Whist is a classic English trick-taking card game, played in the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the rules are simple, there is scope for scientific play. Whist is a descendant of the 16th-century game of ruff. Whist replaced the popular variant of trump known as ruff and honours; the game takes its name from the 17th Century whist meaning quiet, attentive, the root of the modern wistful. According to Daines Barrington, whist was first played on scientific principles by a party of gentlemen who frequented the Crown Coffee House in Bedford Row, around 1728. Edmond Hoyle, suspected to be a member of this group, began to tutor wealthy young gentlemen in the game and published A Short Treatise on the Game of Whist in 1742, it became the standard text and rules for the game for the next hundred years. In 1862 Henry Jones, writing under the pseudonym "Cavendish", published The Principles of Whist Stated and Explained, Its Practice Illustrated on an Original System, by Means of Hands Played Completely Through, which became the standard text.
Many subsequent editions and enlargements of this work were published using the simpler title Cavendish On Whist. By this time whist was governed by elaborate and rigid rules covering the laws of the game and play which took time to study and master. In the 1890s, a variant known as bridge whist became popular which evolved into contract bridge; the traditional game of whist survives at social events called whist drives. There are many modern variants of whist played for fun. A standard 52-card pack is used; the cards in each suit rank from highest to lowest: A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2. Whist is played by four players, who play in two partnerships with the partners sitting opposite each other. Players draw cards to determine dealer and partners, with the two highest playing against the lowest two, who have seating rights. To comment on the cards in any way is against the rules. One may not comment upon the hand one was dealt nor about bad fortune. One may not signal to one's partner; the cards can be shuffled by any player, though the player to dealer's left.
The dealer has the right to shuffle last. To speed up dealing, a second pack can be shuffled by the dealer's partner during the deal and placed to the right ready for the next hand; the cards are cut by the player on dealer's right before dealing. The dealer deals out all the cards, one at a time, face down, so that each player has thirteen cards; the final card, which belongs to the dealer, is turned face up to indicate. The turned-up trump card remains face up on the table until it is the dealer's turn to play to the first trick, at which point the dealer may pick up the card and place it in their hand; the deal advances clockwise. The player to the dealer's left leads to the first trick, he may lead any card in his hand. The other players, in clockwise order, each play a card to the trick and must follow suit by playing a card of the suit led if he has one. A player with no card of the suit led may play any card, either trumping; the trick is won by the highest card of the suit led, unless a trump is played, in which case the highest trump wins.
The winner of the trick leads the next trick. Play continues. If no team has enough points to win the game, another hand is played. Part of the skill involved in the game is one's ability to remember what cards have been played and reason out what cards remain. Therefore, once each trick is played, its cards are turned face down and kept in a stack of four near the player who won the trick. Before the next trick starts, a player may ask to review the cards from the last trick only. Once the lead card is played, however, no played cards can be reviewed by anyone. After all tricks have been played, the side which won more tricks scores 1 point for each trick won in excess of 6; when all four players are experienced, it is unusual for the score for a single hand to be higher than two. A game is over. There are so-called "Hotel Rules" variations where other numbers are agreed to be played to in advance such as "American" and "Long", where the games are played to seven and nine respectively; the "Long" version is combined with "Honours."
In longer variations of the game, those games where the winning score is not the standard 5 points, honours are points that are claimed at the end of each hand. Honours add nothing to the play of a hand. Honours serve only as an element of luck that speeds up games, they are omitted. Serious players disdain honours because it increases the element of chance. A team, dealt the top four cards in the trump suit collect extra points. A team who holds three of the four honours between them claim 2 points, a team who holds all four honours between them claim 4 points. Tricks are scored before honours. Honours points can never be used for the last point of a game. Consider the following example: A game is being played to 9 points; the score is tied at 6. A hand is played and the winner of that hand took seven tricks and claimed honours; that team would receive only 1 point for honours. The score would be 8 to 6. For the opening lead, it is best to lead your strongest suit, the longest. A singleton may be a good lead, aiming at trumping in that suit, as one's partner should return the suit led.
1st hand: It is usual to lead the king from a sequence of honours that includes it, including AK. 2nd hand plays low with a single honour. However, it is correct
Gilet (card game)
Gilet Gile, Gillet, is a 16th-century Italian gambling card game which antedates the game of Primero. Rabelais, in 1534, gives it pride of place in his list of games played by Gargantua, Cardano, in 1564, describes it as Geleus, from the word Geleo, meaning "I have it". One of the Italian versions of the name is Gilè; the Manuale dei Giuochi, published in Trieste in 1593 lists a series of games played in Italy at the time, among them the game of Gilet. In John Florio's 1611 dictionary it is explained that the game of Gilet was "like our poste and paire", being "Gé", the word for "Pair", one of the announcements in the French version; the name Gilet changed to Brelan in the time of Charles IX, The Gilet of 18th century France was a three-card game of two deals, the first for a fixed stake won by the best pair or triplet, the second vied for in respect of the best-held flush-point. It first appeared in the Académie Universelle des Jeux in 1718, although its earlier references date of 1610 and 1640.
The Spanish variant is described by Barnes as "Giley", who says it was much played at horse fairs, hence, by association, a gypsy game. It was played by four or more players who were dealt four cards each from a 28-card pack and a showdown was won by the best flush-point. With Ace worth 11, courts and deuces 10 each, Seven worth 7, so a four-flush would be worth 37-41 points, a three-flush 27-30, so on. Not dissimilar is Golfo, a game of Basque origin, declared by Barnes to be the king of gambling games and played as Goffo in Italy and Gofo in Uruguay; the game of Gilet is played by four players. A Piquet deck of 32 cards is used, 7 to A; the aces are higher than the king, higher than the queen, higher than the jack and so on. After examining their cards, each contributes with two counters, worth as much as it is agreed by the players, to a common pot in the middle of the table; the dealer gives three cards to each of the players, one after the other. Any of the two pots in the middle of the table is entitled for Pair.
It is possible for the players to bet on pairs, that player who has the highest pair draws the money deposited in the pot and the betting from the other players, unless one or more have a tricon, the highest combination of cards, that is, three aces, three kings, three queens and so on. When one of the players win with a pair, the game conveys to the second pot entitled for the Point or Flow. To have flow is to have three cards of the same suit, etc, it depends not only on the first player to stay on a simple game or bet whatever he wants for the second pot, but on the second player to raise the bet staked by the first player or to concede the amount bet passing, in case he does not have a good hand. Two aces are worth twenty and a half, one ace and a king, or another card of the same suit, worth ten, are worth twenty one and a half. Two aces and a king, or another card of the same suit, worth ten, are worth twenty one and half the other cards which are worth their value, which must be of the same suit to add the number of the several cards together.
After that, the player bets as much as he wants and those players who hold higher combinations continue the game, to say, if they have Flow or not. We say that whoever has more points always wins, because that player with the highest flow always have more points. Brelan Ambigu Primo visto Academie universelle des jeux Amsterdam ed. 1786, at Google Books
Put (card game)
Put is an English tavern trick-taking card game first recorded in the 16th century and castigated by 17th century moralists as one of ill repute. It belongs to a ancient family of card games and relates to a group known as Trut, Truque Tru, the South American game Truco, its more elaborate version is the Spanish game of Truc, still much played in many parts of Southern France and Spain. The name Put, pronounced "u", like the name of the English village of Putney, derives from "putting up your cards in cafe", if you do not like them, or from "putting each other to the shift"; the game of Put appears in a "riddle", or acrostic written by a Royalist in the thrilling interval between the resignation of Richard Cromwell on May 25, 1659 and the restoration of Charles II, crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. It expresses in enigmatical terms the designs and hopes of the King's adherents, under colour of describing a game of "Put"; the initial letters of the seven verses are an anagram, indicate the number of cards shared between the two players in the game.
S, X, I, C, R, A, T, make six cartes. Six cards are expressly mentioned in the riddle itself, namely: "the Knave", "a King", "Heart", "Trey", "Quarter" or quatre, "the Buck". "The Buck" one of the picture-cards, or the ace, inferior to "Trey", the best card in the game of put. "Pulling down the Buck", is an allusion to hunting. The game of Put is played by two people, sometimes by three, by four, with a 52-card pack with cards ranking 3-2-A-K-Q-J-T-9-8-7-6-5-4 in each suit; the game is won by the first player to score 5 points over as many deals as necessary, or by the player who wins a majority of three tricks played in any deal. The player drawing the highest Put card deals first, the deal alternates. Shuffle and deal three cards to each player in a clockwise mode, one at time; the turn to deal always passes to the left. Tricks are played to unusual rules. Any card may be led, the other player may play any card: there is no need to follow suit and there are no trumps; the trick is taken by the higher card, the winner of one trick leads to the next.
If cards of equal rank are played e.g. two Threes, two Aces, or whatever, the trick is tied and belongs to neither player. In this case it is put to one side, whoever led to it leads to the next. If non-dealer throws up his cards, he loses 1 point. If each player obtain one trick, the third is a tie neither party scores. Either player, when about to lead to a trick, may do one of three things: Throw his hand in, thus conceding the deal and 1 point to the opponent. Lead a card without saying anything, his opponent must play. Say "Put", short for "I put it to you that you should throw your cards in while you have the chance". If the opponent follows this advice, the deal ends and the putter scores 1 point. If not, putter leads and the other must play; the game is won outright, regardless of points scored, by the player who winds two tricks in a deal, or one trick if the other two are tied. If each player wins one trick and one trick it tied, the result is a draw by "trick and tie" and there is no score for that deal.
If neither wins outright, the winner is the first player to score 5 points for concessions. If the dealer accidentally discover any of his adversary's cards, the latter may insist upon a new deal. If the dealer discover any of his own cards in dealing, he must abide by the deal; when a faced card is discovered during the deal, the cards must be dealt again. If the dealer give his adversary more cards than are necessary, the adversary may call a fresh deal, or suffer the dealer to draw the extra cards from his hand. If the dealer give himself more cards than are his due, the adversary may add a point to his game, call a fresh deal, or draw the extra cards from the dealer's hand. No bystander must interfere, under penalty of paying the stakes. Either party saying "I put", that is, "I play", play cannot retract, but must abide the event of the game or pay the stakes. Neither player will reach 5 points, because as soon as he reaches 4 the other will have no incentive to concede. Having nothing to lose, he may as well play the hand out on the off-chance of winning outright.
This is not a defect in the game, though there may be a defect in the only original source from which all accounts of the game derive. What it means, in effect, is that in the course of one game you have four chances of throwing your cards in without penalty the points are not a score so much as a way of keeping count of your used opportunities. Of course, you could agree that an outright win earns a double game or stake, a win on points only a single, in which case they become a "score" rather that of a "count". Considerable daring is necessary in this game, for a bold player will "Put" upon bad cards in order to tempt his adversary into giving him a point. Sometimes the hand is played with "Putting", when the winner of the three tricks, or of two out of three, scores 1 point; the best cards are first: the Three's, next the Two's, and
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Piquet is an early 16th-century trick-taking card game for two players, still popular today. Piquet is one of the oldest card games still being played, it was first mentioned on a written reference dating to 1535, in Gargantua and Pantagruel by Rabelais. Although legend attributes the game's creation to Stephen de Vignolles known as La Hire, a knight in the service of Charles VII during the Hundred Years' War, it may have come into France from Spain because the words "pique" and "repique", the main features of the game, are of Spanish origin; the game was introduced in Germany during the Thirty Years' War, texts of that period provide substantial evidence of its vogue, like the metaphorical use of the word "repique" in the 1634–8 political poem Allamodisch Picket Spiel, which reflects the growing popularity of the game at that time. As with other games like bête, the substantive form of the word "piquet" was turned into a verb and this is used by Rist's 1640 Spiele: die man Picquetten, who gives the word his grudging assent.
Until the early twentieth century, piquet was the most popular card game in France, occupying a similar position to cribbage in England. It first became popular in England after the marriage of Mary I of England to Philip II of Spain in 1554. During this period the game was known as cent, after the Spanish game cientos, referring to the fact that one of the chief goals of piquet is to reach 100 points. Following the marriage of King Charles I of England to Henrietta Maria of France in 1625, the British adopted the French name for the game, it went in and out of fashion among the upper classes in Britain between the 17th and early 20th centuries. Piquet is played with a 32-card deck referred to as a piquet deck; the deck comprises the 7s through to 10s, the face cards, the aces in each suit, can be created by removing all 2–6 values from a 52-card poker deck. Each game consists of a partie of six deals; the player scoring. In Piquet cards rank as follows: The player who cuts the higher card has to deal, the dealer has the choice of cards at the commencement of each partie.
A partie consists of six deals. The players deal alternately for each hand in the partie, it is preferable to deal first. Dealing puts a player at a disadvantage. Twelve cards are dealt to each player, with the remaining eight forming the talon, placed face-down between the players; the talon may be split by the dealer into two piles of three cards, respectively. The dealer is referred to as the non-dealer as the elder hand; the goal of exchanging cards is to improve one's hand before the play. The elder hand exchanges first; this is done by placing them face down. An equal number is drawn from the talon. At least one card must be exchanged; the player must state. If the elder chooses to take fewer than the maximum, he may look at the remainder from the five; the younger hand exchanges next. Again, at least one card must be exchanged; the younger may exchange up to five cards, depending on how many the elder exchanged. If the elder exchanged all five obviously the younger may only exchange up to three.
After the deal, players sort their cards in their hands. A player with no court cards may declare "carte blanche,", worth 10 points. Carte blanche should be declared immediately. Either player declaring carte blanche must show their hand to the other. However, to preserve fairness, a formal protocol should be followed: Elder declares the number of cards that will be exchanged, sets them to the side. Younger chooses cards to be exchanged, sets them to the side. Elder displays entire hand, including cards set aside. Younger displays. A hand of this type is rare, appearing once every 1,800 hands. Although it scores poorly, it is advantageous to declare it to prevent the opponent from scoring pique or repique, despite the tactical disadvantage of giving information to the opponent. Note: It is impossible for both players to hold carte blanche, so it will never happen that both players declare'carte blanche. In the declaration phase, the players ascertain; this is done in an oblique sort of way. Elder hand declares first always, with younger responding.
In each part of the declaration, the younger hand may choose to contest the elder's claim. By doing so, the younger may reveal information that would be useful during the trick-taking phase, called the play; the elder may choose not to reveal information in one or more parts of the declaration. If the elder has at least four cards in a suit, he may make a declaration: for example, "Point of four"; the younger would respond indicating that he has more, fewer, or the same number of cards in a suit. This is done by saying "Good", "Not good", or "Making?" or "How many?", indicating that the younger has the same number of cards in a suit, which requires clarification. If both players have the same number of cards in a suit they must tally the value of the cards; the values of the cards are as follows: ace = 11, face cards = 10
Reversis, or more Réversi, is a old trick-taking card game of the Hearts group whose origin is supposed to be Italian, transformed into Spain and in France. It is considered one of the two probable ancestor of Hearts and Black Maria, the other being Conquimbert, or Losing Lodam, it was popular with the French aristocracy in the 17th and 18th centuries, much played elsewhere, except in Britain. The game involved a complex system of pools and side-payments, its name may have come from the reverse order and construction of the game itself, or from an exceptional slam bid which, like “shooting the moon” in the game of Hearts, reverses the whole normal practice of the game. The game of Reversis was first mentioned in France in 1601, under the name Reversin, played with a 52-card pack. Jean-Baptiste Bullet suggested it was invented in the Court of Francis I. Reversis is a subtle game which knew important additions, in particular towards the end of the 18th century in the form of options. In the 19th century, the popular game of Reversis saw its rules becoming more and more complex with the exclusive use of preceding options making it a high-tension kind of game.
It was long thought to be a game of Spanish origin, once a 48-card pack was used, besides its counter-clockwise rotation and the words Quinola, name of a 17th-century Spanish admiral, Espagnolette, but it more originated in Italy where a negative variety of Tressette called Rovescino is still played. The highest cards were best in the usual method of play; the Jack was a better card than the King, one of them, the Jack of Hearts, was called the quinola, just like at Primero. The strange incongruity of this inverted order of things made the Spaniards, when this game became known to them, give it the appropriate denomination of La Gana pierde, that is, the winner loses; the game of Reversis is a trick-avoidance game where each player attempts to avoid taking tricks with certain cards in them. It is played by four players with a 52-card pack lacking 10s, making 48 cards in total, ranking A K Q J 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2, being Aces high; each player starts with a box containing 36 units called "fish", 24 "counters" worth 6 fish each, 6 "contracts" worth 8 counters each, making a total equivalent to 468 fish.
The dealer deals three cards to four to himself in the first round. Each non-dealer must put a card under the pools, replace it with the card opposite him on the table; the dealer places one, but does not pick any up. If three “remises”, or stakes, are in the pools any player may pick up a card or not. If a player does not pick up, he may see it; the cards rank as at Whist, the points in the tricks are 40, each Ace reckoning 4, King 3, Queen 2, Jack 1. The points in the discard, which form'the party', that is, the amount paid by the loser to the winner, score as in the tricks, except the Ace of Diamonds, worth 5 points, the Jack of Hearts, called the'great quinola', worth 4; the player with the fewest points wins the party. If two players happen to have the same number of points he who has the fewest tricks has the preference. If points and tricks are equal he who dealt last wins, but he who has not a trick has the preference over a trick without points. If the'espagnolette' is played and won, gains the party in preference to the last dealer.
When every trick is made by the same person, there is no party, this is called making the reversis. The great quinola pool should consist of 26 fish, should be renewed every time it is cleared, or if it contains fewer than the 26 fish; this stake is attached to the Jack of Hearts, or “great quinola”, which cannot be put to the discard, unless there are three stakes, or a hundred chips in the pool. The little quinola pool, consisting of 13 chips and it is attached to the Queen of Hearts, called the'little quinola', it should be renewed in proportion as the other. The little quinola can not be put to the discard, unless there are 50 chips in the pool; each time either or both of the quinolas are placed or played on a renounce, they are entitled to the stakes attached to them, except when there are three stakes in the pool the great quinola is to receive 100 chips, the little quinola 50. On the contrary, each time the quinolas are forced, the stakes are to be paid in the same proportion as they would have been received, except only if the player who played the quinolas making the reversis, played it before the last two tricks.
Every trick must be made by one player so that the reversis is made, done when the first nine tricks are won by the same player. There is an end to the party and the quinolas if held by him, unless he has played both or either of them before the last two tricks. But, on the contrary, if his reversis is broken, he is not only to pay the reversis broken, but the stakes to the pools, for the quinolas he may have played before the reversis was undertaken. All stakes which are paid for Aces or quinola by the player undertaking the reversis, are to be returned on winning it; when the reversis is won or broke, the espagnolette pays singly for all
Bouillotte is an 18th-century French gambling card game of the Revolution based on Brelan popular during the 19th century in France and again for some years from 1830. It was popular in America; the game is regarded as one of the games. It gave rise to the Bouillotte lamp, consisting of one or several candlesticks with a central standard equipped with a non-flammable adjustable shade. Often made of tôle, a painted or lacquered metal, reflective white on the inside, dark on the outside, that could be lowered as the candles burned down. A piquet pack is used, reduced to twenty cards by removing the sevens and Jacks; when five people play, the Jacks are not removed, when three play, the queens are taken out as well. The ace is the highest card in cutting. Two packs are used, so that while one deck is being used, the other can be shuffled. Counters or chips, as in poker, are used. To determine where a person sits, a sequence of cards is taken out of the deck, equal to the number of players They are shuffled, each player draws one.
The player with the ace chooses where to sit etc.. First dealer is the player with the king. Before the deal each player "antes" one counter to the pot, after which each, the "age" passing, may "raise" the pot. Three cards are dealt to each player, a thirteenth, called the retourné, when four play, turned up; each player must bet, raise or drop out. When a call is made the hands are shown and the best hand wins; the hands rank as follows: Brélan Carré, four of a kind, one being the retourné. Simple Brélan, three of a kind, ace being high. Brélan Favori, three of a kind, one being the retourné. If more than one player has a brélan, the best is one. If none matches, that of highest rank wins. Any player with a brelan receives a side-payment of one chip, two if it is a carré, from each opponent. If no player holds a brélan, the hand holding the greatest number of pips wins. All hands are turned face up, including those of players; the face values of all these cards are totalled for each suit, ace counting 11, court cards 10 and numerals their face value.
The "best suit" is the one with the highest visible total, the player holding the highest card of it wins the pot, provided that he has not dropped. If he has, the winner is the player counting the greatest face value of cards in any other suit. Une Douillotte is French for a Hot-water Bottle Put Brelan Ambigu Gilet