Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. The island has an area of 775 km2 and is mountainous, well watered, fertile. Ambon Island consists of two territories - the city of Ambon to the south and various districts of the Central Maluku Regency to the north; the main city and seaport is Ambon, the capital of Maluku province, while those districts of Maluku Tengah Regency situated on Ambon Island had a 2014 population of 132,377. Ambon has an airport and is home to the Pattimura University and Open University, state universities, a few private universities, which include Darussalam University and Universitas Kristen Indonesia Maluku. Ambon Island lies off the southwest coast of the much larger Seram island, it is on the north side of part of a chain of volcanic islands that encircle the sea. It is 51 kilometres long and is of irregular shape, being divided in two; the southeastern and smaller portion, a peninsula is united to the northern by a narrow neck of land. The Ambon Bay thus formed cuts about 20km into the island with the airport on the northern shore and the city of Ambon on the southern side.
The city of Ambon covers the entirety of Leitimur, with its centre on the northwest coast of Leitimur, facing Leihitu, has a safe harbor on Amboina Bay. The highest mountains, Wawani at 1,100 metres and Salahutu at 1,225 metres, have hot springs and solfataras, they are volcanoes, the mountains of the neighboring Lease Islands are extinct volcanoes. Granite and serpentine rocks predominate, but the shores of Amboina Bay are of chalk and contain stalactite caves. Wild areas of Ambon Island are covered by tropical rainforest, part of the Seram rain forests ecoregion, together with neighboring Seram. Seram and most of Maluku are part of Wallacea, the group of Indonesian islands that are separated by deep water from both the Asian and Australian continents and have never been linked to the continents by land; as a result of this isolation, Ambon has few indigenous mammals. The insect diversity of the island, however, is rich in butterflies. Seashells are obtained in great numbers and variety. Tortoise shell is exported.
The population of the island, including a tiny sparsely populated island to the north, was just below 441,000 in the 2010 Census, but by 2014 had risen to over 500,000. The average temperature is 27 °C falling below 22 °C. Rainfall can be heavy after the eastern monsoons, the island is vulnerable to violent typhoons; the wet season coincides with the period of the west monsoon. Cassava and sago are the chief crops, which include breadfruit, coffee, cocoa and cotton. In addition to these and fishing supplement the local diet. Nutmeg and cloves were once the dominant export crops. Copra is exported. Amboina wood, obtained from the angsana tree and valued for ornamental woodwork, is now grown on Seram; the main employers in Ambon Island are the Gubernatorial Office, the Mayoral Office, Raiders 733, Ambon City Center. The whole economy of Ambon Island is starting to shift out of the "Old Towne" toward Passo, the newly appointed central business district of the island region; the economy of Ambon Island was boosted by the investment made by Ciputra Group in creating a whole new satellite city in Lateri, Kotamadya Ambon, Maluku: Citraland Bay View City.
Furthermore, the new international standard shopping center, Ambon City Center, opened in 2012. The Ambonese are of mixed Malay-Papuan origin, they are Christians or Muslims. The predominant language of the island is Ambonese Malay called Ambonese, it developed as the trade language of central Maluku and is spoken elsewhere in Maluku as a second language. The old creole trade language called. Bilingualism in Indonesian is high around Ambon City. There have been strong religious tensions on the island between Muslims and Christians and ethnic tensions between indigenous Ambonese and migrants from Sulawesi Butonese and Makassarese migrants. In 1512, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to land in Ambon, it became the new centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku following their expulsion from Ternate; the Portuguese, were attacked by native Muslims on the island's northern coast, in particular Hitu, which had trading and religious links with major port cities on Java's north coast. They established a factory in 1521 but did not obtain peaceable possession of it until 1580.
Indeed, the Portuguese never managed to control the local trade in spices and failed in attempts to establish their authority over the Banda Islands, the nearby centre of nutmeg production. The creole trade language Portugis, was spoken well into the 19th century, many families still have Portuguese names and claim Portuguese ancestry, for example Muskita and De Fretes; the Dutch dispossessed the Portuguese in 1605, when Steven van der Hagen took over the fort without a single shot. Ambon was the headquarters of the Dutch East India Company from 1610 to 1619 until the founding of Batavia by the Dutch. About 1615 the English formed a settlement on the island at Cambello, which they retained until 1623, when the Dutch destroyed it. Frightful tortures inflicted on its unfortunate inhab
"Good Night" is the debut single by British-Australian recording artist Reece Mastin, who won the third series of The X Factor in 2011. It was released digitally on 22 November 2011, shortly after the show ended, as the lead single from his self-titled debut album; the song was written by Hayley Warner with Anthony Egizii and David Musumeci of the songwriting and production duo DNA Songs. "Good Night" received mixed to positive reviews from music critics, most of whom noted its similarities to Pink's "Raise Your Glass". The song debuted at number one on the ARIA Singles Chart, became the first number-one winner's single for The X Factor, it was certified five times platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association, denoting sales of 350,000 copies. "Good Night" peaked at number one in New Zealand and was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. "Good Night" was written by Hayley Warner with Anthony Egizii and David Musumeci of the songwriting and production duo DNA Songs, who produced the track.
On 22 November 2011, "Good Night" was released for digital download and sent to Australian radio, shortly after Mastin won the third series of The X Factor. When speaking of the song, Mastin explained: "It's got that old' summery-rock kinda feel to it you know, like classic rock songs like'Boys Of Summer'. It's just fun, songs from winners are really big ballads, so it was cool to do something a little bit different." Reviewers of The Hot Hits Live from LA wrote that they had "fallen in love with the track" and that the song was a "guaranteed hit that might just be our summer 2012 party anthem." A reviewer of Take 40 Australia wrote that it is "reminiscent of some of Pink's earlier tunes... We think this will be a hot summer hit!." Reviewers of MusicFix noted the song's similarities to Pink's "Raise Your Glass", wrote that "we were pretty disappointed to hear his epic rock vocals restrained to a shouty party track." This was echoed by Tonges of Nova FM, who wrote it was "shockingly similar to Pink's'Raise Your Glass'".
Lauren Katulka of Sounds of Oz wrote that the verses in the song "felt like virtual carbon copies of Pink's'Raise Your Glass'", concluded by writing that "it didn't feel like Reece, disappointing when the singles are supposed to be tailored to the artists." Robert Copsey of Digital Spy UK wrote that "While the riff has more than a passing resemblance to Pink's'Raise Your Glass', we can see why he went overseas to find fame when their winner's singles are of this calibre." "Good Night" was nominated for'Single of 2011' at the 2011 IT List Awards. "Good Night" debuted at number one on the ARIA Singles Chart on 28 November 2011, where it remained for four non-consecutive weeks. It sold over 30,000 copies in 24-hours following its release on 22 November, became Sony Music Australia's fastest selling digital single. On 24 November 2011, the song sold. "Good Night" was certified five times platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association, denoting sales of 350,000 copies. In New Zealand, the song debuted at number two on 20 February 2012, peaked at number one the following week.
"Good Night" was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand, denoting sales of 15,000 copies. The accompanying music video for "Good Night" was filmed on 30 November 2011 in The Lair at The Metro Theatre in Sydney. 200 fans were recruited for the video and had to download the Performer Agreement sheet via Mastin's official website before being eligible to be in the video. A behind the scenes video by The Daily Telegraph was released on 1 December 2011, showed Mastin on the set of the video shoot performing on stage with a band; the video premiered online on 7 December 2011. The video begins with Mastin backstage with his band preparing for a concert; as the song starts to play, Mastin is seen kicking a soccer ball. He is seen on the stage performing, whilst showing scenes of the audience singing and dancing; the video shows Mastin outside greeting fans, scenes of him backstage at the concert playing with an arcade game machine. The video ends with Mastin's fans screaming.
Mastin performed "Good Night" live for the first time on The X Factor Grand Final show on 21 November 2011. He performed the song again on the Grand Final decider show the following day, after he was announced the winner. On 9 December 2011, Mastin performed "Good Night" on Sunrise to launch his debut album, he performed the song during his first headlining Australian tour in January 2012. CD single / digital download"Good Night" – 3:02 List of number-one singles of 2011
The Women's Defence Relief Corps was a First World War voluntary organisation in the United Kingdom. It was set up to increase the number of women in employment which would release men to join the armed forces, it had a "semi-military" section that trained women in marksmanship and military drill for home defence purposes. The corps was supported by the Board of Agriculture for a period, though it would be eclipsed by the more successful Women's Land Army; the Women's Defence Relief Corps was founded by Mrs Dawson Scott in September 1914, shortly after the outbreak of the First World War. It was intended to increase the employment of women, which would release men to join the British armed forces; the organisation was supported by Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener and Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts. It expanded to two divisions: the civil section which focused on the original aim of women's employment and a "Semi-Military or good-citizen section"; the latter division was a paramilitary of women who wanted to "defend not only herself, but those dear to her".
The semi-military section was set up after women were refused training by the official home defence units. The section drilled along military lines and trained women in marching and marksmanship. An official handbook for the corps was produced under the editorship of Mrs Scott. Women of the corps were issued a brown cloth brassard marked with a red letter H; the corps mobilised to carry our agricultural work in spring 1915. It would go on to play a key role in putting farmers in touch with casual female labour; the corps advertised the available posts as suitable vacation work for women and stipulated a minimum wage of 18 shillings per week. The Women's Land Army developed from the corps as a means of alleviating food shortages. By the war's end the land army would have sent out 9,022 female labourers and was instrumental in saving the 1918 British flax harvest; the Women's Defence Relief Corps was a more modest organisation which by 1916 was sending out work teams totalling just 465 women. These focused on light agricultural work such as hop harvesting and hay making.
Whilst the corps was viewed as unsuccessful in making a significant impact the Board of Agriculture took an interest, as it was keen to use it to increase the use of middle-class women in supervisory agricultural positions. By the end of 1916 the number of women in the corps had been increased to 2,000; the Board of Agriculture decided that a widespread reorganisation of female volunteer labour was needed and from March 1917 directed its efforts on the Women's Land Army