Mount Erciyes known as Argaeus, is a volcano in Turkey. It is a large stratovolcano, surrounded by many monogenetic vents and lava domes, one maar; the bulk of the volcano is formed by lava flows of dacitic composition. At some time in the past, part of the summit collapsed towards the east; the volcano began to form in the Miocene. At first, a volcano farther east named. Again to the east, large explosive eruptions formed a caldera. During the Pleistocene, Mount Erciyes proper grew inside the caldera together with a group of lava domes. Lateral eruptions of Erciyes may have generated ash layers in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean during the early Holocene; the last eruptions occurred during the early Holocene and may have deposited ash as far away as Palestine. Future eruptions of Erciyes may endanger cities in Turkey; the volcano was glaciated during the Pleistocene, one regular glacier still exists today, but is receding. Erciyes was known as Argaeus, a name derived from the king of Macedon Argaeus I.
Mons Argaeus on the Moon was named after this old name for Erciyes. The older spelling of the name was "Erciyas" before it became "Erciyes" in the 1940s-1960s out of vowel harmony; the name means "white mountain". Erciyes lies in the Kayseri Province of Turkey; the city of Kayseri lies 15 kilometres -25 kilometres north of Erciyes volcano. Other towns in the region are Talas and Hacilar north of Erciyes but closer to the volcano, Develi, located south of the volcano. Access to the summit area is difficult. Climbers in antiquity reported that both the Black Sea and the Mediterranean could be seen from the summit. Erciyes Dagi and Hasan Dagi are both large stratovolcanoes that lie in Central Anatolia, on the Turkish microplate; this microplate is part of the collision zone between the Eurasian Plate, the African Plate, the Arabian Plate that forms the Alpide Belt. This convergence commenced in the Miocene and formed the Anatolian block, with two oceans that existed between these three plates in the Eocene disappearing through subduction.
During the late Miocene, the Neo-Tethys ocean disappeared, Africa and Eurasia collided. The Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez separated the Arabian Plate from the African Plate, causing the former to collide with Eurasia and forming the Bitlis–Zagros Belt; the Anatolian block was pushed westward between the North Anatolian and East Anatolian faults, it is still moving today. In central Anatolia, volcanism commenced in the Miocene. After an effusive phase and the eruption of large ignimbrite sheets, volcanoes developed, including stratovolcanoes such as Erciyes Dagi and Hasan Dagi on the one hand and monogenetic volcanoes and maars on the other hand; the tectonic environment has been compared with the Range Province. The Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, of which Erciyes is a part, covers a surface area of 32,500 square kilometres; the Cappadocian volcanic plateau comprises ignimbrites. The youngest K–Ar dates obtained on these centres are 60,000 ± 20,000 years ago for the Kizirtepe monogenetic centres and 20,000 ± 10,000 for Hasan.
Volcanic activity in the Acıgöl-Nevşehir system has been fission track dated at 15,500 ± 2,500 years ago. Major faults such as the North Anatolian Fault, which were generated by the convergence, are active; some of these faults form the edges of the Erciyes pull-apart basin, a tectonic depression up to 1.2 kilometres deep, split by this volcano into the Sultansazlıği and Kayseri-Sarımsaklı basins, both of which are part of the same system. These margin faults have been the source of earthquakes during historical times, resulting in damage to cities in the region, ongoing extension of this crustal domain is the probable reason for volcanism at Erciyes. Erciyes Dagi is a large stratovolcano, reaching a height of 3,864 metres, 3,918 metres or 3,917 metres, making it the highest mountain and most voluminous volcano of Central Anatolia, it rises about 900 metres above the Sultansazlıği basin and 2,842 metres above the floor of the Erciyes pull-apart basin. The volcano covers a surface area of 3,300 square kilometres.
It developed over a broad shield, dacitic domes and flows form the bulk of the volcano's exposed units, including the summit area, where several lava flows have been identified. Lava flows of Erciyes extend both from lateral vents. A debris avalanche extending east-northeast from Erciyes was formed by the collapse of the summit, creating a 2-kilometre wide horseshoe-shaped scar that forms the upper segment of the Üçker valley; the debris avalanche deposit reaches a distance of 7 kilometres from the summit and has a hummocky appearance. The volcano overall has an eroded appearance. Two major valleys extend to the northwesterly Aksu Valley and the easterly Üçker valley; the minor valleys of Öksüzdere lie north, Topaktaş south, Saraycık southwest of the summit. The Aksu valley contains sizable moraines left by the Pleistocene glaciation that are up to 60 metres high and 60–120 metres wide. A glacial outwash plain formed at the valley foot and was buried by Karagüllü lavas. Streams are not common on the slopes of Erciyes due to the unfavourable lithology.
Andesite and basaltic andesites are exposed on the western and eastern sides of
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Academy Award for Best Director
The Academy Award for Best Director is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of a film director who has exhibited outstanding directing while working in the film industry; the 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with the award being split into "Dramatic" and "Comedy" categories. However, these categories were merged for all subsequent ceremonies. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the directors branch of AMPAS. For the first eleven years of the Academy Awards, directors were allowed to be nominated for multiple films in the same year. However, after the nomination of Michael Curtiz for two films, Angels with Dirty Faces and Four Daughters, at the 11th Academy Awards, the rules were revised so that an individual could only be nominated for one film at each ceremony; that rule has since been amended, although the only director who has received multiple nominations in the same year was Steven Soderbergh for Erin Brockovich and Traffic in 2000, winning the award for the latter.
The Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture have been closely linked throughout their history. Of the 91 films that have been awarded Best Picture, 65 have been awarded Best Director. Since its inception, the award has been given to directing teams. John Ford has received the most awards in this category with four. William Wyler was nominated on twelve occasions, more than any other individual. Damien Chazelle became the youngest director in history to receive this award, at the age of 32 for his work on La La Land. Two directing teams have shared the award; the Coen brothers are the only siblings to have won the award. Kathryn Bigelow is the only woman to have won the award, for 2009's The Hurt Locker. Since the 82nd ceremony held in 2010, when the Best Picture category was no longer limited to 5 nominees, only Bennett Miller and Paweł Pawlikowski have been nominated for films not nominated for Best Picture; as of the 2019 ceremony, Alfonso Cuarón is the most recent winner in this category for his work on Roma.
In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County, California. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31. For the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1, 1932, to December 31, 1933. Since the 7th ceremony held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31; as of the 91st Academy Awards, four Asian directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, one has won the award two times. 1965 – Hiroshi Teshigahara for Woman in the Dunes 1985 – Akira Kurosawa for Ran 1999 – M. Night Shyamalan for The Sixth Sense † 2000 – Ang Lee for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon † 2005 – Ang Lee for Brokeback Mountain † 2012 – Ang Lee for Life of Pi † As of the 91st Academy Awards, six black directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, none have won the award.
1991 – John Singleton for Boyz n the Hood § 2009 – Lee Daniels for Precious † 2013 – Steve McQueen for 12 Years a Slave ‡ 2016 – Barry Jenkins for Moonlight ‡ 2017 – Jordan Peele for Get Out §† 2018 – Spike Lee for BlacKkKlansman † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five Latin American directors have been nominated a total of eight times in this category, three have won the award five times. 1985 – Héctor Babenco for Kiss of the Spider Woman † 2003 – Fernando Meirelles for City of God 2006 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Babel † 2013 – Alfonso Cuarón for Gravity † 2014 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Birdman ‡ 2015 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for The Revenant † 2017 – Guillermo del Toro for The Shape of Water ‡ 2018 – Alfonso Cuarón for Roma † As of the 91st Academy Awards, seven Oceanic directors have been nominated a total of eleven times in this category, one has won the award. 1942 – John Farrow for Wake Island † 1983 – Bruce Beresford for Tender Mercies † 1985 – Peter Weir for Witness † 1989 – Peter Weir for Dead Poets Society † 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 1995 – Chris Noonan for Babe † 1998 – Peter Weir for The Truman Show 2001 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring † 2003 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King ‡ 2003 – Peter Weir for Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World † 2015 – George Miller for Mad Max: Fury Road † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five female directors have been nominated a total of five times in the category, one has won the award.
1976 – Lina Wertmüller for Seven Beauties 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 2003 – Sofia Coppola for Lost in Translation † 2009 – Kathryn Bigelow for The Hurt Locker ‡ 2017 – Greta Gerwig for Lady Bird §† As of the 91st Academy Awards, twenty-five directors of non-English language films have been nominated a total of thirty times in this category, one has won the award. 1961 - Federico Fellini for La Dolce Vita, Italian 1962 - Pietro Germi for Divorce Italian Style, Italian 1963 - Federico Fellini for 8½, Italian 1964 - Michael Cacoyannis for Zorba the Greek, Greek 1965 -
Robert H. Harris
Robert H. Harris was an American character actor. A veteran of the Yiddish Art Theater from his teens, Harris made his first Broadway appearance in 1937 in Schoolhouse on the Lot, his other Broadway credits include Xmas in Las Vegas, Minor Miracle, Look, Ma, I'm Dancin'! and Brooklyn, U. S. A.. In 1952, Harris was the managing director of the Woodstock Playhouse in New York. Prior to that, he had directed repertory theatera in Hollywood. From 1950 on, he appeared extensively on television series, specializing in playing shady, if not outright evil, characters. From 1953–1956 he played Jake Goldberg in The Goldbergs, one of his few sympathetic roles. In 1957, Harris played the lead role in The Court of Last Resort, he made many guest appearances in many other TV series. These include eight appearances in Alfred Hitchcock Presents between 1956 and 1961 and seven appearances in Perry Mason between 1958 and 1965 including in the 1962 episode "The Case of the Dodging Domino". Among his seven appearances, he played the murderer three times, the murder victim once, the defendant once.
He appeared in other television series such as Peter Gunn, 77 Sunset Strip, Ben Casey, The Asphalt Jungle, Rawhide. He starred in the 1958 B-movie horror film How to Make a Monster and had notable appearances as a rich cuckold in Elia Kazan's 1963 film America America, Edward Dmytryk's 1965 film Mirage, as the obsessive-compulsive consulting psychiatrist, his other film credits included roles in Bundle of Joy, The Invisible Boy, Peyton Place, The George Raft Story, Apache Uprising, Valley of the Dolls, How Awful About Allan, The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid and The Man in the Glass Booth. Harris and his wife, actress Viola Harris, had Steven Lee. Harris died November 30, 1981, was buried December 3, 1981, he was survived by Viola Harris, a son, a daughter, a brother and two sisters. Appearances in Alfred Hitchcock Presents"Mr. Fox" in episode: Shopping for Death, first broadcast on January 29, 1956. "Laurence Appleby" in episode: The Orderly World of Mr. Appleby, first broadcast on April 15, 1956.
"John Hurley" in episode: The Hidden Thing, first broadcast on May 20, 1956. "Albert Birch" in episode: Toby, first broadcast on November 4, 1956. "LaFontaine" in episode: The Dangerous People, first broadcast on June 23, 1957. "George Piper" in episode: The Safe Place, first broadcast on June 8, 1958. "Ben Prowdy" in episode: Graduating Class, first broadcast on December 27, 1959. "Morty Lenton" in episode: The Greatest Monster of Them All, first broadcast on February 14, 1961. Appearances in The Alfred Hitchcock Hour"Dr. Perrigan" in episode: Consider Her Ways, first broadcast on December 28, 1964. Appearance in Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea"Dr. Eric Carlton" in episode "The Sky Is Falling"Appearances in Perry Mason"Edmund Lacey" in episode: The Case of the Lonely Heiress, first broadcast on February 1, 1958. "Aaron Hubble" in episode: The Case of "The Purple Woman", first broadcast on December 6, 1958. "Gordon Russell" in episode: The Case of the Slandered Submarine, first broadcast on May 14, 1960.
"Claude Demay" in episode: The Case of the Torrid Tapestry first broadcast on April 22, 1961. "Jerry Janda" in episode: The Case of the Dodging Domino first broadcast on November 1, 1962. "Harry Bronson" in episode: The Case of the Frustrated Folksinger, first broadcast on January 7, 1965. "Marty Webb" in episode: The Case of the Runaway Racer, first broadcast on November 14, 1965. Appearances in Gunsmoke"Ben Pitcher" in episode: Cow Doctor, first broadcast on September 8, 1956. "Fred Myers" in episode: Kick Me, first broadcast on January 26, 1957. Appearances in The Man from U. N. C. L. E."Dr. Janos Hrandy" in episode: The Love Affair, first broadcast on March 29, 1965. "Mark Ole" in episode: The Pop Art Affair, first broadcast on October 7, 1966. Appearances in The Untouchables"Phil Corbin" in episode: Kiss of Death Girl, first broadcast on December 8, 1960. Appearances in Suspenseepisode: Escape This Night, first broadcast on February 7, 1950. Episode: Dark Shadows, first broadcast on September 19, 1950.
Episode: Night Drive, first broadcast on February 26, 1952. Appearances in Climax!episode: Flight 951, first broadcast on April 21, 1955. Appearing as Robert Harris playing "Porfear" in episode: No Right to Kill, first broadcast on August 9, 1956. Episode: The Secret of the Red Room first broadcast on September 12, 1957. Robert H. Harris on IMDb Robert H. Harris at the Internet Broadway Database
Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
Joanna Frank is an American actress She is the elder sister of the late Steven Bochco, the producer of Hill Street Blues and NYPD Blue, the wife, since March 11, 1978 of actor Alan Rachins of Dharma and Greg and L. A. Law; the couple has one child. Her brother produced the latter series, her first role was in Elia Kazan's 1963 film America, America as the character "Vartuhi", she appeared in The Young Animals and the cult biker film The Savage Seven. Her film credits included roles in Henry Jaglom's Always, But Not Forever, the romantic comedy Say Anything.... On television her first roles were as the malevolent "Regina" in The Outer Limits episode "ZZZZZ", which aired January 27, 1964; the following day, January 28, 1964, the episode "Where the Action Is" in The Fugitive in which she appeared as "Chris Polichek", aired. Years she appeared on L. A. Law, co-created by her brother, television director and producer Steven Bochco and starring her husband, Alan Rachins. Joanna Frank on IMDb Joanna Frank at the TCM Movie Database Joanna Frank at the Internet Off-Broadway Database