It covered an area of 190,800 sq mi. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts, Gallia Celtica and Aquitania, during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule, Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, Gallia remains a name of France in modern Greek and modern Latin. The Greek and Latin names Galatia, and Gallia are ultimately derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal-to-. Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the supposedly milk-white skin of the Gauls, modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu, Cornish galloes, power, thus meaning powerful people. The English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, as adjectives, English has the two variants and Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls, although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish.
The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French, unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the name Gael. The Irish word gall did originally mean a Gaul, i. e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was widened to foreigner, to describe the Vikings, and still the Normans. The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, by 500 BC, there is strong Hallstatt influence throughout most of France. By the late 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads rapidly across the territory of Gaul. The La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Italy, southwest Germany, Moravia, farther north extended the contemporary pre-Roman Iron Age culture of northern Germany and Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the Romans described Gallia Transalpina as distinct from Gallia Cisalpina, while some scholars believe the Belgae south of the Somme were a mixture of Celtic and Germanic elements, their ethnic affiliations have not been definitively resolved.
One of the reasons is political interference upon the French historical interpretation during the 19th century, in addition to the Gauls, there were other peoples living in Gaul, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians who had established outposts such as Massilia along the Mediterranean coast. Also, along the southeastern Mediterranean coast, the Ligures had merged with the Celts to form a Celto-Ligurian culture, the prosperity of Mediterranean Gaul encouraged Rome to respond to pleas for assistance from the inhabitants of Massilia, who were under attack by a coalition of Ligures and Gauls. The Romans intervened in Gaul in 154 BC and again in 125 BC, whereas on the first occasion they came and went, on the second they stayed. Massilia was allowed to keep its lands, but Rome added to its territories the lands of the conquered tribes. The direct result of conquests was that by now, Rome controlled an area extending from the Pyrenees to the lower Rhône river
It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of nonviolent resistance, or the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. The term resistance is used to designate a movement considered legitimate. Organizations and individuals critical of foreign intervention and supporting forms of organized movement tend to favor the term, when such a resistance movement uses violence, those favorably disposed to it may speak of freedom fighters. More recently the 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation and against racist regimes. This phraseology contains many ambiguities that cloud the issue of who is or is not a legitimate combatant, the distinction is a political judgment. The modern usage of the term Resistance originates from the self-designation of many movements during World War II, the term is still strongly linked to the context of the events of 1939–45, and particularly to opposition movements in Axis-occupied countries.
Using the term resistance to designate a movement meeting the definition prior to World War II might be considered by some to be an anachronism. However, such movements existed prior to World War II, and there have been many after it – for example in struggles against colonialism, Resistance has become a generic term that has been used to designate underground resistance movements in any country. Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority and this frequently includes groups that consider themselves to be resisting tyranny. Some resistance movements are underground organizations engaged in a struggle for liberation in a country under military occupation or totalitarian domination. Any government facing violent acts from a resistance movement usually condemns such acts as terrorism, Resistance during World War II was mainly dedicated to fighting the Axis occupiers. Germany itself had an anti-Nazi German resistance movement in this period, so, resistance is often understood as something that always opposes to power or domination.
However, some scholars believe and argue that looking at resistance in relation to only power and domination will not provide us a full understanding of the actual nature of resistance. Not all power, domination or oppression leads to resistance, and not all cases of resistance are against or to oppose what we categorize as “power. ”In fact, they believe that resistance has its own characteristics and spatialities. There are various forms of resistance for various reasons, which can be, different geographical spaces can make different forms of resistance possible or impossible and more effective or less effective. The reason is that these variations can define the nature and outcome of resistance and he compared this accident with a similar fire accident at Triangle Shirtwaist Company, New York,1911, killing 146 workers, which caused a labor resistance by 100,000 people. For an effective resistance, he proposed that four tasks should be undertaken, There are many forms of resistance in relations to different power dominations and actors.
Moreover, some other resistance takes place in order to resist or question the norms or discourse or in order to challenge a global trend called globalization
Asterix or The Adventures of Asterix is a series of French comics. The series first appeared in the Franco-Belgian comics magazine Pilote on 29 October 1959 and it was written by René Goscinny and illustrated by Albert Uderzo until the death of Goscinny in 1977. Uderzo took over the writing until 2009, when he sold the rights to publishing company Hachette, as of 2015,36 volumes have been released. The series follows the exploits of a village of indomitable Gauls as they resist Roman occupation and they do so by means of a magic potion brewed by their druid, named Getafix in the English translations, which temporarily gives the recipient superhuman strength. The protagonists, the titular character Asterix, along with his friend Obelix have various adventures, the ix ending of both names alludes to the rix suffix present in the names of many real Gaulish chieftains such as Vercingetorix and Dumnorix. Many of the stories have them travel to countries, though others are set in. For much of the history of the series, settings in Gaul and abroad alternated, with even-numbered volumes set abroad and odd-numbered volumes set in Gaul, mostly in the village.
The Asterix series is one of the most popular Franco-Belgian comics in the world, with the series being translated into over 100 languages, the success of the series has led to the adaptation of several books into 13 films, nine animated, and four live action. There have been a number of based on the characters. As of October 2009,325 million copies of 34 Asterix books had sold worldwide, making co-creators René Goscinny. Prior to creating the Asterix series and Uderzo had previously had success with their series Oumpah-pah, Astérix was originally serialised in Pilote magazine, in the very first issue published on 29 October 1959. In 1961 the first book was put together, titled Asterix the Gaul, from on, books were released generally on a yearly basis. Their success was exponential, the first book sold 6,000 copies in its year of publication, a year later, in 1963, the third sold 40,000, the fourth, released in 1964, sold 150,000. A year later, the fifth sold 300,000, 1966s Asterix, the ninth Asterix volume, when first released in 1967, sold 1.2 million copies in two days.
Uderzos first sketches portrayed Asterix as a huge and strong traditional Gaulish warrior, but Goscinny had a different picture in his mind. He visualized Asterix as a small sized warrior who would prefer intelligence over strength. However, Uderzo felt that the small sized hero needed a strong, despite the growing popularity of Asterix with the readers, the financial backing for Pilote ceased. Pilote was taken over by Georges Dargaud, when Goscinny died in 1977, Uderzo continued the series alone on the demand of the readers who implored him to continue
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
Though living in Gaul, they were described as being both Belgae, and Germani. The Eburones played a role in Julius Caesars account of his Gallic Wars, as the most important tribe within the Germani cisrhenani group of tribes. Germani living west of the Rhine amongst the Belgae, Caesar claimed that the name of the Eburones was wiped out after their failed revolt against his forces during the Gallic Wars. Whether any significant part of the population lived on in the area as Tungri, Caesar is the primary source for the location of the Eburones. In the early medieval church this evolved into the church province of Cologne. This large area included parts of what are now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium. At one point Caesar reported that the greatest part of the Eburones settled between the Mosa and the Rhine, and on this basis German scholars place them in the northern Eifel. More generally Caesars description of a narrow defile to its west, suitable for ambush, is a type of landscape less common as one goes north in this region, towards the low-lying Campine.
In the same passage, Caesar describes the Segni and Condrusi as being south of the Eburones, between them and the Treviri, who lived near the Moselle. This is difficult to reconcile with a territory near the Eifel because the Condrusi are the origin of the name of the Condroz region in the Ardennes, south of the Meuse, and west of the Eifel. No cultural groupings can be isolated to suit the Eburones in the north Eifel according to Edith Mary Wightman, in contrast, she writes that Belgian archaeologists identify them with the cultural group in northern Limburg and Kempen which showed such strong continuity in Urnfield times. This would certainly account for the propinquity of Eburones and Menapii mentioned by Caesar and this is seen to indicate that at least part of the Eburones lived west of the Maas, closer to the river deltas. Neighbouring both the Nervii and the Eburones, possibly between them, were the Aduatuci. Caesar reported that Ambiorix had been forced to pay tribute to them before the Romans came, and it was with these two tribes, that the Eburones could quickly form a military alliance against Caesars forces.
Caesar reports that during his conflict with them, the Eburones had some sort of alliance, organized via their allies the Treveri, linguist Maurits Gysseling proposed that placenames such as Avendoren, Averdoingt and Avernas may be derived from the Eburones. Caesars forces clashed with an alliance of Belgic tribes in 57 BCE in the Battle of the Sabis, before that battle, information from the Remi, a tribe allied with Rome, stated that the Germani had collectively promised, they thought, about 40,000 men. The whole force was led by Galba, king of the Suessiones, the alliance did not work. The Suessiones and Bellovaci surrendered after the Romans defended the Remi, and after this the Ambiani offered no further resistance and the Nervii, along with the Atrebates and Viromandui, formed the most important force on the day of the battle
It was during this period that Romes control expanded from the citys immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, by the following century, it included North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation, Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. Over time, the laws that gave exclusive rights to Romes highest offices were repealed or weakened. The leaders of the Republic developed a tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military.
Many of Romes legal and legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states, the exact causes and motivations for Romes military conflicts and expansions during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright aggression and imperialism and they argue that Romes expansion was driven by short-term defensive and inter-state factors, and the new contingencies that these decisions created. In its early history, as Rome successfully defended itself against foreign threats in central and northern Italy, with some important exceptions, successful wars in early republican Rome generally led not to annexation or military occupation, but to the restoration of the way things were. But the defeated city would be weakened and thus able to resist Romanizing influences. It was able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies. It was, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome and this growing coalition expanded the potential enemies that Rome might face, and moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers.
The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership within that confederacy. While there were exceptions to this, it was not until after the Second Punic War that these alliances started to harden into something more like an empire and this shift mainly took place in parts of the west, such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal. In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of alliance-seeking, in the 2nd century BC, Roman involvement in the Greek east remained a matter of alliance-seeking, but this time in the face of major powers that could rival Rome. This had some important similarities to the events in Italy centuries earlier, with some major exceptions of outright military rule, the Roman Republic remained an alliance of independent city-states and kingdoms until it transitioned into the Roman Empire. It was not until the time of the Roman Empire that the entire Roman world was organized into provinces under explicit Roman control
An epic poem, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation. Milman Parry and Albert Lord have argued that the Homeric epics and these works form the basis of the epic genre in Western literature. Nearly all Western epic self-consciously presents itself as a continuation of the tradition begun by these poems, classical epic employs dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical or mental or both. Epics tend to highlight cultural norms and to define or call into question cultural values, another type of epic poetry is epyllion, which is a brief narrative poem with a romantic or mythological theme. The term, which means little epic, came into use in the nineteenth century, the most famous example of classical epyllion is perhaps Catullus 64. The first epics were products of preliterate societies and oral history poetic traditions, in these traditions, poetry is transmitted to the audience and from performer to performer by purely oral means.
Early twentieth-century study of living oral traditions in the Balkans by Milman Parry. What they demonstrated was that oral epics tend to be constructed in short episodes, each of equal status and this facilitates memorization, as the poet is recalling each episode in turn and using the completed episodes to recreate the entire epic as he performs it. Parry and Lord contend that the most likely source for written texts of the epics of Homer was dictation from an oral performance, poets in literate societies have sometimes copied the epic format. The earliest surviving European examples are the Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes and Virgils Aeneid, other obvious examples are Nonnus Dionysiaca, Tulsidas Sri Ramacharit Manas. In his work Poetics, Aristotle defines an epic as one of the forms of poetry, contrasted with lyric poetry, an attempt to delineate ten main characteristics of an epic, Begins in medias res. The setting is vast, covering many nations, the world or the universe, Begins with an invocation to a muse.
Begins with a statement of the theme, contains long lists, called an epic catalogue. Shows divine intervention on human affairs, features heroes that embody the values of the civilization. Often features the tragic heros descent into the Underworld or hell, the hero generally participates in a cyclical journey or quest, faces adversaries that try to defeat him in his journey and returns home significantly transformed by his journey. The epic hero illustrates traits, performs deeds, and exemplifies certain morals that are valued by the society the epic originates from, many epic heroes are recurring characters in the legends of their native culture. Conventions of epics, Opens by stating the theme or cause of the epic and this may take the form of a purpose, of a question, or of a situation. Invocation, Writer invokes a Muse, one of the nine daughters of Zeus, the poet prays to the Muses to provide him with divine inspiration to tell the story of a great hero
Comics is a medium used to express ideas by images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images, often textual devices such as speech balloons and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics, fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips and gag cartoons, since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comic albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century. The history of comics has followed different paths in different cultures, scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the Lascaux cave paintings. By the mid-20th century, comics flourished particularly in the United States, western Europe, histories of Japanese comics and cartooning propose origins as early as the 12th century.
Comics has had a reputation for much of its history. The English term comics is used as a noun when it refers to the medium. Though the term derives from the work that predominated in early American newspaper comic strips. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has further made definition difficult, examples of early comics The European and Japanese comics traditions have followed different paths. Japan had a prehistory of satirical cartoons and comics leading up to the World War II era. The ukiyo-e artist Hokusai popularized the Japanese term for comics and cartooning, manga, in the post-war era modern Japanese comics began to flourish when Osamu Tezuka produced a prolific body of work. Illustrated humour periodicals were popular in 19th-century Britain, the earliest of which was the short-lived The Glasgow Looking Glass in 1825, the most popular was Punch, which popularized the term cartoon for its humorous caricatures.
American comics developed out of magazines as Puck, Judge. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and the New York American, particularly Outcaults The Yellow Kid, early Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fishers Mutt and Jeff. In Britain, the Amalgamated Press established a style of a sequence of images with text beneath them, including Illustrated Chips
The Nervii were one of the most powerful Belgic tribes, living in northern Gaul at the time of its conquest by Rome. Their territory corresponds to the part of modern Belgium, including Brussels. During their 1st century BC Roman military campaign, Caesars contacts among the Remi stated that the Nervii were the most warlike of the Belgae, in times of war, they were known to trek long distances to take part in battles. Being one of the distant northern Belgic tribes, with the Menapii to the west, the territory of the Nervii had its western and northwestern border on the Scheldt river and stretched in the south through Hainaut to the forests of Arrouaise and Thiérache. To the east, the boundaries are unclear but it is possible that they stretched as far as the Dyle river valley in the north, near Louvain, and the Meuse in the south in modern Wallonia, near Namur. An oppidum found near Asse may have belonged to them but it was isolated, a large population occupied the southern territories, near the river Sambre with the biggest being at Avesnelles, near Avesnes-sur-Helpe.
Caesar mentions smaller tribes who were expected to contribute troops to Nervian forces, Pleumoxii, Ceutrones, the Nervii are counted as one of the northern Belgae, who are often proposed to have been in a transitional zone between Celtic languages and Germanic languages. Others included the Menapii and Morini, to the west of the Nervii on the English channel, Caesar reported hearing from the Remi that the Belgae generally had received immigration from Germanic people from east of the Rhine. The Romanized Greek Strabo wrote that the Nervii were of Germanic origin, the Romans were not precise in their ethnography of northern barbarians, by Germanic Caesar may simply have meant originating east of the Rhine with no distinction of language intended. During Caesars lifetime, Germanic languages east of the Rhine may have been no closer than the river Elbe. Julius Caesar considered the Nervii to be the most warlike of the Belgic tribes, and that the Belgic tribes were the bravest in Gaul. He says that their culture was a Spartan one, they would not partake of alcoholic beverages or any such luxury.
He says they disliked foreign trade and had no merchant class, archaeologists have sought to define the territories of the northern Belgic tribes by looking at the coins they used. The Nervii are associated with a type that uses a Greek epsilon. Remarkably, given the evidence of a Celtic La Tène culture having been present in the pre-Roman past. In fact they established hedges throughout their lands in order to them difficult for cavalry. The Nervii were part of the Belgic alliance that resisted Julius Caesar in 57 BC, after the alliance broke up and some tribes surrendered, the Nervii, under the command of Boduognatus and aided by the Atrebates and Viromandui, came very close to defeating Caesar. In 57 BC at the battle of the Sabis, they concealed themselves in the forests and their attack was so quick and unexpected that some of the Romans didnt have time to take the covers off their shields or even put on their helmets. The element of surprise briefly left the Romans exposed, however Caesar grabbed a shield, made his way to the front line, and quickly organised his forces, at the same time, the commander of the tenth legion, Titus Labienus, attacked the Nervian camp
The largest city on the river Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s. The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days. The many castles and fortifications along the Rhine testify to its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire, in the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism. The variant of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-. The Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- to move, run, the grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, and the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as masculine or feminine, the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in Rhine-kilometers, a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland.
The river length is shortened from the rivers natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century. The total length of the Rhine, to the inclusion of Lake Constance and its course is conventionally divided as follows, The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein near Tamins-Reichenau. Above this point is the catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine. It belongs almost exclusively to the Swiss Canton of Graubünden, ranging from Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Vorderrhein and the Rhine as a whole. The Hinterrhein rises in the Rheinwald valley below Mount Rheinwaldhorn, the Vorderrhein, or Anterior Rhine, springs from Lai da Tuma, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide. A multiday trekking route is signposted along the young Rhine called Senda Sursilvana, the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur, or Posterior Rhine, starts from the Paradies Glacier, near the Rheinwaldhorn.
One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory, after three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau. The Vorderrhein arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva, one source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, which is usually indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it. Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Reno di Medel, the Rein da Maighels, and the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the Canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, all streams in the source area are partially, sometimes completely and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants. In its lower course the Vorderrhein flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta through the Flims Rockslide, the whole stretch of the Vorderrhein to the Rhine confluence near Reichenau-Tamins is accompanied by a long-distance hiking trail called Senda Sursilvana
Ambiorix was a French Champion Two-Year-Old Thoroughbred racehorse who became a leading sire. Bred by Marcel Boussac at his Haras de Fresnay-le-Buffard in Orne, Tourbillon was a son of Ksar, a two-time winner of the Prix de lArc de Triomphe and the Leading sire in France in 1931. The dam of Ambiorix II was Lavendula, a daughter of Pharos, Ambiorix was a half-brother to Source Sucree, Perfume II, Singadula and Wild Lavender II. In 1948 Ambiorix made three starts and he finished off the board in his racing debut in the French Prix de Chatou and easily won the Selsey Stakes at Goodwood Racecourse in England. He followed this with a win in the most important race for two-year-olds in France and his performances earned him the 1948 French Champion Two-Year-Old-Colt honors. Racing at age three in 1949, Ambiorix made four starts, Jockey Poincelet guided the colt to wins in the Prix Lupin at Longchamp Racecourse and the Prix Greffulhe at Saint-Cloud Racecourse, both of which were run at around ten furlongs.
Ambiorix earned seconds to Good Luck in the 1949 Prix du Jockey Club, after Ambiorix retired from racing, Marcel Boussac believed that he would have more value as a sire in the United States where the vast majority of race distances suited his record best. He was sold for US$250,000 to a syndicate led by Bull Hancock, Ambiorix spent the rest of his life at Claiborne Farm, where he sired fifty-one stakes race winners and was the Leading sire in North America in 1961. Through his daughter Fantan II, Ambiorix was the damsire of Ragusa, after being pensioned, Ambiorix died at age twenty-nine in January 1975 at Claiborne Farm and is buried the farms equine cemetery. Profile of Ambiorix at Thoroughbred Heritage Ambiorixs pedigree and partial racing stats
The concept of the hero was first founded in classical literature. It is the main or revered character in heroic epic poetry celebrated through ancient legends of a people, often striving for military conquest and living by a continually flawed personal honor code. The definition of a hero has changed throughout time, and the Merriam Webster dictionary defines a hero as a person who is admired for great or brave acts or fine qualities. The word hero comes from the Greek ἥρως, warrior, before the decipherment of Linear B the original form of the word was assumed to be *ἥρωϝ-, hērōw-, R. S. P. Beekes has proposed a Pre-Greek origin. According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the Indo-European root is *ser meaning to protect, according to Eric Partridge in Origins, the Greek word Hērōs is akin to the Latin seruāre, meaning to safeguard. Partridge concludes, The basic sense of both Hera and hero would therefore be protector, the word hero is used in English to refer either explicitly to male heroes or as a gender neutral form.
The use of the male form hero as a gender neutral substantive is a modern advent, see Gender neutrality in English. A classical hero is considered to be a warrior who lives and dies in the pursuit of honor, each classical heros life focuses on fighting, which occurs in war or during an epic quest. Classical heroes are commonly semi-divine and extraordinarily gifted, like Achilles, or, are like Beowulf, evolving into heroic characters through their perilous circumstances. While these heroes are incredibly resourceful and skilled, they are often foolhardy, court disaster, risk their followers lives for trivial matters, during classical times, people regarded heroes with the highest esteem and utmost importance, explaining their prominence within epic literature. Hector was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War, Hector acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defense of Troy, killing 31,000 Greek fighters, offers Hyginus. Hector was known not only for his courage but for his noble, Homer places Hector as peace-loving, thoughtful as well as bold, a good son and father, and without darker motives.
However, his familial values conflict greatly with his aspirations in The Iliad. Hector is ultimately betrayed by the gods when Athena appears disguised as his ally Deiphobus and convinces him to take on Achilles, Achilles was a Greek Hero who was considered the most formidable military fighter in the entire Trojan War and the central character of The Iliad. He was the child of Thetis and Peleus, making him a demi-god and he wielded superhuman strength on the battlefield and was blessed with a close relationship to the Gods. Achilles famously refuses to fight after his dishonoring at the hands of Agamemnon, Achilles was known for uncontrollable rage that defined many of his bloodthirsty actions, such as defiling Hectors corpse by dragging it around the city of Troy. Achilles plays a role in The Iliad brought about by constant de-humanization throughout the epic. Heroes in myth often had close but conflicted relationships with the gods, thus Heracless name means the glory of Hera, even though he was tormented all his life by Hera, the Queen of the Gods