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American Bandstand

American Bandstand is an American music-performance and dance television program that aired in various versions from 1952 to 1989, was hosted from 1956 until its final season by Dick Clark, who served as the program's producer. It featured teenagers dancing to Top 40 music introduced by Clark. M. C.—would appear in person to lip-sync one of their latest singles. Freddy Cannon holds the record for most appearances, at 110; the show's popularity helped Dick Clark become an American media mogul and inspired similar long-running music programs, such as Soul Train and Top of the Pops. Clark assumed ownership of the program through his Dick Clark Productions company. American Bandstand premiered locally in late March 1950 as Bandstand on Philadelphia television station WFIL-TV Channel 6, as a replacement for a weekday movie that had shown predominantly British films. Hosted by Bob Horn as a television adjunct to his radio show of the same name on WFIL radio, Bandstand featured short musical films produced by Snader Telescriptions and Official Films, with occasional studio guests.

This incarnation was an early predecessor of sorts of the music video shows that became popular in the 1980s, featuring films that are themselves the ancestors of music videos. Horn, was disenchanted with the program, so he wanted to have the show changed to a dance program, with teenagers dancing along on camera as the records played, based on an idea that came from a radio show on WPEN, The 950 Club, hosted by Joe Grady and Ed Hurst; this more-familiar version of Bandstand debuted on October 7, 1952, in "Studio'B',", located in their just-completed addition to the original 1947 building in West Philadelphia, was hosted by Horn, with Lee Stewart as co-host until 1955. Stewart was the owner of a TV/Radio business in Philadelphia and though he was an older gentleman, his advertising account was a large one for WFIL-TV at the time and was put on the program to appease the account; as WFIL grew financially and the account became less important, Stewart wasn't needed and was dropped from the program.

Tony Mammarella was the original producer with Ed Yates as director. The short Snader and Official music films continued in the short term to fill gaps as they changed dancers during the show—a necessity, as the studio could not fit more than 200 teenagers. On July 9, 1956, Horn was fired after a drunk-driving arrest, as WFIL and dual owner Walter Annenberg's The Philadelphia Inquirer at the time were doing a series on drunken driving, he was reportedly involved in a prostitution ring and brought up on morals charges. Horn was temporarily replaced by producer Tony Mammarella before the job went to Dick Clark permanently. In late spring of 1956, the ABC television network asked their O&O's and affiliates for programming suggestions to fill their 3:30 p.m. time slot. Clark decided to pitch the show to ABC president Thomas W. Moore, after some badgering the show was picked up nationally, becoming American Bandstand on August 5, 1957. One show from this first season is now in the archives of Chicago's Museum of Broadcast Communications.

One national market not telecasting Bandstand was Baltimore, Maryland, as local affiliate WAAM elected to produce a local dance show in the same afternoon time slot. Local radio disc jockey Buddy Deane was chosen as the host of The Buddy Deane Show on Channel 13, began a daily two hour broadcast on September 9, 1957; this development created a sometimes heated rivalry between Dick Clark and Buddy Deane, as performers who appeared first on Deane's program were refused booking on American Bandstand. Acts debuting on Bandstand would appear on Deane's program, but were asked to not mention their previous appearance with Clark while on the Baltimore show; the Buddy Deane Show aired on WJZ-TV until January 4, 1964. "Studio'B'" measured 80' x 42' x 24', but appeared smaller due to the number of props, television cameras, risers that were used for the show. It was shot in color in 1958 when WFIL-TV began experimenting with the then-new technology. Due to a combination of factors that included the size of the studio, the need to have as much space available for the teenagers to dance, the size of the color camera compared to the black-and-white models, it was only possible to have one RCA TK-41 where three RCA TK-10s had been used before.

WFIL went back to the TK-10s two weeks when ABC refused to carry the color signal and management realized that the show lost something without the extra cameras. Clark would interview the teenagers about their opinions of the songs being played, most memorably through the "Rate-a-Record" segment. During the segment, two audience members each ranked two records on a scale of 35 to 98, after which the two opinions were averaged by Clark, who asked the audience members to justify their scores; the segment gave rise apocryphally, to the phrase "It's got a good beat and you can dance to it." In one humorous segment broadcast for years on retrospective shows, comedians Cheech and Chong appeared as the record raters. Featured artists performed their current hits by lip-syncing to the released version of the song; the only person to co-host the show with Dick Clark was Donna Summer, who joined him to present a special episode dedicated to the release of the Casablanca film Thank God It's Friday on May 27, 1978.

From the late 1950s and most of the 1960s, Clark's on-camera sidekick was announcer Charlie O'D

Yuichiro Hata

Yuichiro Hata is a Japanese politician of the Democratic Party of Japan, a member of the House of Councillors in the Diet. A native of Setagaya and graduate of Tamagawa University, he was elected to the House of Councillors for the first time in 1999, he is the son of the late Prime Minister Tsutomu Hata. He was appointed the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Tourism on June 4, 2012. On August 15, 2012 Hata, along with National Safety Commissioner Jin Matsubara became the first cabinet ministers of the DPJ to visit the controversial Yasukuni Shrine on August 15 since the party came to power in 2009, they made their visits to commemorate the 67th anniversary of the end of World War II despite requests from South Korea to refrain from doing so, despite Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda requesting his cabinet not to do so. 政治家情報 〜羽田 雄一郎〜. JANJAN ザ・選挙. Retrieved 2007-11-17. Official website in Japanese

Fortine, Montana

Fortine is a census-designated place in Lincoln County, United States. The population was 169 at the 2000 census. Fortine is located at 48°45′52″N 114°54′11″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.0 square miles, of which, 3.0 square miles of it is land and 0.33% is water. Fortine was named for Octave Fortine, it was a station on the Great Northern Railway line. The first post office was established in 1905; as of the census of 2000, there were 169 people, 74 households, 48 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 56.3 people per square mile. There were 85 housing units at an average density of 28.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.45% White, 0.59% African American, 0.59% Native American, 2.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.59% of the population. There were 74 households out of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families.

28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.82. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 3.0% from 18 to 24, 22.5% from 25 to 44, 33.7% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,500, the median income for a family was $35,625. Males had a median income of $30,625 versus $31,250 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $13,140. About 6.0% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.8% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. Fortine Information

2011 in Taiwan

Events from the year 2011 in Taiwan, Republic of China. This year is numbered Minguo 100 according to the official Republic of China calendar. President – Ma Ying-jeou Vice PresidentVincent Siew Premier – Wu Den-yih Vice PremierSean Chen 1 January The government introduces a monthly stipend of NT$3,000 for each child under the age of 2 in low and medium income families; the national minimum wage is raised to NT$17,880 per month and the minimum hourly wage is raised, from NT$95 to NT$98. The Shalun Line opens. 2 January – The opening of Chang Jung Christian University Station of Taiwan Railways Administration in Gueiren District, Tainan. 7 January – Yen Ming is appointed Commanding General of the ROC Air Force after his predecessor Lei Yu-chi was demoted for misuse of public resources. 9 January – The groundbreaking ceremony of Kinmen Bridge by President Ma Ying-jeou in Kinmen. 11 January – Holders of Republic of China passports are eligible for visa free entry to the Schengen Area of the European Union, plus three other EU countries.

8 February – Major General Lo Hsieh-che, head of the Taiwanese Army's electronic communications and information department, is arrested for leaking secrets to the People's Republic of China. 12 February – The 13th Pingxi Sky Lantern Festival in New Taipei City. 6 March – Nine people are killed and 12 injured in a fire in a bar in Taichung City. 11 March – The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami have effects in northeastern Taiwan. 29 March – The opening of Itteki Memorial House in Tamsui District, New Taipei City. 30 March – The establishment of National Academy for Educational Research of the Ministry of Education. 5 April – The opening of Drop of Water Memorial Hall in Tamsui District, New Taipei City. 11–15 April – Han Kuang Exercise in Taichung City and Pingtung County. 24 April – The opening of Jhongdou Wetlands Park in Sanmin District, Kaohsiung City. Plasticizer in food products in a food scandal that hit Taiwan 7 May – The establishment of Taiwan Halal Integrity Development Association in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City.

18 June – 22nd Golden Melody Awards in Taipei Arena, Taipei. 17 July – The opening of Tainan Cultural and Creative Park in North District, Tainan. The establishment of Chang Gung University of Science and Technology in Chiayi County; the establishment of Chung Chou University of Science and Technology in Changhua County. 7 October – The opening of Greater Taichung International Expo Center in Wuri District, Taichung. 8 October – The Democratic Progressive Party Chairperson Tsai Ing-wen and the presidential candidate for the 2012 Taiwan presidential election explained her stance on the existence of the Republic of China on Taiwan as "Taiwan is the Republic of China, the Republic of China is Taiwan." 9 October – The opening of Penbay International Circuit in Donggang Township, Pingtung County. 10 October – 100th Anniversary of the Republic of China. 19 October – The establishment of Mozilla Taiwan. 29 October – The establishment of National Museum of Taiwan History in Annan District, Tainan. The opening of Wellspring Theater in Taipei City.

11 November – The opening of Liujia Station in Hsinchu County. 1 December – The establishment of National Taichung University of Science and Technology in North District, Taichung. 2 December – Eruption of a mud volcano in Wandan Township, Pingtung County. 10 December – The commissioning of Bihai Power Plant in Hualien County. 18 December – Skip Beat! was opening telecast aired on Formosa Television. 25 December – The opening of Fo Guang Shan Buddha Museum in Dashu District, Kaohsiung. 29 January – Nora Sun, 73, Chinese American diplomat and businesswoman, injuries sustained in a traffic collision. 10 February – Chen Houei-kuen, 105, Taiwanese painter. 4 July – Teng Yu-kun, 65, Taiwanese screenwriter. 1 September – Liu Huang A-tao, 90, Taiwanese comfort woman and activist. 25 October – Sansan Chien, 44, composer. 17 November – Ng Chiau-tong, 79, Taiwanese independence activist, complications of a heart attack. 23 November – Yang Jih-sung, 86, Taiwanese forensic scientist, colon cancer

2012–13 Tottenham Hotspur F.C. season

The 2012–13 season was Tottenham Hotspur's 21st season in the Premier League and 35th successive season in the top division of the English football league system. The campaign featured Tottenham's 11th appearance in the UEFA Europa League, entering the group stage due to finishing fourth in the 2011–12 Premier League season but missing out on qualification to the Champions League due to their London rivals Chelsea winning the Champions League trophy in 2012 but finishing outside of the top 4 positions in the Premier League; the season was notable for the fact that Tottenham achieved their record points tally in a Premier League season, 72 points from 38 games. They scored 66 goals and conceded 46 throughout the course of the Premier League season, ending with a goal difference of +20. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Total spending: £60 million Total income: £66.5 million Transfers in = £60 million Transfers out = £66.5 million Net = £6.5 million Updated to match played 21 April 2013Source: Competitions 4 – 4 aggregate, Tottenham Hotspur win on away goals Tottenham played against the Jamaica national football team on 23 May 2013 in The Bahamas as part of the 40th anniversary of Bahamas' independence celebrations.

Jamaica used the game as part of their preparations for the 2014 World Cup qualifying campaign. As of 19 May 2013 Official Club site

Timothy Mason

Timothy Wright Mason was a British Marxist historian of Nazi Germany. He was one of the founders of the History Workshop Journal and specialised in the social history of modern Germany the working class, he argued for the "primacy of politics." He believed World War II was caused by an economic crisis inside Germany. He was born in Birkenhead, the child of school-teachers and was educated at Birkenhead School and Oxford University, he was twice married. He helped to found the left-wing journal History Workshop Journal. Mason specialised in the social history of the Third Reich that of the working class, his most famous books were his 1975 work Arbeiterklasse und Volksgemeinschaft, a study of working-class life under the Nazis and his 1977 book, Sozialpolitik im Dritten Reich. Unusually for a British historian, most of his books were published in German first. Mason saw his role as developing history, flexible and analytical. Mason wrote about the historians' role in 1986: "If historians do have a public responsibility, if hating is part of their method and warning part of their task, it is necessary that they should hate precisely".

Mason's interests as a Marxist historian were in writing history, not deterministic, in revising the views about fascism. As part of his efforts to develop a broader picture of the Third Reich, Mason approached such topics as women in Nazi Germany, a critique of "intentionalist" views of the Third Reich and theories of generic fascism as an analytical tool. In Social Policy in the Third Reich, unlike his counterparts in East Germany did not focus just on resistance movements within the German working class, but he sought a comprehensive picture of working-class life with how the working class was viewed by itself and by the Nazi regime. Mason argued that the Nazi leadership was haunted by the memory of the November Revolution of 1918 and so the Nazi dictatorship was prepared to make no small material allowances in the form of social policy, a reluctance to impose material shortages and a hesitation to bring in a total war economy. Besides his studies on the working class of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, Mason was noted for his break with previous Marxist interpretations of fascism that saw fascist regimes as the servant of capitalist interests.

Mason argued instead for the "primacy of politics" by which he meant that although fascist regimes were still capitalist regimes in his opinion, they possessed "autonomy" in the political sphere and were not dictated to by capitalist interests. In a 1966 essay, Mason wrote "that both the domestic and foreign policy of the National Socialist government became, from 1936 onward independent of the influence of the economic ruling classes, in some essential aspects ran contrary to their collective interests" and that "it became possible for the National Socialist state to assume a independent role, for the'primacy of politics' to assert itself"Mason used the following to support his thesis: that after the 1936 economic crisis, German industrialists were excluded from the decision-making process; that after 1936 with the coming of the First Four Year Plan, the German state came to play a dominant role in the German economy, through state-owned companies and by placing larger orders. That the expansion of armament-related production supported by a economically interventionist state led to those capitalist enterprises not related to armaments to go into decline.

The decline in effectiveness in economic lobbying groups in the Third Reich. that though every major German industrialist called for a reduction of working class living standards from 1933 onwards, before 1942 the Nazi regime always ignored such calls and sought instead to raise working-class living standards. Mason's “primacy of politics” approach against the traditional Marxist "primacy of economics" approach involved him in the 1960s with a vigorous debate with the East German historians Eberhard Czichon, Dietrich Eichholtz and Kurt Gossweiler The last two historians wrote if Mason was correct, it would amount to "a complete refutation of Marxist social analysis". Approaching the subject from a different angle from conservative historians such Henry Ashby Turner and Karl Dietrich Bracher, Mason's "primacy of politics" thesis reached the same conclusion. Mason's most notable arguments were that the German working class was always opposed to the Nazi dictatorship. Thus, the outbreak of the Second World War was caused by structural economic problems, a "flight into war" imposed by a domestic crisis.

The key aspects of the crisis were according to Mason, a shaky economic recovery was threatened by a rearmament program, overwhelming the economy and in which the Nazi regime's nationalist bluster limited its options. In this way, Mason articulated a Primat der Innenpolitik view of World War II’s origins through the concept of social imperialism. Mason's Primat der Innenpolitik thesis was in marked contrast to the Primat der Außenpolitik used to explain World War II. In Mason’s opinion, German foreign policy was driven by domestic political considerations, the launch of World War II in 1939 was best understood as a “barbaric variant of social i