Composition of Der Ring des Nibelungen

The evolution of Richard Wagner's operatic tetralogy Der Ring des Nibelungen was a long and tortuous process, the precise sequence of events which led the composer to embark upon such a vast undertaking is still unclear. The composition of the text took place between 1848 and 1853, when all four libretti were printed; the names of the last two Ring operas, Siegfried and Götterdämmerung, were not definitively settled until 1856. According to the composer's own account – as related in his autobiography Mein Leben – it was after the February Revolution that he began to sketch a play on the life of the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa. While researching this work, he came to see Friedrich as "a historical rebirth of the old, pagan Siegfried". In the summer of 1848, he wrote the essay Die Wibelungen: Weltgeschichte aus der Saga, in which he noted some historical links between the Hohenstaufens and the legendary Nibelungs; this led him to consider Siegfried as a possible subject for a new opera, by October 1848 the entire Ring cycle had been conceived.

This rather straightforward account of the Ring's origins, has been disputed by a number of authorities, who accuse Wagner of deliberately distorting the facts so as to bring them into harmony with his own private version of history. The actual sequence of events, was not nearly as clear-cut as he would have us believe, it was in October 1846 – some sixteen months before the February Revolution – that he first drew up a plan for a five-act drama based on the life of Friedrich Barbarossa. He may have considered writing an opera on Siegfried as early as 1843, when he read Jacob Grimm's Deutsche Mythologie, or in 1844, when he borrowed several works on the Nibelungs from the Royal Library in Dresden; as for Die Wibelungen, it would appear that he only started work on this essay in December 1848 at the earliest, finishing it sometime before 22 February 1849, when he read it to his friend Eduard Devrient. Whatever the truth, Wagner was contemplating an opera on Siegfried by 1 April 1848, when he informed Devrient of his plans.

Wagner was encouraged in these endeavours by a number of German intellectuals who believed that contemporary artists should seek inspiration in the pages of the Nibelungenlied, a 12th-century epic poem in Middle High German which, since its rediscovery in 1755, had been hailed by the German Romantics as their country's "national epic". In 1844 the philosopher Friedrich Theodor Vischer suggested that the Nibelungenlied would make a suitable subject for German opera. Otto-Peters wrote a libretto for such an opera. Wagner, as it happened, was familiar with the Nibelungenlied, he had drawn upon it for one of the scenes in an earlier opera, the text of, written between July and November 1845. Act II, Scene 4, in which Ortrud interrupts the procession to the minster and confronts Elsa, is based on Chapter 14 of the Nibelungenlied, "How the Queens Railed at Each Other". Wagner's libretti, which he invariably wrote himself passed through four stages; these stages are: Prose Sketch -- a brief outline of the dramatic action.

These sketches consisted of no more than a few paragraphs of prose, though Wagner sometimes added to them or modified them before proceeding to the next stage. This was the case with the sketches for the first three parts of the tetralogy. Exceptionally, Wagner never drafted a prose sketch for Götterdämmerung; the prose sketch for Act III of Die Walküre has disappeared. Prose Draft – an elaborate prose treatment of the opera, describing the action in great detail; these drafts were ten or more pages in length. They included a considerable amount of dialogue. Prose drafts survive for all four Ring operas. Verse Draft – a first draft of the final libretto, written in an archaic form of German alliterative verse known as Stabreim. Wagner created his verse drafts by versifying the dialogue contained in his prose drafts – turning prose into poetry – or by creating new verse to replace those sections of the prose drafts for which he had not yet sketched any dialogue, he added new elements not present in the prose drafts.

For instance, the symbolic use of Wotan's spear and its engraved runes to embody the rule of law is not present in the prose draft of Das Rheingold: this idea only came to Wagner while he was working on the verse draft of Die Walküre. It was while developing the latter that he first thought of making Loge a god of fire: in the prose draft of Das Rheingold he is a trickster and teller of unwelcome truths. While writing his verse drafts, Wagner greatly expanded his stage directions. Fair Copy – a clean written verse libretto free of corrections and alterations. Punctuation and capitalization were regularized at this stage; the fair copies general

Buenavista, Guimaras

Buenavista the Municipality of Buenavista, is a 2nd class municipality and the largest settlement in the province of Guimaras, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 50,437 people; the town acts as a cheaper link between Panay and Negros, as opposed to taking a ship directly between the two islands. Buenavista is located at the northern tip of Guimaras Island, is one of the five towns comprising the province of Guimaras; the northern and north-west part of the town overlooks Panay Island and the north-east portion faces Negros Island. Iloilo Strait lies between the town and Panay, Guimaras Strait lies between the town and Negros; the McArthur wharf serves as the municipal wharf for Buenavista and part of San Lorenzo is used by passengers from the neighboring Panay Island in going to Negros Province and vice versa. This transportation route serves as a cheaper link, rather than taking a ship. Buenavista's terrain ranges from plains to mountains; the climate is cool, due to its being bounded by the sea on the three directions.

Buenavista is politically subdivided into 36 barangays. Buenavista is the oldest municipality on Guimaras. It was established during the Spanish colonial period. A Spanish governor general was reputedly impressed by the scenery of the location, called the place Buenavista, Spanish for "beautiful view". Santo Rosario was known as Baybay, while Salvacion's old name was Ambulong, furthermore Old Poblacion's name was Daan Banwa. In the 2015 census, the population of Buenavista, was 50,437 people, with a density of 390 inhabitants per square kilometre or 1,000 inhabitants per square mile. Buenavista is the center of higher education. In fact, the main campus of Guimaras State College, only state college in Guimaras, is found in Barangay Mclain. Furthermore, the municipality has 19 public elementary schools, 5 public high schools, 1 vocational technical school, it has a literacy rate of the highest in the whole of Guimaras. There are passenger ferries; the ferry terminal in Iloilo is on the Iloilo River.

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