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Ambrosians

Ambrosians are members of one of the religious brotherhoods which at various times since the 14th century have sprung up in and around Milan and a 16th-century sect of Anabaptist Ambrosians. Only the oldest of the Catholic Ambrosians, the Fratres S. Ambrosii ad Nemus, had anything more than a local significance; this order is known from a bull of Pope Gregory XI addressed to the monks of the church of St Ambrose outside Milan. Saint Ambrose, Bishop of Milan did not found religious orders, though he took an interest in the monastic life and watched over its beginnings in his diocese, providing for the needs of a monastery outside the walls of Milan, as Saint Augustine recounts in his Confessions. Ambrose made successful efforts to improve the moral life of women in the Milan of his time by promoting the permanent institution of Virgins, as of widows, his exhortations and other interventions have survived in various writings: De virginibus, De viduis, De virginitate, De institutione virginis, De exhortatione virginitatis, De lapsu virginis consecratae.

Ambrose was the only Father of the Church to leave behind so many writings on the subject and his attentions enough led to the formation of communities which became formal monasteries of women. It is against this background that two religious orders or congregations—one of men and one of women, when founded in the Milan area during the 13th and 15th centuries—took Saint Ambrose as their patron and hence adopted his name; the first of these groups was formed in a wood outside Milan by three noble Milanese, Alexander Grivelli, Antonio Petrasancta, Albert Besuzzi, who were joined by others, including some priests. In 1375 Pope Gregory XI gave them the Rule with set of constitutions; as a canonically recognized order they took the name "Fratres Sancti Ambrosii ad Nemus" and adopted a habit consisting of a brown tunic and hood. The brethren elected a superior with the title of prior, instituted by the Archbishop of Milan; the priests of the congregation undertook preaching and other tasks of the ministry but were not allowed to accept charge parishes.

In the liturgy they followed the Ambrosian Rite. Various monasteries were without any formal bond between them. In 1441 Pope Eugene IV merged them into one congregation called "Congregatio Sancti Ambrosii ad Nemus", made the original house the main seat, laid down a system of government whereby a general chapter met every three years, elected the priors who stayed in office till the next chapter. There was a rector, or superior general, assisted by two "visitors". Saint Charles Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan reformed their discipline, grown lax, in 1579. In 1589 Pope Sixtus V united to the Congregation of St Ambrose the monasteries of a group known as the "Brothers of the Apostles of the Poor Life", whose houses were in the province of Genoa and in the March of Ancona; this was an order, founded by Giovanni Scarpa at the end of the 15th century. The union was confirmed by Pope Paul V in 1606, at which time the congregation added the name of St. Barnabas to its title, adopted new constitutions, divided its houses into four provinces, two of them, St Clement's and St Pancras's, being in Rome.

Published works have survived from the pen of Ascanio Tasca and Michele Mulozzani, each of whom was superior-general, of Zaccaria Visconti, Francesco-Maria Guazzi and Paolo Fabulotti. Although various Ambrosians were given the title of Blessed in recognition of their holiness: Antonio Gonzaga of Mantua, Filippo of Fermo, Gerardo of Monza, the order was dissolved by Pope Innocent X in 1650; the Nuns of St Ambrose wore a habit of the same colour as the Brothers of St Ambrose, conformed to their constitutions, followed the Ambrosian Rite, but were independent in government. Pope Sixtus IV gave the nuns canonical status in 1474, their one monastery was on the top of Monte Varese, near Lago Maggiore, on the spot where their foundress, the Blessed Catarina Morigia, had first led a solitary life. Other early nuns were the Blessed Juliana of Puriselli, Benedetta Bimia, Lucia Alciata; the nuns were esteemed by St Charles Borromeo. Another group of cloistered "Nuns of St Ambrose" called the Annunciatae of Lombardy or "Sisters of St Marcellina", were founded in 1408 by three young women of Pavia, Dorothea Morosini, Eleonora Contarini, Veronica Duodi.

Their houses, scattered throughout Lombardy and Venetia, were united into a congregation by St Pius V, under the Rule of St Augustine with a mother-house, residence of the prioress general, at Pavia. One of the nuns in this group was Saint Catharine Fieschi Adorno, who died on September 14, 1510. In some sense "Ambrosians" are the members of a diocesan religious society founded by St Charles Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan. All priests or destined to become priests, they took a simple vow of obedience to their bishop; the model for this was a society that existed at Brescia, under the name of "Priests of Peace". In August 1578 the new society was inaugurated, being entrusted with the church of the Holy Sepulchre and given the name of "Oblates of St. Ambrose." They received the approbation of Gregory XIII. St Charles died in 1584; these Oblates were dispersed by Napoleon I in 1810, while another group called the Oblates of Our Lady of Rho escaped this fate. In 1848 they were reorganized and given the name of "Oblates of St. Charles" and reassigned the house of the Holy Sepulchre.

In the course of the 19th century similar groups were founded in a number of countries, including the "Oblates of St Charles", established in London by Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman

Dorsey, County Armagh

Dorsey or Dorsy is a small village and townland between Belleeks and Cullyhanna in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. It includes about 30-35 houses. Na Doirse, the gateways, is an extensive earthwork; the Dorsey Ramparts, or'The Walls' as they are known locally, are said to have been a fortified frontier post to the kingdom whose capital was Emain Macha, blocking an important historic route into South Armagh. It was built at a time when the power of the Ulster kingdom may have been at its strongest, around 100 BCE; some time Ulster was threatened from the south and it is speculated that Dorsey may have been incorporated into a more extensive defensive system known in Monaghan and further west as the Black Pig's Dyke. Dorsey is one of the few monuments in the north of Ireland which have been confirmed as Iron Age in date, it is a group of linear earthworks with a perimeter of 4 km, enclosing an area of 300 acres. It has: a community centre a chapel a Gaelic football pitch football teams The chapel in Dorsey is over 50 years old and was built by local people.

The site on which the chapel was built was donated by a local, Felix Mackin. Dorsey is part of the parish of Lower Creggan which incorporates Dorsey and Cullyhanna. Dorsey Emmet's GFC is a Gaelic Athletic Association club based in Dorsey and fielding football teams at Under-8, U10, U14, U16 and senior level. Dorsey does not have its own schools so its 4-11-year-olds go to St. Olivers Primary School in Carrickrovaddy or St. Brigid's Primary School in Belleeks, County Armagh, its 12-16-year-olds attend St. Joseph's High School in Crossmaglen or St. Paul's High School in Bessbrook

Adipose eyelid

An adipose eyelid is a transparent eyelid found in fish, that covers some or all of the eye. They are most found on deep sea fish, but can be seen on non-benthic fish; some fish that this feature is found on include: milkfish, herring-like isospondyls, jacks and mackerel. The overall anatomy of the eyelids plays an important role in understanding their possible purpose. Though the true purpose of these bodily structures is not known, it is accepted that the eyelids play some role in affecting the vision of the fish or otherwise serving to protect the fish. There are four proposed theories; the first is that the eyelids may act as a lens, increasing the fish's ability to focus on specific objects and interpreting its surroundings better. The second is providing the fish the capability of seeing polarized light; the third theory is that it may block out ultraviolet light, the fourth theory is the eyelids serve as a physical barrier against foreign objects in the waters. Scientists are still unsure of the biological implications for the second theory.

The first theory is more practical because of the presence of this feature on deep sea fish. This ability to see better is crucial for their survival as visibility is reduced in the deeper parts of the ocean; the opposite however can be said for the non-benthic fish because there is more light near the surface of the ocean, so there would not be a need for a stronger sense of sight. Most adipose eyelids are separated into anterior and posterior parts referred to as layers; these layers vary in number, anywhere from three to five, depending on the fish. The layers are arranged in a parallel fashion, relative to the dorsal fin to the fish's belly; this arrangement makes for eyelids that are optically positive, meaning that a certain amount and type of light will be able to enter the eye. The eyelids are able to filter out certain wavelengths of light and have different refractive indices for light; the skin of the eyelid is the thinnest over the eyeballs and begins to thicken as it moves on to the cheek and face of the fish.

Epithelial tissue and connective tissue formed from several fibers of collagen are the main components of these layers. In some fish, there are three layers, with the middle layer being made of connective tissue, which helps to bind the other two epithelial layers together. One special detail about adipose eyelids is their ability to filter out specific wavelengths of light. For example, different fish have a different concentration of epithelial tissue in their eyelids. However, there is a range. Most adipose eyelids can filter out light. Another fact is that these eyelids can reflect light and this level of reflection corresponds to polarization of the light and the angle at which it is shone. To test for these ranges, different fish eyelids were exposed to light generated from photometers and polarizing microscopes

Masaryktown, Florida

Masaryktown is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Hernando County, United States. The population was 1040 at the 2010 census, it is named after the first president of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. Masaryktown is located along the southern edge of Hernando County at 28°26′30″N 82°27′38″W, it is bordered to the north and west by Spring Hill, to the northeast by Garden Grove, to the south in Pasco County by Shady Hills. U. S. Route 41 runs through the eastern side of the community, leading north 9 miles to Brooksville, the Hernando County seat, south 17 miles to Land O' Lakes. Tampa is 36 miles to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, Masaryktown has a total area of 1.0 square mile, of which 0.004 square miles, or 0.53%, are water. Masaryktown was founded in 1924 and named after Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, the founder and first president of Czechoslovakia; as of the census of 2000, there were 920 people, 379 households, 264 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 868.7 people per square mile.

There were 431 housing units at an average density of 407.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 95.43% White, 0.33% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 2.17% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.63% of the population. There were 379 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.86. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $35,524, the median income for a family was $37,585. Males had a median income of $30,446 versus $24,000 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,686. About 13.3% of families and 13.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.0% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over

Great Man (film)

Great Man is a 1951 French drama film directed by Yves Ciampi and starring Pierre Fresnay, Renée Devillers and Jean-Claude Pascal. The film's art direction was by René Moulaert. Pierre Fresnay as Le professeur Louis Delage Renée Devillers as Florence Delage Jean-Claude Pascal as L'interne Marcillac Claire Duhamel as Catherine Delage Michel Vadet as Le docteur Larmy Robert Moor as Le professeur Peccavi Claude Nicot as Barby Philippe Mareuil as Georges Ky Duyen as Chang - le majordome Maurice Ronet as François Émile Genevois as L'ami de Gaston Raymond Galle as Un médecin Bernard Hubrenne as Un élève Catherine Romane as Paulette Georgette Talazac as L'infirmière Georgette Anys as Madame Berval Claire Muriel as Une malade Christian Fourcade as Emile Serge Lecointe as Le petit Albert Elisa Lamotte as La dame d'Orléans Nadine Alari as Yvette Madeleine Barbulée as Marie-Laure Marguerite Garcya as Madame Martin Tania Soucault as Jacky Judith Magre Perrette Darbon Christiane Barry as Jacqueline Pierre Destailles as Gaston Berval Roland Alexandre as Jacques Brulanges Marcel André as Le docteur Charles Tannard Nadine Bellaigue Anne Béranger Henri Doublier Maguy Horiot Frédérique Hébrard Julien Maffre as Un malade Dominique Marcas Jacques Monod as Le gendarme Bernard Musson as Un assistant du docteur Delage Alain Raffael as Petit rôle Joëlle Robin Jean Thielment James Monaco.

The Encyclopedia of Film. Perigee Books, 1991. Great Man on IMDb

GNU Aspell

GNU Aspell called just Aspell, is a free software spell checker designed to replace Ispell. It is the standard spell checker for the GNU operating system, it compiles for other Unix-like operating systems and Windows. The main program is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, the documentation under the GNU Free Documentation License. Dictionaries for it are available for about 70 languages; the primary maintainer is Kevin Atkinson. Unlike Ispell, Aspell can check UTF-8 documents without having to use a special dictionary. Aspell will do its best to respect the current locale setting. Other advantages over Ispell include support for using multiple dictionaries at once and intelligently handling personal dictionaries when more than one Aspell process is open at once. However, Ispell follows the Unix convention of being a command applied to a file, e.g. ispell text-file-with-spelling-errors, whereas Aspell requires other command-line options, the "--help" option is more comprehensive.

Sample uses include: Interactively run through the text_file checking the spelling. Allow typing a word to find words that sound the same; as of July 2017, the latest official Windows port of GNU Aspell was still 32-bit version 0.50.3, with dictionaries of similar age. The developer says he has "no time and little interest in maintaining a Windows port", has been looking for somebody to maintain it. However, the LyX project maintains a separate fork of Aspell for Windows and dictionaries, says "the LyX project has long solved the Windows packaging problem by forking Aspell." LyX is being maintained and as of March 2018 the latest version is 2.3.0, dated 16 March 2018. The updated Cygwin port of aspell can be used in Windows. Aspell has been integrated into software such as Gajim, LyX, Notepad++, Claws Mail and Pidgin, Opera and AbiWord. Enchant Hunspell Ispell MySpell Pspell Virastyar Aspell Homepage Aspell Spell Helper Test Results of Aspell Compared to Other Spell Checkers The GNU Aspell documentation under the GNU Free Documentation Licence GNU Aspell download page LyXWinInstaller Aspell and UTF-8/Unicode GNU Aspell summary page at Savannah Mac OS X interface for Aspell Original unix spell, on which Aspell is based