the second Passio Ursulae. While there was a tradition of virgin martyrs in Cologne by the fifth century, yet the cleric Wandelbert of the Abbey of Prüm stated in his martyrology in 848 that the number of martyrs counted thousands of saints who were slaughtered on the boards of the River Rhine. M. V. as eleven thousand virgins rather than eleven martyred virgins and this was subsequently misread or misinterpreted as undicimila, thus producing the legend of the 11,000 virgins.
In fact, the bearing the virgin Ursulas name states that she lived eight years. Another theory is there was only one virgin martyr, named Undecimilla. It has suggested that cum militibus with soldiers was misread as cum millibus with thousands. Most contemporary sources, cling to the number 11,000, the Passio from the 970s tries to bridge conflicting traditions by stating that the eleven maidens each commanded a ship containing one thousand virgins