Gettysburg is a borough and the county seat of Adams County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. The Battle of Gettysburg and President Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address are named for this town, the town hosts visitors to the Gettysburg National Battlefield in the Gettysburg National Military Park. As of the 2010 census, the borough had a population of 7,620 people, Samuel Gettys settled at the Shippensburg–Baltimore and Philadelphia–Pittsburgh crossroads with a 1761 tavern where soldiers and traders came to rest. To the southwest is the 1776 Dobbin House Tavern within the subsequent 1786 border established for the borough, after a Strabane township location between Hunters and Gettys towns was planned as the county seat in 1790, in 1791 Revd. Alexander Dobbin and David Moore Sr. were appointed trustees for the county of Adams to erect public buildings in…Gettysburg, the founder of the Studebaker Corporation was born in 1833 in Gettysburg. In 1858 the Gettysburg Railroad completed construction of a line from Gettysburg to Hanover.
The Gettysburg Railroad Station opened in 1859, passenger train service to the town ended in 1942. The station was restored in 2006, in 2011, Senator Robert Casey introduced S.1897, which would include the railroad station within the boundary of Gettysburg National Military Park. By 1860, the borough had around 450 buildings housed carriage manufacturing, the Battle of Gettysburg, one of the largest battles during the American Civil War, was fought between July 1 and 3,1863, across the fields and heights south of the town. In the end, Confederate General Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia retreated into Virginia, while George G. Meade, casualties were high, there were over 27,000 Confederate and 23,000 Union losses. The residents of Gettysburg were left to care for the wounded, approximately 8,000 men and 3,000 horses lay under the summer sun. A 20-year-old woman, Jennie Wade, was the only civilian killed during the battle and she was hit by a stray bullet that passed through her kitchen door while she was making bread on July 3.
Physical damage can still be seen in some of the houses throughout the town, the furniture manufacturing grew in Gettysburg in the early 1900s. The Gettysburg Manufacturing Company was formed in 1902 to manufacture a variety of residential furniture and it had become the Gettysburg Furniture Company by 1912. Another local furniture company was the Warner Furniture company and its successor, the Engle Furniture Company, Engle became the Reaser Furniture Company in 1907, and continued to produce dozens of styles. In 1917 the joint venture Stouck-Reaser Company formed to buy, the company continued to appear in local newspapers through the 1920s. Furniture production remained an important industry in the area through the 1920s, in 1920 the Gettysburg Panel Company formed to manufacture veneer panels for the other firms. In 1923, the Gettysburg Chair Company was chartered to supply chairs that the factories needed to complete their bedroom
Pauline Cushman, was an American actress and a spy for the Union Army during the American Civil War. Harriet was born in New Orleans, Louisiana on June 10,1833, the daughter of a Spanish merchant and her brother William were raised in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Pauline Cushmans parents moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan, to set up a trading post with Native Americans, in 1862, she made her stage debut in Louisville, Kentucky, a Union-occupied city. Later she would travel to New York where she would take the stage name Pauline Cushman, over the course of her life, Cushman was married to Jere Fryer, Charles C. She had three children, Ida, and an adopted daughter Emma, after a Northern performance, Cushman was paid by two local pro-Confederate men to toast Confederate President Jefferson Davis after a performance. The theatre forced her to quit, but she had other ideas and she had decided to ingratiate herself with the rebels by making the toast, while offering her services to the Union as a spy. Though she was ill, she acted worse than she already was.
The Confederate had to postpone her execution, Cushman was spared before her hanging by the invasion of the area by Union troops. Some reports state that she returned to the South in her role as a spy dressed in uniform for references. By the end of the war in 1865 she was touring the country giving lectures on her exploits as a spy, because her undercover activities on behalf of the government were secret, there is a lack of corroborative information about her life at this time. After the war, began a tour celebrating her experiences as a Union spy and she lost her child to sickness by 1868, and married again in 1872 in San Francisco, but was widowed within a year. Sources state that in 1879 she met Jere Fryer and moved to Casa Grande, Arizona Territory, Jere Fryer became the sheriff of Pinal County. An adopted daughter Emma died, and the Fryers separated in 1890, by 1892, she was living in poverty in El Paso, Texas. She had applied for back pension based on her first husbands military service and she received the pension beginning in June 1895.
Her last few years were spent in a house in San Francisco, working as a seamstress. Disabled from the effects of rheumatism and arthritis, she developed an addiction to pain medication and she was found the next morning by her landlady. She had died as Pauline Fryer at the age of sixty, the time of her Civil War fame was recalled at her funeral, which was arranged by members of the Grand Army of the Republic, Cushman was buried with full military honors. Major Cushmans remains now rest in Officers Circle at the Presidios National Cemetery and her simple gravestone recognizes her contribution to the Unions victory
Army of the Potomac
The Army of the Potomac was the principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was created in July 1861 shortly after the First Battle of Bull Run and was disbanded in June 1865 following the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in April. The Army of the Potomac was created in 1861, but was only the size of a corps. Its nucleus was called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, and it was the army fought the wars first major battle. The arrival in Washington, D. C. of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan dramatically changed the makeup of that army, on July 26,1861, the Department of the Shenandoah, commanded by Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. The men under Bankss command became a division in the Army of the Potomac. The army started with four corps, but these were divided during the Peninsula Campaign to produce two more, after the Second Battle of Bull Run, the Army of the Potomac absorbed the units that had served under Maj. Gen. John Pope. It is a popular, but mistaken, belief that John Pope commanded the Army of the Potomac in the summer of 1862 after McClellans unsuccessful Peninsula Campaign, on the contrary, Popes army consisted of different units, and was named the Army of Virginia.
The Army of the Potomac underwent many changes during its existence. The army was divided by Ambrose Burnside into three divisions of two corps each with a Reserve composed of two more. Thereafter the individual corps, seven of which remained in Virginia, Hooker created a Cavalry Corps by combining units that previously had served as smaller formations. In late 1863, two corps were sent West, and—in 1864—the remaining five corps were recombined into three, burnsides IX Corps, which accompanied the army at the start of Ulysses S. Grants Overland Campaign, rejoined the army later. For more detail, see the section Corps below, the Army of the Potomac fought in most of the Eastern Theater campaigns, primarily in Virginia and Pennsylvania. After the end of the war, it was disbanded on June 28,1865, the Army of the Potomac was the name given to General P. G. T. Beauregards Confederate army during the early stages of the war. However, the name was changed to the Army of Northern Virginia. In 1869 the Society of the Army of the Potomac was formed as a veterans association and it had its last reunion in 1929.
Because of its proximity to the cities of the North, such as Washington. Philadelphia, and New York City, the Army of the Potomac received more media coverage than the other Union field armies
Sarah Emma Edmonds
Sarah Emma Edmonds, was a Canadian-born woman who is known for serving as a man with the Union Army during the American Civil War. A purported master of disguise, Edmonds exploits were described in the bestselling Nurse, Soldier, in 1992, she was inducted into the Michigan Womens Hall of Fame. Born in 1841 in New Brunswick, Edmonds grew up with her sisters on their familys farm, Edmonds fled home at age fifteen, however, to escape an early marriage. Aided by her mother, who married young, Edmonds escaped the marriage. A male disguise allowed Edmonds to eat and work independently, crossing into the United States of America, Edmonds worked for a successful Bible bookseller and publisher in Hartford, Connecticut. Fanny remained dressed as a man in order to other adventures. During the Civil War, on May 25,1861, she enlisted in Company F of the 2nd Michigan Infantry, known as the Flint Union Greys. On her second try, she disguised herself as a man named Franklin Flint Thompson and she felt that it was her duty to serve her country and was truly patriotic towards her new country.
Extensive physical examinations were not required for enlistment at the time, some historians today say she could not have been at all these different places at the same time. Edmondss career took a turn during the war when a Union spy in Richmond, Virginia was discovered and went before a squad. She took advantage of the spot and the opportunity to avenge her friends death. She applied for, and won, the position as Franklin Thompson, although there is no proof in her military records that she actually served as a spy, she wrote extensively about her experiences disguised as a spy during the war. Traveling into enemy territory to gather information required Emma to come up with many disguises, one disguise required Edmonds to use silver nitrate to dye her skin black, wear a black wig, and walk into the Confederacy disguised as a black man by the name of Cuff. Another time she entered as an Irish peddler woman by the name of Bridget OShea, claiming that she was selling apples, she was working for the Confederates as a black laundress when a packet of official papers fell out of an officers jacket.
When Thompson returned to the Union with the papers, the generals were delighted, another time, she worked as a detective in Maryland as Charles Mayberry, finding an agent for the Confederacy. Edmondss career as Frank Thompson came to an end when she contracted malaria and she abandoned her duty in the military, fearing that if she went to a military hospital she would be discovered. She checked herself into a hospital, intending to return to military life once she had recuperated. Once she recovered, she saw posters listing Frank Thompson as a deserter, there was speculation that Edmonds may have deserted because of John Reid having been discharged months earlier
The Potomac River /pəˈtoʊmək/ is located along the mid-Atlantic Ocean coast of the United States and flows into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is approximately 405 miles long, with an area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States, over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed. The river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of the State of Maryland, exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, and the border with Virginia being delineated from point to point. Except for a portion of its headwaters in West Virginia. The South Branch Potomac River lies completely within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, the Potomac River runs 405 miles from the Fairfax Stone in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles.
The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles, the average flow is 10,800 ft³/s. The largest flow recorded on the Potomac at Washington, D. C. was in March 1936 when it reached 425,000 ft³/s. The lowest flow recorded at the same location was 600 ft³/s in September,1966. The source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant, the source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland County, Virginia. The rivers two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream. The estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, Potomac is a European spelling of Patowmeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village, perhaps meaning something brought.
Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning honking geese and Patawomke below the fall, meaning river of swans. The spelling of the name has many forms over the years from Patawomeke to Patawomeck, Patowmack. The rivers name was decided upon as Potomac by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least two years old, likely extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line
John C. Babcock
John C. Babcock was a founding father of American amateur rowing and an important member of the secret service for the Union Army during the Civil War. Babcock was born in Warwick, Rhode Island, and his moved to Chicago In 1855. Babcock worked for one of the largest architectural firms in Chicago, Babcock served the entire Civil War. Initially, Babcock volunteered for the Sturgis Rifles as a soldier in 1861. Babcock became a skilled interrogator of captured Confederates, in 1862, Babcock worked as a Confederate order-of-battle expert with the Topographical Department under Allan Pinkerton and made maps for General George B. McClellan. In one of his reports, Babcocks estimate of enemy forces was off by less than one percent, early in 1863, Babcock joined the Bureau of Military Information under Colonel George H. Sharpe to gather intelligence. While in this service, Babcock provided detailed maps for aeronaut Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, who made frequent flights to obtain tactical intelligence, in 1863, Babcock discovered Robert E.
Lees forward movement, which helped end the Battle of Gettysburg. At the Battle of Appomattox Court House in 1865, Babcock found General Lee under an apple tree, even though he was a civilian, Babcock was unofficially called Captain Babcock and later Colonel Babcock. Babcock was an innovator and one of the most active people in the rowing community during his lifetime. In 1857, he and his friend William Buckingham Curtis organized the Metropolitan Rowing Club of Chicago, in the summer of 1857, Babcock invented the tracked sliding seat for his sculling boat and perfected it by 1870. In 1859, he and Curtis won every rowing event in the games at the Chicago Caledonian Club. During the winter of 1869/1870, Babcock created the first indoor rowing machine, in 1872, Babcock wrote the bylaws and helped create the National Association of Amateur Oarsmen. He was the first President of the NAAO, which became the United States Rowing Association. With Harry Buermeyer and Curtis, Babcock helped found the New York Athletic Club in 1868, Babcock was the first elected Vice-President of the NYAC, where he encouraged the separation of amateur and professional athletics
David Owen Dodd
David Owen Dodd, known as David O. Dodd, was an Arkansas youth executed for spying in the American Civil War. In December 1863 Dodd carried some letters to business associates of his father in Union-held Little Rock, while traveling to rejoin his family at Camden, Arkansas, he mistakenly re-entered Federally-held territory. Discovering that he did not have a pass, U. S. soldiers questioned him and he was arrested and tried by a military tribunal, with little defense offered for his actions. It found him guilty of spying and sentenced him to death and he was hanged on January 8,1864. Though he did not reveal the source of the information, a girl named Mary Dodge. These events have led to him being called the Arkansas Boy Martyr of the Confederacy, David Owen Dodd was born in Lavaca County, Texas, to Andrew Marion and Lydia Echols Dodd. Davids third sister, Ann Eliza, died before the Civil War, in 1856 the family returned to Arkansas and settled near Benton. In 1861 the Dodds moved to Little Rock to be closer to Senhora, David Dodd went to classes at St.
Johns Masonic College. His father left the family to serve as sutler with the 3rd Arkansas Cavalry, in 1862 David went to Louisiana and worked as a telegraph operator until crossing the river to join his father and assist him in his sutlery. In the fall of 1863, after the Union Army occupied Little Rock, David returned to escort his mother and sisters to Mississippi, in December his father Andrew arrived and the entire Dodd family moved south to journey to Mississippi to be near Andrew. As Union troops destroyed Southern fields, tobacco was becoming scarce, Andrew Dodd devised a plan to buy tobacco and store it for sale at a higher price. He looked to his business associates in Little Rock for the needed cash, because Little Rock was in Union hands, he could not make the trip himself. On December 24,1863, he sent David Dodd—a minor, Confederate Gen. James F. Fagan issued the boy a pass. Dodd rode a mule to Little Rock, carrying a birth certificate showing he was an underage 17 along with his pass, Dodd stayed with his aunt, Mrs.
Susan Dodd, in Little Rock. Except for some Union soldiers, there were very few boys in the city. He even became popular with some of the servicemen at the arsenal. In addition to his fathers letters, he delivered letters to people he knew. Dodd attended some holiday dances with at least two girls, Mary Swindle and Minerva Cogburn and he spent some time with 16-year-old Mary Dodge at her home, where Union officers were quartered
Joseph Hooker was a career United States Army officer, achieving the rank of major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Although he served throughout the war, usually with distinction, Hooker is best remembered for his defeat by Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863. After graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1837, Hooker served in the Seminole Wars, resigning from the Army in 1853, he pursued farming, land development, and politics in California. After the start of the Civil War he returned to the Army as a brigadier general and he distinguished himself as an aggressive combat commander leading a division in the Battle of Williamsburg, May 5,1862, resulting in his promotion to major general. As a corps commander, he led the initial Union attacks at the Battle of Antietam, at the Battle of Fredericksburg, he commanded a Grand Division of two corps, and was ordered to conduct numerous futile frontal assaults that caused his men to suffer serious losses.
Throughout this period, he conspired against and openly criticized his army commanders, following the defeat at Fredericksburg, he was given command of the Army of the Potomac. Hooker planned a campaign against Robert E. Lee. Hooker suddenly lacked the nerve to marshal the strength of his army against Lee. Hooker became known as Fighting Joe following a journalists clerical error reporting from the Battle of Williamsburg, Hooker was born in Hadley, the grandson of a captain in the American Revolutionary War. He was of entirely English ancestry, all of which had been in New England since the early 1600s and his initial schooling was at the local Hopkins Academy. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1837, ranked 29th out of a class of 50 and his initial assignment was in Florida fighting in the second of the Seminole Wars. He served in the Mexican-American War in staff positions in the campaigns of both Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott and he received brevet promotions for his staff leadership and gallantry in three battles, National Bridge, and Chapultepec.
His future Army reputation as a man began in Mexico. Hooker settled in Sonoma County, California, as a farmer and land developer and his house still exists in the city of Sonoma. When living in Sonoma, he stood unsuccessfully for election to represent the region in the California legislature and he was obviously unhappy and unsuccessful in his civilian pursuits because, in 1858, he wrote to Secretary of War John B. Floyd to request that his name be presented to the president Buchanan as a candidate for a lieutenant colonelcy, from 1859 to 1861, he held a commission as a colonel in the California militia. He had to borrow money to make the trip east from California and he was appointed, in August 1861, as brigadier general of volunteers to rank from May 17. He commanded a brigade and division around Washington, D. C. as part of the effort to organize and train the new Army of the Potomac and he distinguished himself at the Battle of Williamsburg and throughout the Seven Days Battles
Winfield Scott was a United States Army general and unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig Party in 1852. He served as Commanding General of the United States Army for twenty years, a national hero after the Mexican–American War, he served as military governor of Mexico City. Such was his stature that, in 1852, the Whig Party passed over its own incumbent President of the United States, Millard Fillmore, at six feet five inches in height, he remains the tallest man ever nominated by a major party. He was educated by tutors and in the schools, and briefly attended the College of William. He studied law in the office of attorney David Robinson, Scott attained admission to the bar, and made a brief attempt to practice law. He gained his military experience as a corporal of cavalry in the Virginia militia near Petersburg in 1807. He was subsequently commissioned as a captain in the Light Artillery in May 1808, Scotts early career in the army was tumultuous. Scotts commission was suspended for one year, and after returning to duty, Scott earned the nickname Old Fuss and Feathers for his insistence on military bearing, courtesy and discipline.
In his own campaigns after reaching high rank, Scott preferred to use a core of Army regulars augmented by volunteers whenever possible, Scott perennially concerned himself with the welfare of his men, as demonstrated by his quarrel with Wilkinson over the New Orleans bivouac site. In another instance, when cholera broke out at a post under his command, the army promoted Scott to lieutenant colonel of the 2nd Artillery Regiment in July 1812. Scott served primarily on the Niagara Campaign front in the War of 1812 and he took command of an American landing party during the Battle of Queenston Heights on October 13,1812. The British held Scott as a prisoner of war, the British considered Irish-American prisoners of war British subjects and traitors and executed 13 such Americans captured at Queenstown Heights. The British paroled and released Scott in a prisoner exchange, upon release, Scott returned to Washington to pressure the Senate to take punitive action against British prisoners of war in retaliation for the British executions of Irish-American soldiers.
The Senate wrote a bill after this urging, but President James Madison believed the execution of prisoners of war unworthy of civilized nations. Scott was promoted to colonel in March 1813, Scott planned and led the capture of Fort George, Upper Canada, on the Niagara River. By crossing the Niagara and landing on the Lake Ontario shore, Colonel Scott was wounded in this battle, which is considered among the best-planned and best-executed U. S. operations of the war. Scott was promoted to general on March 19,1814. He was only 27 years old at the time, one of the youngest generals in the history of the U. S. Army, Scott commanded the 1st Brigade, and was instrumental in the American success at the Battle of Chippawa on July 5,1814
Rose O'Neal Greenhow
Rose ONeal Greenhow was a renowned Confederate spy during the American Civil War. She used her connections to pass along key military information to the Confederacy at the start of the war. In early 1861, she was given control of a spy network in Washington, D. C. by her handler, Thomas Jordan. She was credited by Jefferson Davis, the Confederate president, with ensuring the Souths victory at the First Battle of Bull Run in late July 1861. Captured in August, Greenhow was subject to house arrest, found to have continued her activities, in 1862 after a hearing, she was imprisoned for nearly five months in Washington. Deported to the Confederate States, she traveled to Richmond, running the blockade, she sailed to Europe to represent the Confederacy in a diplomatic mission to France and Britain from 1863 to 1864. In 1863, she wrote and published her memoir in London. After her returning ship ran aground in 1864 off the coast of Wilmington, North Carolina and she was honored with a Confederate military funeral.
A new biography of her was published in 2005 and she was born in 1813 as Maria Rosetta ONeale on a small plantation in Montgomery County, northwest of Washington, D. C. She was the third of five daughters of John ONeale, a planter and slaveholder, and his wife Eliza Henrietta Hamilton, who were Roman Catholic. Called Rose as a child, ONeal was the born and close to her next older sister, Ellen. Their father died in 1817, murdered by his black valet and his widow, Eliza ONeal, had four daughters to support and a cash-poor farm. After being orphaned as children and her sister Ellen were invited to live with their aunt in Washington and their aunt, Mrs. Maria Ann Hill, ran a stylish boarding house at the Old Capitol Building and the girls met many important figures in the Washington area. Her olive skin delicately flushed with color earned her the nickname Wild Rose, in the 1830s, she met Robert Greenhow Jr. a prominent doctor and linguist from Virginia. Their courtship was well received by Washington society, including famed society matron Dolley Madison, in 1833, Greenhows sister Ellen ONeal married Dolleys nephew James Madison Cutts.
In 1856, their daughter Adele Cutts married the widower Stephen A. Douglas, in 1835, Rose married Dr. Robert Greenhow Jr. with Dolleys blessing, and by the 1850s had long been an established socialite in the capital. Robert Greenhow worked at the U. S. Department of State, roberts step-sister, Mary Greenhow Lee, would visit him and Greenhow and the two women became close friends. The Greenhows had four daughters, Gertrude and their youngest child was named Rose ONeal Greenhow, and was nicknamed Little Rose
Alexander Keith Jr.
Alexander Sandy Keith, Jr. was a criminal and Confederate secret agent from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. He used a bomb to destroy the ship Mosel so he could collect the insurance money. Keith was born in 1827 in Caithness, immigrating to Halifax when he was a small boy, the nephew of Alexander Keith, founder of the Alexander Keiths brewery, Keith worked for a time as a clerk in his uncles brewery. Keith became an agent for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. Keith assisted in helping Confederate sympathisers escape justice in the Chesapeake Affair and he was involved with Luke Blackburn in an infamous plot to send clothes infected with yellow fever to northern cities in the United States. In 1865, he swindled his associates-in-crime and fled to St. Louis, there, he married Cecelia Paris, a milliners daughter from St. Louis. When the couple began to run out of money, Keith concocted a plot to blow up passenger ships and she was under the command of Captain Leist, replacement for the ailing captain Hermann Neynaber for a crossing to New York.
The passengers were on board and the baggage was being loaded. It was recorded by one witness, A mushroom-shaped column of smoke rose approximately 200 meters above the harbor, everywhere people were crying and whimpering beside ruins. The entire pier was covered in soot, it was like the gateway to hell, at the time, the deed was called the crime of the century. Keith was aboard ship in Bremerhaven at the time of the Mosel explosion, and was thus aware of the premature detonation of his time bomb. He went to his suite and shot himself, after the tragedy was revealed as a murder/insurance scam on a large scale, the disappearances of other ships were investigated to see if Keith and his possible associates were involved. One was the disappearance of the SS City of Boston, which vanished in January 1870, the allegation was proven to be false. He was reputed to have buried in an unmarked grave in Bremerhaven. His severed head was kept at the Bremer Police Museum and was destroyed by Allied bombing in 1945, newspapers called it The Thomas Crime.
Keith himself was not a terrorist, but his invention of the time bomb inspired modern terrorism, notably by the Fenians and the Russian Narodnaya Volya. Says Keiths biographer Ann Larabee, Keith was not responsible for the passion of these violent political groups. Keiths life is the subject of The Inventor, an opera by Bramwell Tovey