Ambras Castle

Ambras Castle is a Renaissance castle and palace located in the hills above Innsbruck, Austria. Ambras Castle is 587 metres above sea level. Considered one of the most popular tourist attractions of the Tyrol, Ambras Castle was built in the 16th century on the spot of an earlier 10th-century castle, which became the seat of power for the Counts of Andechs; the cultural and historical importance of the castle is connected with Archduke Ferdinand II and served as his family residence from 1567 to 1595. Ferdinand was one of history's most prominent collectors of art; the princely sovereign of Tyrol, son of Emperor Ferdinand I, ordered that the medieval fortress at Ambras be turned into a Renaissance castle as a gift for his wife Philippine Welser. The cultured humanist from the House of Habsburg accommodated his world-famous collections in a museum: The collections, still in the Lower Castle built for that museum purpose, make Castle Ambras Innsbruck the oldest museum in the world; the Lower Castle contains armouries that feature masterpieces of the European armourer's art from the time of Emperor Maximilian I to Emperor Leopold I.

As the only Renaissance Kunstkammer of its kind to have been preserved at its original location, the "Kunst- und Wunderkammer" represents an unrivalled cultural monument. Above the Lower Castle is the famous Spanish Hall, a notable example of German Renaissance architecture, which contains an intricate wood-inlay ceiling and walls adorned with 27 full-length portraits of the rulers of Tyrol; the Upper Castle contains the extensive Habsburg Portrait gallery featuring paintings of numerous members of the House of Austria and other leading ruling Europeaen dynasties, including, as a remarkable feature, many portraits of princely children. Long before Innsbruck became a city, references to an Amras or Omras appeared in documents dating from the 10th century; this early fortification in what was the southwest corner of Bavaria was the seat of power of the Counts of Andechs, who became Margraves of Istria and Dukes of the short-lived Imperial State of Merania from 1180 to 1248. This original fortification was destroyed in 1133 and no traces of it remain, although some of the material from the original structure was used in the modern building.

In 1248, the castle ruins and property passed by inheritance from the Counts of Andechs to Count Albert IV of Tyrol. The modern Ambras Castle was built by Archduke Ferdinand II, the second son of Emperor Ferdinand I; when he was made provincial sovereign of Tyrol in 1564, Ferdinand II ordered two Italian architects to turn the existing medieval fortress into a Renaissance castle for his untitled wife Philippine Welser, whom he had married in secret. Ferdinand II prepared his family's residence in the Upper Castle, beneath which he constructed one of the most artistically important halls of the late Renaissance—known as the "Spanish Hall" since the nineteenth century. In 1567, Ferdinand II made his entry into Innsbruck, prior to that, he was appointed administrating governor to the Kingdom of Bohemia, taking up residence in Prague in 1547. In 1589, he added an additional building, the Heldenrüstkammer, west of the Lower Castle for the purpose of housing his collection of "Heroes", the first systematic presentation of objects in the history of museums.

Ambras Castle was used as the residence of Philippine as well as a place for Ferdinand II to house his collection of weapons, suits of armour, natural objects, as well as rarities and precious objects. Today, the art history museum Schloss Ambras Innsbruck is part of the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna. Philippine became a popular and beloved figure through her charity and willingness to help others the common people of Tyrol; the nobility brought their petitions to the former commoner. As signs of affection, people addressed their written petitions to "Merciful Miss" or "serene Princess Mrs. Philippine of Austria". After Ferdinand's death in 1595, the second son of Ferdinand and Philippine, Margrave Charles of Burgau, inherited Ambras Castle. With little interest in preserving the castle or its collections, they fell into a state of dilapidation and Charles sold them in 1606 to Emperor Rudolf II; the emperor residing in Prague left his uncle's collection nearly in its entirety at Ambras Castle, as he himself was one of the most important Habsburg collectors.

In the following years, Ambras Castle no longer had the status of an official residence and was lived in. Inadequate preservation measures led to the loss of valuable books and hand sketches, soon the palace fell into disrepair. In the seventeenth century, Emperor Leopold I had some of the most valuable holdings of the Ambras collections—mostly books and manuscripts—moved to Vienna, where they can still be seen at the Austrian National Library. In 1805, the remaining Ambras collections were threatened by the defeat of Austria by the French Empire. After he recognized the private-law character of the Ambras collection, Napoleon had it brought to safety in Vienna. In 1855, Archduke Karl Ludwig governor of Tyrol, had the palace remodeled to use as a summer residence. Significant changes were made during this time to the surrounding park; the Outer Bailey was constructed with an ivy-clad entrance ramp for carriages. The park was redesigned as an English garden. Following Archduke Karl Ludwig's renouncement of his succession rights in 1889, the palace fell once again into ruinous condition.

In 1880, it was subsequently renovated. In 1919, following the dissolution of the Austria

SS Silesia (1869)

The SS Silesia was a late 19th-century Hamburg America Line passenger and cargo ship that ran between the European ports of Hamburg, Germany and Le Havre, France to Castle Garden and Ellis Island, New York transporting European immigrants Russian, Hungarian, Austrian and Danish individuals and families. Most passengers on this route were manual laborers, including stonecutters, farmers, upholsterers and tailors, though physicians and other professionals bought passage on her. Built by Caird & Company of Greenock, the Silesia, along with the SS Germania, SS Germania, SS Frisia, SS Pomerania, SS Hammonia, SS Hammonia, was a Hammonia class ship; some sources report her as being 340 feet in length and 40 feet from side to side though other contemporary sources report her as somewhat larger. With both a steam engine and a set of traditional masts, she was one of a brief but large category of "transitional" vessels. Like many of these ships, the Silesia had a steel hull, two masts, one steam funnel.

Her two engines drove a single 10 ft screw with 2,200 horsepower making 54 revolutions per minute. Twelve men shoveling coal continuously from her four coal bunkers kept her engines running around the clock, consuming 75 of her 1,100-ton capacity of coal per day. All of the steam generated in her boilers was recovered and reused during any given length of her journey; the smoke from the burning of coal blackened many of her sails, which were as follows: on her foremast she had two staysails, a course and topgallant sail. She began her maiden voyage from Hamburg to Le Havre and New York on 23 June 1869, her last voyage on this route began on 24 February 1875. After this she was fitted with a compound engine and began sailing the route from Hamburg to the West Indies, though passenger manifests continue to show her bringing immigrants to New York for many more years. Accounts differ as to the path of her ownership, with some sources claiming she was given to W. G. Armstrong & Mitchell Company in 1887 before being sold to the H.

F. Swan Company who renamed her Pacifica in 1888 sold to A. Albini of Genoa in 1889 sold to Fratelli Lavarello of Genoa, renamed Citta di Napoli in 1890 sold to the La Veloce Line, again of Genoa, renamed Montevideo. Others record that once refitted she went to an unnamed British firm to an Italian company called Solari & Schiaffino year after that sold to Fratelli Lavarello, in 1891 sold to La Veloce. Sources agree, that on 2 December 1899, she ran aground near the island of Lobos in the River Plate between Uruguay and Argentina and was sold for scrap metal

Black beetle virus

Black beetle virus is a virus, discovered on North Island of New Zealand in Helensville in dead New Zealand black beetles in 1975 BBV is recognized as a member of a group of small split arboviruses from the same line as Nodamura virus, discovered 20 years prior to BBV in Japan. The genomes of these viruses are unusually small compared to others such as picorna and retroviruses; because the virus only has 2 initial RNAs, this is the simplest class of virus. There is an RNA 3. BBV has only been shown to infect insect cells; when transmitted to wax moth larvae, it can cause paralysis. Viruses such as Nodamura Virus and Flock house virus have been shown to infect fishes. BBV comes from the family of Nodaviridae that contains nine different viruses divided into two different sub groups: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus. BBV falls into the Alphanodavirus group along with Nodavirus; these viruses are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, T=3 symmetry. Their diameter is around 30 nm with BBV's being 32.4 nm.

The virus genomes are linear and segmented, around 21.4kb in length as well. Alphanodaviruses life cycles begin with penetration into the host cell. Once in the cytoplasm, RNA is transcribed within envagininations of the host cell using its own RNA dependent polymerase. To release, the virus causes lysis of the host cell from which copies of newly made virus are released. BBV is a ssRNA virus of the genus Alphanodavirus; the two other viruses within the Nodaviridae are Flock House virus. Each member of the Nodaviridae is classified as either an alpha or beta-nodavirus with BBV being an alphanodavirus. BBV, Flock House, nodavirus are all group IV viruses with varying abilities to infect other animals in terms of species specificity; the structure of BBV is similar to the other viruses in its family. BBV is made of a non-enveloped virion that has a diameter of 32.4 nm. The virion is made up of 180 copies of a single viral coating protein; the virion is organized in T=3 icosahedral symmetry, meaning there are 60 triangular subunits each made up of 3 viral capsid proteins.

The virion contains both RNA1 and RNA2 inside of it, but RNA3 is not included into the virion and is transcribed after infection of a host cell. RNA3 is not necessary for replication, however it is coded for with RNA1 making it always synthesized; the BBV insect virus genome is made of two mRNA molecules encapsidated in a single virion. The nucleotide sequence of BBV RNA1 is 3015 bases long, this along with RNA2's 1399 base pairs completes the viral genome; the genome of BBV and other viruses in its family are small, nearly half the size of picornaviruses, making it the smallest class of virus with a segmented genome. The RNA1 sequence contains a 5' region of 38 nucleotides with no coding role, it contains a coding region for protein A, used in RNA synthesis. A 3' proximal region encoding RNA3 is overlapped within the RNA1 sequence. RNA3 is a subgenomic messenger RNA made in infected cells but not encapsidated into the original virions; the RNA3 sequence begins inside the coding region of protein A and forms protein B from its own frames.

RNA1 and RNA2 seem to be independent of each other, except for their ability to bond when forming the capsid. RNA2 is found to suppress the function of RNA3, which could be a marker to begin capsid construction; the genome and viral messenger for ssRNA noroviridae viruses is the initial virion RNA. RNA1 sequence encodes for the virus' RNA-dependand RNA polymerase, protein A. Thee virion contains code for RNA2 which forms a precursor protein for capsid formation. RNA3 is formed in infected cells from RNA1 sequence, is inhibited by RNA2 though independently coded. RNA3 encodes for proteins B! and B2. B1 is used as the end terminal for RNA replicase, but the function is to clear. B2 is a separate unique protein which has an unknown use; when tested, neither B1 or B2 was necessary for replication, however the new genotypes did not match with the wild type. Not much information is known on the infection and replication cycle of BBV. However, it is assumed to follow the path of other viruses of the same family.

The virus will first enter the cell via penetration of the membrane. Once in the cell, the virus uncoats itself and releases the genomic RNA into the cytoplasm of the cell. Nodaviridae will form an invagination within the membrane of the host cell mitochondria where it will prepare to replicate. Once set in the invagination, RNA1 is transcribed, thus allowing for the RNA-dependent polymerase to be synthesized; the space occupied by the virus is known as a cytoplasmic viral factory in which the virus uses the host cell machinery to continue replication of RNA strands that will be turned into dsRNA. The dsRNA is finally transcribed or replicated into either viral mRNA or more ssRNA to be replicated again. Once RNA2 is synthesized, the virus prepares for assembly; when the ratio of ribosomes to N proteins becomes favorable to switch to capsid formation, the virus spontaneously assembles around RNA1 and RNA2 into an icosahedral capsid leaving the synthesized RNA3 outside of the capsid. Once Capsid maturation occurs via autoproteolytic cleavage of capsid protein alpha, capsid protein beta and peptide gamma are formed.

Peptide gamma is assumed to be released in the endosome where it disrupts the endosomal membrane allowing the new viral RNA to be released into the cytoplasm of the cell creating the new infected cell. Although BBV has been shown to infe