Amedeo Clemente Modigliani was an Italian Jewish painter and sculptor who worked in France. He is known for portraits and nudes in a modern style characterized by elongation of faces and figures that were not received well during his lifetime but found acceptance. Modigliani spent his youth in Italy, where he studied the art of the Renaissance. In 1906 he moved to Paris, where he came into contact with such artists as Pablo Picasso and Constantin Brâncuși. By 1912 Modigliani was exhibiting stylized sculptures with Cubists of the Section d'Or group at the Salon d'Automne. Modigliani's oeuvre includes drawings. From 1909 to 1914 he devoted himself to sculpture, his main subject was full figures, both in the images and in the sculptures. Modigliani after his death achieved great popularity, he died at the age of 35, in Paris. Modigliani was born into a Sephardic Jewish family in Italy. A port city, Livorno had long served as a refuge for those persecuted for their religion, was home to a large Jewish community.
His maternal great-great-grandfather, Solomon Garsin, had immigrated to Livorno in the 18th century as a refugee. Modigliani's mother, Eugénie Garsin and raised in Marseille, was descended from an intellectual, scholarly family of Sephardic ancestry that for generations had lived along the Mediterranean coastline. Fluent in many languages, her ancestors were authorities on sacred Jewish texts and had founded a school of Talmudic studies. Family legend traced the family lineage to the 17th-century Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the family business was a credit agency with branches in Livorno, Marseille and London, though their fortunes ebbed and flowed. Modigliani's father, was a member of an Italian Jewish family of successful businessmen and entrepreneurs. While not as culturally sophisticated as the Garsins, they knew how to invest in and develop thriving business endeavors; when the Garsin and Modigliani families announced the engagement of their children, Flaminio was a wealthy young mining engineer.
He managed the mine in Sardinia and managed the 30,000 acres of timberland the family owned. A reversal in fortune occurred to this prosperous family in 1883. An economic downturn in the price of metal plunged the Modiglianis into bankruptcy. Resourceful, Modigliani's mother used her social contacts to establish a school and, along with her two sisters, made the school into a successful enterprise. Amedeo Modigliani was the fourth child, whose birth coincided with the disastrous financial collapse of his father's business interests. Amedeo's birth saved the family from ruin; the bailiffs entered the family's home. Modigliani had a close relationship with his mother, who taught him at home until he was 10. Beset with health problems after an attack of pleurisy when he was about 11, a few years he developed a case of typhoid fever; when he was 16 he was taken ill again and contracted the tuberculosis which would claim his life. After Modigliani recovered from the second bout of pleurisy, his mother took him on a tour of southern Italy: Naples, Capri and Amalfi north to Florence and Venice.
His mother was, in many ways, instrumental in his ability to pursue art as a vocation. When he was 11 years of age, she had noted in her diary: "The child's character is still so unformed that I cannot say what I think of it, he behaves like a spoiled child. We shall have to see what is inside this chrysalis. An artist?" Modigliani is known to have drawn and painted from a early age, thought himself "already a painter", his mother wrote before beginning formal studies. Despite her misgivings that launching him on a course of studying art would impinge upon his other studies, his mother indulged the young Modigliani's passion for the subject. At the age of fourteen, while sick with typhoid fever, he raved in his delirium that he wanted, above all else, to see the paintings in the Palazzo Pitti and the Uffizi in Florence; as Livorno's local museum housed only a sparse few paintings by the Italian Renaissance masters, the tales he had heard about the great works held in Florence intrigued him, it was a source of considerable despair to him, in his sickened state, that he might never get the chance to view them in person.
His mother promised that she would take him to the moment he was recovered. Not only did she fulfil this promise, but she undertook to enroll him with the best painting master in Livorno, Guglielmo Micheli. Modigliani worked in Micheli's Art School from 1898 to 1900. Among his colleagues in that studio would have been Llewelyn Lloyd, Giulio Cesare Vinzio, Manlio Martinelli, Gino Romiti, Renato Natali, Oscar Ghiglia. Here his earliest formal artistic instruction took place in an atmosphere steeped in a study of the styles and themes of 19th-century Italian art. In his earliest Parisian work, traces of this influence, that of his studies of Renaissance art, can still be seen, his nascent work was influenced by such Parisian artists as Giovanni Toulouse-Lautrec. Modigliani showed great promise while with Micheli, ceased his studies only when he was forced to, by the onset of tuberculosis. In 1901, whilst in Rome, Modigliani admired the work of Domenico Morelli, a painter of dramatic religious and literary scenes.
Morelli had served as an inspiration
Robert Shirley is an Australian rules footballer who played for the Adelaide Football Club in the Australian Football League. He played for the Woodville-West Torrens Football Club in the South Australian National Football League. Shirley was known as one of the best taggers in the AFL. Drafted from Woodville-West Torrens with pick 67 in the 1999 AFL Draft, Shirley played 21 games in his first three seasons at the highest level before being delisted at the end of the 2002 AFL season. Despite rumoured interest from Carlton, Shirley was redrafted by the Crows with pick 53 in the 2002 AFL Draft and placed on the club's rookie list. Shirley won a shock recall in round 12 of the next season after Simon Goodwin broke his wrist, he did well enough to play every game for the remainder of the season; this included a noteworthy shutdown of future Brownlow Medallist Chris Judd in the Crows' Elimination Final victory over the West Coast Eagles. "It's funny how the game turns around pretty quickly," Shirley noted after the game.
"A few months ago I wasn't close to getting a game. In the second half of the season I've been lucky enough to stay in the side. It's week-by-week for me and I don't take it any further than that."Shirley was reminded of the fickleness of form when he was dropped after the Crows' abysmal first-up loss to the Kangaroos in round 1, 2004. He was recalled in round 9, played every game for the remainder of the season; the 2005 AFL season proved a watershed year for Shirley as he became the club's primary tagger following the decision by Tyson Stenglein to return home to Perth at the end of 2004. Beginning with another personal victory over Judd in round 1 Shirley went from strength to strength, missing only one game in the team's unexpected rise to the Minor Premiership and subsequent exit at the Preliminary Final stage, his good form was acknowledged with the Coaches' Award at the club's Club Champion Award ceremony. In 2006 Shirley began to develop his ballwinning skills, averaging 16 disposals per game and leading the club in Hard Ball Gets with 75 for the year.
He continued to be a reliable tagger for the club, finishing third in the club's tackle count with 85. By 2007 Shirley had added another dimension to his game, registering eight 20-plus disposal games including a career high 30 touches against the Brisbane Lions in Round 21, he still remained one of the club's most prolific tacklers, achieving a personal best of 10 tackles in Adelaide's Elimination Final loss to Hawthorn Football Club. And placing third in the club's tackle count. At the conclusion of Round 5 Shirley won the AFL Army Award for the most courageous act of that week's matches, for his last-ditch spoil going back with the flight of the ball deep into the last quarter of the Crows' 1-point loss to Fremantle. At season's end Shirley's hard work was acknowledged with his second AFC Coach's Award. From Shirley's recall to the side in 2004 to the last game of the 2008 AFL season, he missed only five games, four of which were through injury. However, in 2009, a new-look Adelaide outfit had no place for Shirley.
Dropped for the first few games of the season, Shirley did return in round 11 but could not hold his place on a consistent basis and was in and out of the side, as quicker and more attacking players such as Michael Doughty and Nathan van Berlo were favoured in negating roles. Shirley was the highest profile player of five delisted by the club at the end of the season; the Gold Coast Suns were considering selecting Shirley, but the 29-year-old midfielder decided to accept a lucrative contract from the Ainslie Football Club, rather than play with the Gold Coast. Shirley returned to the Woodville-West Torrens Football Club for the 2012 SANFL season. Notes Robert Shirley's playing statistics from AFL Tables Robert Shirley's profile
Sir Charles Umpherston Aitchison, was a Scottish born Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab a province of British India. He founded Aitchison College, Lahore in 1886, he served as Chief Commissioner of the British Crown Colony of Burma from March 1878 to May 1880. Aitchison was born in Edinburgh. Charles Umpherston Aitchison, born in Edinburgh on 20 May 1832, was the son of Hugh Aitchison of that city, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Umpherston of Loanhead near Edinburgh, he was educated at the Royal High School and the University of Edinburgh, where he took the degree of M. A. on 23 April 1853. While a university student, Aitchison attended the lectures of Sir William Hamilton on logic and metaphysics, he afterwards passed some time in Germany, where he studied the works of Fichte, attended the lectures of Tholuck at the University of Halle. In 1855 he passed fifth at the first competitive examination for the Indian Civil Service, after spending a year in England in the study of law and oriental languages he landed at Kolkata on 26 September 1856.
In March 1857 he was appointed an assistant in Hissár a district of the North-Western Provinces and in the following month was transferred to the Punjab, where he joined shortly after the outbreak of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Owing to this transfer he escaped a massacre of Europeans, his first station in his new province was Amritsar, after his arrival there he was employed under the orders of the deputy commissioner in carrying out the measures which were taken to prevent the Jalandhar mutineers from crossing the Beas River. Shortly afterwards he was appointed personal assistant to the judicial commissioner, in which capacity he compiled A Manual of the Criminal Law of the Panjáb. While thus employed, he was much thrown with Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence, with whose policy on the Central Asian question, on British relations with Afghanistan, he was imbued during the remainder of his life. In 1892 he contributed a memoir of Lord Lawrence to Sir William Wilson Hunter's Rulers of India series.
In 1859 he joined the secretariat of the government of India as under-secretary in the political department, served there until 1865, when, at the instance of Sir John Lawrence governor-general, in order that he might acquire administrative experience, he took up administrative work in the Punjab, serving first as a deputy-commissioner and subsequently officiating as commissioner of Lahore. In 1868 he rejoined the secretariat as foreign secretary, retained that appointment until 1878; as secretary Aitchison was industrious and thorough in his work. He exercised a marked influence on successive governors-general, who regarded him as a wise and trusted adviser. During the earlier part of his service in the Indian foreign office he commenced the compilation of a valuable work entitled A Collection of Treaties and Sanads relating to India and neighbouring Countries. In 1875, he published a treatise on The Native States of India, with the leading cases illustrating the principles which underlie their relations with the British government.
A staunch believer in the policy of masterly inactivity, he regarded with grave apprehension the measures which, carried out under the government of Lord Lytton, culminated in the Afghan war of 1878–9. Before the war broke out in 1878 he accepted the appointment of chief commissioner of British Burma; when holding that office he raised two questions of considerable importance. The first was the question of the opium trade as bearing upon Burma; the second had reference to the relations of certain English public servants with the women of the country. Neither of these questions was dealt with by Lytton's government. After Aitchison's departure from the province both these questions were taken up by his successor, who received the support of Lord Ripon's government in dealing with them; the number of licensed opium shops was reduced to one-third of those licensed, the consumption of licit opium was reduced by two-fifths, involving a loss of revenue of four lakhs of rupees. On the other question, the principle of Aitchison's circular, stopping the promotion of officers who continued the practice which he had denounced, was enforced.
In 1881 Aitchison left Burma, to become on 4 April lieutenant-governor of the Punjab. His government there was successful, — according to the Dictionary of National Biography - popular with all classes of the people. Amongst his major achievements in the field of public education, at this time, were the establishment of the Aitchison College and the University of the Punjab, both at Lahore, he was a staunch advocate of the policy of advancing indigenous Indians in the public service as they proved their fitness for higher posts and for more responsible duties. On this point, in connection with what is known as the Ilbert Bill, he advocated measures more liberal than those proposed by Lord Ripon's government, he had intended to leave India for good when his lieutenant-governorship came to an end in 1887, but being invited by Lord Dufferin to join the council of the governor-general and give the viceroy the benefit of his experience on the many questions which had to be dealt with consequent upon the annexation of Upper Burma, he returned to India for another nineteen months.
During the latter part of his government of the Punjab he