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American Colonization Society

The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America known as the American Colonization Society, was a group established in 1816 by Robert Finley of New Jersey to encourage and support the migration of free African Americans to the continent of Africa. The colonization project, which had multiple chapters of the American Colonization Society in every state, had three goals; the only one remembered was that of providing a place for former American slaves to live, where they would be free and not subject to racism. However, another goal was that of Christianizing Africa. According to prominent Presbyterian clergyman Lyman Beecher:It is not necessary that the Colonization Society should be or claim to be an adequate remedy for slavery, her great and primary object, is the emancipation of Africa, while she anticipated as an incidental result, the emancipation of the colored race at home. But if time has disclosed what she could not foresee, she may bow submissively to the providential will of heaven.

A third goal was that an American colony in Africa would be a local base for efforts to suppress the Atlantic slave trade, illegal, so far as the United States was concerned, since 1808. In 1821–1822, the Society helped to found settlements on the Pepper Coast of West Africa, as a place for free-born or manumitted American blacks; this was adjacent to Sierra Leone, the existing British colony for former slaves and free blacks. Many white people at first believed that the ACS had started out as a beneficent enterprise, with the goal of helping freed slaves, giving them opportunities they could not have in the U. S. and solving with kindness and creativity a major social problem. However, in the 1820s a reaction started forming to the ACS, which broke into open disdain and rebellion in the 1830s, as many of its former supporters concluded that they had been deceived: that the ACS, rather than being anti-slavery, was helping to preserve it. From the beginning, "the majority of black Americans regarded the Society enormous disdain."

Black activist James Forten rejected the ACS, writing in 1817 that "we have no wish to separate from our present homes for any purpose whatever". As soon as they heard about it, 3,000 blacks packed a church in Philadelphia, "the bellwether city for free blacks", "bitterly and unanimously" denounced it. While claiming to aid African Americans, in some cases, to stimulate emigration, it made conditions for them worse. For example, "the Society assumed the task of resuscitating the Ohio Black Codes of 1804 and 1807.... Between 1,000 and 1,200 free blacks were forced from Cincinnati."While "return to the continent you came from, where everyone is black" had an abstract appeal, in most cases American Blacks had lived for generations in the United States, knew little about Africa, weren't interested in it. The majority weren't pure Africans, but mulattos, with an owner-father. Most were Christians. African-American leaders such as Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, William G. Allen, William Wells Brown, James Forten, David Walker opposed the colonization movement.

To them, it respected slavery rather than calling for its abolition, its biggest supporters, including most of its presidents, were Southern slaveowners. They wanted to get rid of free blacks, many of whom had been in the United States for generations, because they were a threat to slaveowners' property and assisting slaves to escape, depressing their value. No one attempted to return slaves to the African regions they had come from, such as Angola, which would have been more expensive. Tropical diseases were a major problem for the settlers, the new immigrants to Liberia suffered the highest mortality rates since accurate record-keeping began. Of the 4,571 emigrants who arrived in Liberia between 1820 to 1843, only 1,819 were alive in 1843; this horrible reality was all but ignored by the ACS. The ACS was founded by groups otherwise opposed to each other on the issue of slavery, being a coalition made up of evangelicals and Quakers who supported abolition of slavery and believed blacks would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the United States — they were immigrants, anything but welcome in the North — and some slaveholders who believed that repatriation was a way to remove free blacks from slave societies and avoid slave rebellions.

The two opposed groups found common ground in support of so-called "repatriation". By this time, both the population of free blacks and slaves were overwhelmingly native born from generations of ancestors born in the United States and former British colonies; as they put it, they were no more African. Among the Society's supporters were Charles Fenton Mercer, Henry Clay, John Randolph, Richard Bland Lee, Bushrod Washington. Slaveholders in the Virginia Piedmont region in the 1820s and 1830s comprised many of its most prominent members.

Seaton Iron Works

Seaton Iron Works was an iron works which operated between 1763 and 1899 under different titles and various owners. The site chosen was on the north bank of the River Derwent and was in the parish of Seaton, Cumberland; as well as making iron it manufactured iron goods, tin plate and under control of Adam Heslop a foundry owner of Lowca, Cumberland was a manufacturer of stationary steam engines. The Seaton Iron Works were set up in 1762 by the firm of Hicks Spedding & Co. on land leased from Sir James Lowther for ninety-nine years. The expansive premises were planned and built under the direction of Richard Spedding, a noted local engineer and built in 1863, his father was Carlisle Spedding who sank the Saltom Coal Mine and was sited south of Whitehaven Harbour. The works were known as the "Barepot Works", a corruption of the name of the ground where the establishment lay, "Beer-pot". From a two blast furnaces and wrought iron was produced, in an adjoining foundry were manufactured ships' cannon, steam engines and other ironware.

The iron works was purchased in 1837 by Tulk Ley & Co. in the same package as when they purchased the Lowca Engineering Works at Lowca, Cumberland. Under the control of Tulk, Ley and Co. the blast furnaces were rebuilt and the works reorganised. However, iron production only lasted until 1857 and the premises were advertised for sale as a tinplate works in 1869; the works was bought by William Ivander Griffiths a Welshman from Treforest in Wales who had served a career in tin plate making in Wales. He brought his own workers with him and formed a music society that performed music festivals in Workington; the demand for tinplate fluctuated and Griffiths sold out to a nearby Steelworks in 1885. Griffiths was kept on as Works manager by the West Cumberland Hematite Iron & Steel Company, but the purchase turned out to be a poor investment. A siding from the Cockermouth and Workington Section of the London & North Western Railway soon after the purchase to take finished products away by rail; the purchasing company had its own business problems and by 1890 was suffering from financial difficulties.

The works remained open for another nine years and after a struggle to pay its commitments the works was closed down in 1899. The buildings and siding remained intact for a couple of years but when no new buyer came forward the works were dismantled over a period of time; the last buildings were pulled down by 1904, leaving little trace of a concern which had once employed hundreds of people, except for a reservoir and the source canal. Model boating enthusiasts used the reservoir to sail boats on between the two world wars and again in the 1950s. Two Heslop engines built circa 1824, which were built under licence using James Watt's ideas on steam engines, are today in the collection of the Science Museum in London. Jollie's Cumberland Directory. Carlisle: F. Jollie and Sons. 1811. Ferguson, Richard S.. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archeological Society. V. Kendal: T. Wilson. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list The iron And Steel Industry Of West Cumberland by JY Lancaster & DR Wattleworth.

Workington, Cumbria: CN Print Ltd. 1977

Strathcona County Library

Strathcona County Library is a publicly funded library in the special municipality of Strathcona County, Canada. Its main branch is in Strathcona County's urban centre, Sherwood Park, while its Bookmobile provides service to rural residents through 14 regular weekly stops. Information and reference services Access to full text databases Community information Free computer and wireless Internet access Reader's advisory services Programs for children and adults Delivery to homebound individuals Interlibrary loan Free downloadable audiobooks and ebooks The library has a catalogue of 240,000 items, including magazines, popular movies, graphic novels, audiobooks on CD and Playaway for all ages. DAISY books and assistive technology devices like adjustable tables and magnification software are available to aid those with low vision or other disabilities; the library is the location of a Wi-Fi hot spot. Strathcona County Library shares a catalogue with Fort Saskatchewan Public Library, partners with its neighbouring libraries in the Metro group, including St. Albert Public Library and Edmonton Public Library.

Strathcona County Library is a member of "The Alberta Library", a province-wide system that allows access to material from every member library in Alberta. Strathcona County Library Website Strathcona County The Alberta Library Edmonton Public Library

Bay Horse railway station

Bay Horse railway station was a rural station in Lancashire, England. It was named after the nearby Bay Horse Inn, the small hamlet of Bay Horse developed around the station; the station opened in 1840 on the Lancaster and Preston Junction Railway, by a level-crossing on Whams Lane. Many years the road was diverted 100 yards north to pass under the railway by bridge. In the 1840s, Jack Smith, an engine driver frustrated by having to wait every Sunday for the level crossing gate to be opened, carried out his threat to drive through the closed gate; the impact was sufficient to derail the small engine. A much more serious accident occurred on 21 August 1848, when a northbound Euston to Glasgow express ploughed into the back of a local train stopped at the station. A woman was killed and about twenty passengers were injured; the woman's 18-month-old child was thrown out of the carriage window but was injured. On 24 October 1861, a northbound mail train collided with a goods train at the station, but only a driver and one passenger were injured.

The station closed to passengers on 13 June 1960, to goods on 18 May 1964.

Frank Evers (Gaelic footballer)

Francis Anthony'Frank' Evers was a Gaelic footballer who played for the Galway county team in the 1950s and early 1960s. He played his last game for Galway in 1962. Evers was a native of Galway, he started at the Senior National level in 1952. Called a "towering figure of a man" and a "marvellous Croke Park man" by his colleague Jack Mahon, he formed a famous centrefield partnership with Mattie McDonagh, he played for Westmeath Seniors in the League of 1952-53 and transferred to his native County Galway in 1953. He won an All-Ireland Senior Football Championship with Galway in 1956, when Galway defeated Cork, a Runners-up Shield in 1959, when Galway were defeated by Kerry in the'59 Final, he won six Connacht Senior Medals 1956 - 1960, when he played in all five Connacht Finals. He was a member of Westmeath Minor team who won the 1952 Leinster Minor Championship, beaten in the All-Ireland Minor Football semi-final by Cavan. Frank's native County - Galway won the All Ireland Minor football Final in 1952.

Frank was a member of Franciscan College, Multyfarnham's Senior football team that won the Leinster senior football Colleges Championship in 1952, defeating St. Mels in the Leinster Final. Frank was selected for the Leinster Senior Colleges on two occasions 1951/52. Frank was selected on three occasions for the Ireland Selections to play the Irish Universities. In 1960 Frank joined the United Nations Peacekeeping Organisation and left for the Middle East on 1 September, having played for Galway Seniors in the All Ireland semi-final of 1960 versus Kerry - one of his best displays in the maroon of Galway. Frank was picked for the Ireland Selection of 1960, however he was out of the country by that time and did not participate in the annual game. Frank's last game for Galway was in 1962, when he was home on holidays from the Middle East, this was the last game for his teammate Seán Purcell. Frank was selected for Connacht Senior Football teams, in the Railway Cup Competition and won Railway Cup Medals on two occasions.

Frank won a Football National League medal in 1957, qualifying for a trip to New York City and played in the St. Brendan's Cup Final that year in the old Polo Grounds. Frank won a Galway Senior Championship Medal with Tuam Stars in 1962. Frank played with Galway in 1958 in the inaugural Whit Weekend Games. After retiring from Gaelic football, he worked for the United Nations. Frank was married to Irish actress Teresa Evers, they had 7 children. Deirdre, Deborah, Frank Evers and Rachel, he now lives in Vancouver, British Columbia, with his partner Birgitte. He has 19 grandchildren and three great-grandchildren

List of most populous cities in the United States by decade

This list tracks and ranks the population of the top 10 largest cities and other urban places in the United States by decade, as reported by each decennial United States Census, starting with the 1790 Census. For 1790 through 1990, tables are taken from the U. S Census Bureau's "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990." For year 2000 rankings, data from the Census Bureau's tally of "Cities with 100,000 or More Population Ranked by Selected Subject" is used. The 2010 rankings are based on the 2010 census results; the Census Bureau's definition of an "urban place" has included a variety of designations, including city, township, village and municipality. The top 10 urban areas in 1790 consisted of various places designated as cities and townships; the top 10 urban areas in 2010 are all separate incorporated places. This list refers only to the population of individual urban places within their defined limits at the time of the indicated census.

Some of these places have since been merged into other cities. Other places may have expanded their borders due to such consolidation. For example, after the 1898 consolidation of New York City, the Census Bureau has defined all the boroughs within its city limits as one "urban place". Philadelphia's population has included the census counts within both the former urban areas of Northern Liberties and Southwark, Pennsylvania since Philadelphia's 1854 consolidation; when the United States first became a sovereign country in 1776, Philadelphia was its most populous city. By the time the first U. S. census count was completed in 1790, New York City had grown to be 14% more populous than Philadelphia. Note that, in 1790, New York City consisted of the entire island of Manhattan and that Philadelphia only included the most central neighborhoods of the city; the total population of these 11 cities was 152,087. The total population of these 10 cities was 216,346; the total population of these 10 cities was 329,346.

The total population of these 10 cities was 405,869. Last time Massachusetts has two cities in the top ten; the total population of these 10 cities was 599,927. The total population of these 10 cities was 884,291. By 1850, the United States was in the midst of the First Industrial Revolution; the total population of these 10 cities was 1,459,023. 1860 was the eve of the American Civil War. This was the eighth United States Census; this is the first census where the Northeast does not hold a supermajority of the top ten largest cities. The total population of these 10 cities was 2,719,910; this was the ninth United States Census. This is the first census where the Northeast does not hold a simple majority of the top ten largest cities; the total population of these 10 cities was 3,697,264. The total population of these 10 cities was 4,874,175; the 1890 Census was the Eleventh. Four Midwest cities occupied the top ten spots, with two cities from Ohio in the top ten for the first time; the total population of these 10 cities was 6,660,402.

The 1900 Census was the Twelfth. The total population of these 10 cities was 9,487,400; the 1910 Census was the Thirteenth. The total population of these 10 cities was 12,401,322; the 1920 Census was the Fourteenth. Only time three midwestern cities occupy the top five; the total population of these 10 cities was 15,355,250. The 1930 Census was the Fifteenth; the total population of these 10 cities was 19,042,823. Four of the ten cities here would have their first population drop in 1940. Though slight, they would presage a precipitous decline that started in 1950; the 1940 Census was the Sixteenth. The total population of these 10 cities was 19,909,825. 1950 was a watershed year for many cities in the United States. Many cities in the country peaked in population, began a slow decline caused by suburbanization associated with pollution and increased crime rates in inner cities, while the improved infrastructure of the Eisenhower Interstate System more facilitated car commutes and white flight of the white middle class.

The G. I. Bill made available low interest loans for returning World War II veterans seeking more commodious housing in the suburbs. Although populations within city limits dropped in many American cities, the metropolitan populations of most cities continued to increase greatly; the total population of these 10 cities was 21,809,384. The 1960 Census was the Eighteenth; this was the first census to show a decline in the combined total population of top ten cities, with 766,495 fewer people than 1950 Census' top ten cities. The total population of these 10 cities was 20,982,889; the 1970 Census was the Nineteenth. The total population of these 10 cities was 22,028,346. By 1980, the trends towards suburbanization started in the 1950s continued; this was the second census to show a decline in the combined total population of the top ten cities, with 1,142,003 fewer people than the 1970 Census' top ten cities. This is the first census in which half of the top ten cities are in the Sun Belt the West South Central and South Western area of the country.

The total population of these 10 cities was 20,886,343. The 1990 Census was the Twenty-first. Continued trends of western cities' growth and Northeastern cities' contraction now place a majority of the top ten cities in the western portion of the Sun Belt, a regional concentration not seen since Northeastern cities dominated the top of the first seven censuses; the total population of these 10 cities was 21,872,554. The 2000 Census was the 22nd in U. S. history. The total population of these