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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity. It is the world's largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members, is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science; the American Association for the Advancement of Science was created on September 20, 1848, at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was a reformation of the Association of American Naturalists; the society chose William Charles Redfield as their first president because he had proposed the most comprehensive plans for the organization. According to the first constitution, agreed to at the September 20 meeting, the goal of the society was to promote scientific dialogue in order to allow for greater scientific collaboration.

By doing so the association aimed to use resources to conduct science with increased efficiency and allow for scientific progress at a greater rate. The association sought to increase the resources available to the scientific community through active advocacy of science. There were only 78 members; as a member of the new scientific body, Matthew Fontaine Maury, USN was one of those who attended the first 1848 meeting. At a meeting held on Friday afternoon, September 22, 1848, Redfield presided, Matthew Fontaine Maury gave a full scientific report on his Wind and Current Charts. Maury stated that hundreds of ship navigators were now sending abstract logs of their voyages to the United States Naval Observatory, he added, "Never before was such a corps of observers known." But, he pointed out to his fellow scientists, his critical need was for more "simultaneous observations." "The work," Maury stated, "is not for the benefit of any nation or age." The minutes of the AAAS meeting reveal that because of the universality of this "view on the subject, it was suggested whether the states of Christendom might not be induced to cooperate with their Navies in the undertaking.

William Barton Rogers, professor at the University of Virginia and founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, offered a resolution: "Resolved that a Committee of five be appointed to address a memorial to the Secretary of the Navy, requesting his further aid in procuring for Matthew Maury the use of the observations of European and other foreign navigators, for the extension and perfecting of his charts of winds and currents." The resolution was adopted and, in addition to Rogers, the following members of the association were appointed to the committee: Professor Joseph Henry of Washington. This was scientific cooperation, Maury went back to Washington with great hopes for the future. In 1850, the first female members were accepted, they were: astronomer Maria Mitchell, entomologist Margaretta Morris, science educator Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps. By 1860, membership increased to over 2,000; the AAAS became dormant during the American Civil War. The AAAS did not become a permanent casualty of the war.

In 1866, Frederick Barnard presided over the first meeting of the resurrected AAAS at a meeting in New York City. Following the revival of the AAAS, the group had considerable growth; the AAAS permitted all people, regardless of scientific credentials. The AAAS did, institute a policy of granting the title of "Fellow of the AAAS" to well-respected scientists within the organization; the years of peace brought the expansion of other scientific-oriented groups. The AAAS's focus on the unification of many fields of science under a single organization was in contrast to the many new science organizations founded to promote a single discipline. For example, the American Chemical Society, founded in 1876, promotes chemistry. In 1863, the US Congress established the National Academy of Sciences, another multidisciplinary sciences organization, it elects members based on the value of published works. Alan I. Leshner, AAAS CEO from 2001 until 2015, published many op-ed articles discussing how many people integrate science and religion in their lives.

He has opposed the insertion of non-scientific content, such as creationism or intelligent design, into the scientific curriculum of schools. In December 2006, the AAAS adopted an official statement on climate change, in which they stated, "The scientific evidence is clear: global climate change caused by human activities is occurring now, it is a growing threat to society.... The pace of change and the evidence of harm have increased markedly over the last five years; the time to control greenhouse gas emissions is now."In February 2007, the AAAS used satellite images to document human rights abuses in Burma. The next year, AAAS launched the Center for Science Diplomacy to advance both science and the broader relationships among partner countries, by promoting science diplomacy and international scientific cooperation. In 2012, AAAS published op-eds, held events on Capitol Hill and released analyses of the U. S. federal research-and-development budget, to warn that a budget sequestration would have severe consequences for scientific pro

Benny Johansen

Benny Johansen is a Danish former football player and manager. He won the Danish championship once as a manager of FC Copenhagen, he played one game for the Denmark national under-21 football team in 1972. Johansen played his youth football for amateur club Ryvang FC, before making his senior debut for B 1903 in 1968. With B 1903, he won 1970 Danish football championship. Johansen scored both goals in B 1903's 2-1 win against Celtic FC in the 1971-72 European Cup, though B 1903 was eliminated 4-2 on aggregate. In 1972, Johansen moved abroad to play for Swedish club Helsingborgs IF, he moved back to B 1903 in 1978, but suffered a knee injury, ended his playing career in 1980. Johansen started his coaching career with amateur team Hillerød G&IF, playing the lower regional levels, SBU Series 1, as player coach from 1981 to 1982, Espergærde IF from 1983 and 1984. In 1988, Johansen was back at B coaching the youth team. In 1989, he became B 1903 assistant manager, he became manager of B 1903 in 1990, led the team to the quarter-finals of the 1991-92 UEFA Cup, beating Aberdeen, Bayern Munich, Trabzonspor, before being eliminated by Torino Calcio.

In 1992, Johansen became the first coach of F. C. Copenhagen, a newly created fusion of B 1903 and KB, guided the team to the 1992 Danish Superliga championship. In 1994, Keld Kristensen was named manager of FC Copenhagen, before Johansen managed the club again from 1994 to 1995. In 1995, Johansen moved abroad to coach Al Rayyan Sports Club in Qatar, he was recommended to the club by compatriot Jørgen E. Larsen. In 1997, he moved back to Denmark to coach Køge Boldklub. In 1999, he took over as manager of Silkeborg IF, led the club to the 2001 Danish Cup in May 2001. In October 2001, Johansen was replaced by Morten Bruun. From the summer of 2002 to September 2004, he was manager of Ølstykke FC, he moved directly on to manage BK Fremad Amager. In October 2006 he was named sports director of Fremad Amager, but left the job in March 2007 in order to continue his managerial career, he went on to coach on an amateur team. Danish Championship: 1969, 1970, 1992 Danish Cup: 1991, 2001

Clarkston explosion

The Clarkston explosion was a disaster that occurred on 21 October 1971 at a shopping centre in Clarkston, East Renfrewshire, Scotland. The death toll has been stated as 21 or 22; the explosion followed a build-up of gas in an underground space beneath the Clarkston Toll shopping centre, caused by a gas main leak ruled to have been accidental. Customers and shop staff had on 20 October complained of a strong smell of gas in the centre and Scottish Gas engineers had attended to investigate, but had identified no source for the smell; the engineers were still in attendance at around 2:50pm on the following day when the gas ignited and exploded, killing at least 21 people and injuring around 100. The victims included many shop staff and people on shopping trips, the passengers of a bus, passing the scene; the explosion destroyed a terraced car park. An inquiry was held, a jury on 11 February 1972 returned a verdict that no fault for the explosion lay with any organization or individual. No cause was identified for the ignition of the leaked gas, the leak itself was deemed the result of an accidental gas main fracture caused by "stress and corrosion".

The victims of the disaster are commemorated in a plaque erected in 2001/2 near the site of the explosion. There is a further tribute to those who lost their lives situated in the entranceway to the Clarkston Halls. Scottish Television produced a programme on the Clarkston disaster which aired on 20 November 2017