The American Automobile Association is a federation of motor clubs throughout North America. AAA is a held not-for-profit national member association and service organization with over 60 million members in the United States and Canada. AAA provides services including roadside assistance and others, its national headquarters are in Florida. The American Automobile Association was founded on March 4, 1902, in Chicago, when in response to a lack of roads and highways suitable for automobiles, nine motor clubs with a total of 1,500 members banded together to form the Triple-A; those individual motor clubs included the Chicago Automobile Club, Automobile Club of America, Automobile Club of New Jersey, others. The Automobile Club of Buffalo joined in 1903. In 1904, the AAA merged with the first American automobile organization, the American Motor League, under the direction of the first chairman, Augustus Post; the first AAA road maps were published in 1905. AAA began printing hotel guides in 1917; the Triple-A began its School Safety Patrol Program in 1920, the first of the association's driver safety programs, which provided local schools with materials, including badges and ID cards to train and organize students into a patrol force.
The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, which conducts studies on motorist safety, was established as a separate entity in 1947. AAA created an organization called the Racing Board, known as the Contest Board, in 1902 to officiate the Vanderbilt Cup international automobile race in Long Island, New York; the Racing Board sanctioned the Indianapolis 500 and awarded national racing championships in 1905, 1916, 1920–1941, 1946–1955. After the 1955 Le Mans disaster, AAA decided that auto racing distracted from its primary goals, the United States Automobile Club was formed to take over the race sanctioning/officiating. In 2005, AAA re-entered racing as a sponsor of ISC-owned tracks. In 2006, AAA's foray into racing expanded when it made a three-year commitment to sponsor Roush Racing's number 6 car on the NASCAR Nextel Circuit. In 1935, AAA published the first course outline for high school teachers. In 1936, AAA published the first driver education curriculum for use in high schools. AAA has updated its driver training courses throughout the years and many clubs offer their own driving schools, or work with other companies to provide AAA’s driving curriculum.
Knowing that vehicles pose a hazard to pedestrians, in 1936 AAA began a pedestrian safety program with a grant from the Automotive Safety Foundation. AAA went on to commission and publish an extensive study of pedestrian safety for the purpose of reducing pedestrian fatalities and injuries. AAA’s Pedestrian Protection Program began in 1937 and focuses national attention on pedestrian safety needs by recognizing cities and states that have demonstrated successful pedestrian safety programs; the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety was established as a separate entity in 1947, continues to conduct research related to traffic and pedestrian safety. AAA has provided services to the U. S. government in times of war. During the 1940s, AAA offered its services to the Advisory Commission of the Council of National Defense in anticipation of becoming involved in World War II. AAA President Thomas P. Henry was appointed consultant in the transportation unit of the Defense Council, AAA pledged resources, including highway information, to national defense planning efforts as it had during World War I.
Reductions in manufacturing because of the war increased the need for conservation in automobiles and their related products. AAA's efforts at conservation included supporting the manufacture of synthetic rubber in anticipation of a war-related tire/rubber shortage, urging motorists to reduce their driving speed to conserve fuel. In 1944, AAA’s Keep'em Rolling campaign sponsored a cross-country tour featuring cars equipped with synthetic tires; the tour demonstrated the reliability of tires made with synthetic rubber. In doing its part to assist in the war effort, AAA placed its mapping facilities at the disposal of the Army department. AAA assisted in the development of a manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices and their operation during wartime; the end of the war brought new needs for motorists and AAA assisted by releasing the film "Traffic Jam Ahead", which outlined a practical program for postwar traffic safety, publishing Post-war Travel Trends as a public service. In 1946, AAA launched a campaign called "Take It Easy", designed to reduce traffic fatalities.
Subsequently, fatalities dropped 20 percent below the pre-war figure. In the 1960s, AAA helped draft the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, setting safety standards for automobiles and equipment. AAA helped draft the Highway Safety Act, specifying standards for motor vehicle inspection and registration, motorcycle safety, driver education, driver licensing, traffic courts, highway design, construction and traffic control devices. During the oil crisis of the 1970s, the AAA Fuel Gauge Report was created to assist motorists in finding gas stations that had fuel a
Hellraiser: Judgment is a 2018 American horror film starring Damon Carney, Randy Wayne, Alexandra Harris, Heather Langenkamp, Paul T. Taylor, it is the tenth installment in the Hellraiser film series created by Clive Barker and directed by the series' longtime special make-up effects artist Gary J. Tunnicliffe; the plot centers on three police detectives who, investigating a series of murders, are confronted by the denizens of hell. The film expands the fictional universe by introducing a new faction of hell, the Stygian Inquisition, who are distinct from the recurring Cenobites; the Cenobites offer sadomasochistic pleasures to humans who enter their dominion, while the Inquisition processes the souls of sinners. Tunnicliffe plays a prominent role in the film. Unable to direct his screenplay for Hellraiser: Revelations due to a scheduling conflict, Tunnicliffe removed all references to the series from his Judgment concept and tried to have it funded as an independent film in 2013, he intended on making a "true" Hellraiser film because of his disappointment with the films.
Several years Dimension Films was required to make another Hellraiser film to retain the rights, giving Tunnicliffe a chance to propose his vision. The concept was rejected but accepted after he negotiated changes with the studio executives, it was filmed in Oklahoma with Children of the Corn: Runaway, both films produced by Michael Leahy. Some scenes were deemed too graphic by the studio, were edited. Although Tunnicliffe asked actor Doug Bradley to return as priest of hell Pinhead, Bradley declined when he learned that he would be required to sign a non-disclosure agreement to read the script. Judgment is the second Hellraiser film without Bradley in the role, having been replaced by Stephen Smith Collins in Revelations. Newcomer Paul T. Taylor was cast after impressing Tunnicliffe in an audition for another character, he and Tunnicliffe decided to develop a new look and interpretation, rather than imitating Bradley's performance. Mike Jay Regan reprised his role as the Chatterer, Pinhead's servant in several of the earlier sequels.
Judgment was scheduled for release in 2017 with minimal marketing to avoid negative publicity, but was temporarily shelved. According to Taylor, its release was not a priority for Dimension until the sexual abuse allegations involving parent company co-founder Harvey Weinstein, it was distributed by Lionsgate Films in video on demand and home media on February 13, 2018. Although critics compared the film favorably to its predecessors, its low budget and police procedural aspects were criticized. In hell, from the Cenobite sect, the Auditor of the Stygian Inquisition are discussing how to adapt their methods of harvesting souls in the face of advancing human technology, making the Configurations obsolete. On Earth, three detectives – brothers Sean and David Carter and Christine Egerton – investigate a serial killer known as the Preceptor, whose murders are based on the Ten Commandments. A connection with one of the victims leads the detectives to Karl Watkins, a local criminal who went missing near an abandoned house.
Sean goes to the house and loses consciousness, waking up in the Stygian Inquisition's domain in hell. As the Inquisition prepares to hand down a verdict on Sean for his sins, the angel Jophiel intervenes and tells them to release him. Sean escapes the realm with a stolen puzzle box, the Auditor requests Pinhead's guidance on the matter. Sean and his brother return to search the house, finding no trace of the Inquisition; that night he is haunted by visions of the Cenobites and hell's denizens, who promise "judgment and redemption" to anyone who opens the box. Sean and Christine go to the coroner's office and find that a cell phone of one of the Preceptor's victims was stored in her body, recording her final location with its GPS, they find the Preceptor's hideout, where Sean incapacitates Christine and reveals himself as the killer. David meets with the coroner to find the building. Upon arrival, Sean disarms David and reveals that he is holding his wife Alison hostage, outraged that she had an affair.
He forces David and Alison to open the box at gunpoint, summoning the Cenobites and opening a gateway to their realm. Aware that someone from hell would come to collect his soul after his initial escape, Sean attempts to offer Alison and David to Pinhead. Pinhead tells him that they will be dealt with for opening the box but, because a separate faction of hell wanted his soul, no deal will be made; the Auditor appears. Jophiel intervenes again and protests to Pinhead and the Auditor that Sean is part of heaven's plan to instill fear into sinners. Pinhead arranges for Christine to kill Sean, spitefully dispatches Jophiel; as punishment, God forces him to walk the earth as a mortal man. In a post-credits scene, a group of Mormon missionaries in Germany approach a house and are captured by the Stygian Inquisition. Damon Carney as Detective Sean Carter / The Preceptor: A police detective who investigates a string of murders and discovers an other-worldly threat. Unbeknownst to his colleagues, he murders people.
Randy Wayne as Detective David Carter: Sean's partner during the investigation. Wayne questioned some of Tunnicliffe's decisions. Once that trust was established, Randy relaxed and found David." Alexand
The Treaty of York was an agreement between the kings Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland, signed at York on 25 September 1237, which affirmed that Northumberland and Westmorland were subject to English sovereignty. This established the Anglo-Scottish border in a form that remains unchanged to modern times; the treaty detailed the future status of several feudal properties and addressed other issues between the two kings, marked the end of the Kingdom of Scotland's attempts to extend its frontier southward. The treaty was one of a number of agreements made in the ongoing relationship between the two kings; the papal legate Otho was in the Kingdom of England at Henry's request, to attend a synod in London in November 1237. Otho was informed in advance by Henry of the September meeting at York; this meeting was recorded by the contemporary chronicler Matthew Paris, who disparaged both Alexander and Otho. Paris' untruthful allegations towards Alexander, portraying him as boorishly uncivil and aggressive, have been repeated uncritically in several historical accounts.
Henry and Alexander had a history of making agreements to settle one matter or another, related to this was their personal relationship. Alexander was married to Henry's sister Joan and Alexander's sister Margaret had married Hubert de Burgh, a former regent to Henry. On 13 August 1237 Henry advised Otho. An agreement was reached on 25 September "respecting all claims, or competent to, the latter, up to Friday next before Michaelmas A. D. 1237". The title of the agreement is Scriptum cirographatum inter Henricum Regem Anglie et Alexandrum Regem Scocie de comitatu Northumbrie Cumbrie et Westmerland factum coram Ottone Legato and the particulars of the agreement are: The King of Scotland: quitclaims to the King of England his hereditary rights to the counties of Northumberland and Westmorland; the King of England grants the King of Scotland certain lands within Northumberland and Cumberland, to be held by him and his successor kings of Scotland in feudal tenure with certain rights exempting them from obligations common in feudal relationships, with the Scottish Steward sitting in Justice regarding certain issues that may arise, these, are hereditary to the King of Scotland's heirs, regarding these the King of Scotland shall not be answerable to an English court of law in any suit.
The King of Scotland makes his homage and fealty – de praedictis terris. Both kings respect previous writings not in conflict with this agreement, any charters found regarding said counties to be restored to the King of England. Historians have shown little interest in the agreement, either mentioning it in passing or ignoring it altogether. Stubbs does not mention it in his Constitutional History of England, nor does Hume in his History of England. Skene's Celtic Scotland refers to it as an agreement in his background discussion for the reign of Alexander II's successor, Alexander III, while Burton's History of Scotland mentions that claims of land were discussed in 1237 and describes some of them, but makes no reference to an agreement or treaty. James Hill Ramsay's Dawn of the Constitution gives a fuller discussion of the agreement, but does not give it any particular prominence; the treaty gained additional prominence due to the chronicler Matthew Paris, known for his rhetorical passion and his invectives against those with whom he disagreed.
Paris describes the Papal legate Otho in negative terms, as someone, weak and timid in the face of strength but overbearing in his use of power over others, as someone who avariciously accumulated a large amount of money. He describes Alexander and Henry as having a mutual hatred in 1236, with Alexander threatening to invade England, he describes the 1237 meeting at York as the result of Henry's and Otho's invitation to Alexander, that when Otho expressed an interest in visiting Scotland, Alexander claimed no legate had visited Scotland and he would not allow it, that if Otho does enter Scotland he should take care that harm does not befall him. Paris goes on to say that in 1239 as Otho was leaving for Scotland, that when Alexander had met with Otho in 1237 he had become so excited in his hostility at the possibility of Otho's visit to Scotland that a written agreement had to be drawn up concerning Otho's visit. There is nothing to recommend Paris' account as having any validity, as it is contradicted by known facts regarding dates and correspondences, by knowledge of previous visits to Scotland by legates.
Legates had visited Scotland in the reigns of Alexander's father William I, his uncle Malcolm IV, his grandfather David I, Alexander himself had seen a Papal legate hold a council at Perth for four days, making his alleged outrage and threats incongruous and improbable. List of treaties